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SubjectRe: [RFC PATCH 00/37] Speculative page faults
From
First, I'm (ab?)using `git send-email` to reply to this thread, so apologies in
advance if I've messed up and the mail gets mangled in some way.

Here are some results comparing the "pft" microbenchmark from mmtests, running
on "large-ish" machines: one with a Skylake CPU, one with a Rome CPU. These
results are comparing Linus' v5.12 tag versus a 5.12 base with Michel's SPF
patchset.

The tests were run with the following mmtests configuration:

export PFT_ITERATIONS=30
export PFT_MAPPING_SIZE=$((MEMTOTAL_BYTES/5))
export PFT_MIN_CLIENTS=1
export PFT_MAX_CLIENTS=$NUMCPUS
export PFT_USE_PROCESSES=no
export PFT_PAGESIZES=base

To explain the result formatting a bit:

Higher numbers are better (so +% means a performance improvement vs. the v5.12
base kernel).

To be explicit about the output format: our internal testing framework parses
the output of pft, and generates this comparison table for the A/B test. In
pft's raw output, the columns are as follows:

- Gigabytes of RAM used
- Number of threads
- Number of cachelines
- User time
- Sys time
- Elapsed time
- Faults per sec per CPU
- Faults per sec

So the metrics in the test report, are called "pft_faults_{cpu,sec}_#". These
are aggregating the rows of output from the pft test:

- "cpu" means the result is faults per sec per CPU
- "sec' means the result is faults per sec
- The number corresponds to the "number of threads" column.

Note that pft runs the test multiple times for each threadcount. So, each row in
these reports is an aggregation of all of those runs for a particular thread
count.

To summarize the results:

On the Skylake machine the SPF patchset seems to provide a scalability
improvement across the board. With a small # of threads, the SPF patchset
outperforms the v5.12 base. As the number of threads grows, the gap diverges,
with SPF beating baseline by a larger and larger %.

On the Rome machine, however, SPF outperforms baseline with small numbers of
threads, but as the threadcount increases they *converge*. Eventually (between
79 and 110 threads), baseline wins out, and SPF actually gives us *less*
performance. I don't really have a clear explanation for this.



Okay, with all that said, here are the results:

Host: 2x Intel Skylake CPU, 28 cores / 56 threads each = 56 cores / 112 threads, 192 GiB RAM

[*] KERNELS
+-----------------+
| BASE KERNEL (A) |
+-----------------+
Kernel File: upstream-5-12.tar.xz

+-----------------+
| TEST KERNEL (B) |
+-----------------+
Kernel File: spf-5-12.tar.xz


[*] TAGS
LABEL | VALUE
-------------------------------+-----------------
kernel_version | 5.12.0-smp-DEV
kernel_version_major | 5
kernel_version_minor | 12
machine_platform_arch | X86_64
machine_platform_genus | skylake
machine_total_logical_cores | 112
machine_total_physical_cores | 56
machine_total_ram_gib | 192
test_name | pft
user | axelrasmussen

Note: values are delimited by colon (:)


[*] METRICS
LABEL | COUNT | MIN | MAX | MEAN | MEDIAN | STDDEV | DIRECTION
---------------------+-------+-----------------+------------------+------------------------+------------------------+--------------------+----------------
pft_faults_cpu_1 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 565493.841 | 597051.859 | 574980.2721 | 570812.4335 | 8581.000516619562 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 564770.188 | 593162.85 | 582501.4053333333 | 587672.1510000001 | 10230.821799571824 |
| | -0.13% | -0.65% | +1.31% | +2.95% | +19.23% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_4 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 511097.313 | 525778.068 | 519169.2665333333 | 518875.51300000004 | 3309.878510268415 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 522341.465 | 534768.283 | 528535.7364666668 | 529354.5875 | 2784.0796478571897 |
| | +2.20% | +1.71% | +1.80% | +2.02% | -15.89% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_7 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 444047.293 | 477042.807 | 458029.40570000006 | 457146.5575 | 7141.073092774091 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 465624.007 | 501500.836 | 483791.1242666667 | 483134.7105 | 8256.428471156061 |
| | +4.86% | +5.13% | +5.62% | +5.68% | +15.62% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_12 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 358661.222 | 434231.404 | 401799.73736666667 | 403513.576 | 18949.321891028267 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 418233.425 | 479956.806 | 451832.4433666666 | 455295.054 | 17026.783733301498 |
| | +16.61% | +10.53% | +12.45% | +12.83% | -10.15% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_21 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 198339.171 | 258696.047 | 228804.68719999996 | 230395.9155 | 14085.607109196615 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 323446.812 | 384591.881 | 364176.7125666667 | 367052.1725 | 14414.08907027631 |
| | +63.08% | +48.67% | +59.16% | +59.31% | +2.33% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_30 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 133771.268 | 162076.635 | 152097.81180000002 | 152233.40350000001 | 6269.9142812145465 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 179859.892 | 270190.89 | 243455.58066666668 | 242803.359 | 18445.098731373928 |
| | +34.45% | +66.71% | +60.07% | +59.49% | +194.18% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_48 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 82579.061 | 104388.661 | 91568.5356333333 | 90592.1755 | 5546.777510223763 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 123542.341 | 171553.261 | 146579.92550000004 | 145360.7165 | 12601.231672937389 |
| | +49.60% | +64.34% | +60.08% | +60.46% | +127.18% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_79 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 50894.891 | 59619.003 | 55129.4893 | 54661.8725 | 2458.8216885069032 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 91927.332 | 120933.559 | 102996.35123333332 | 102243.0855 | 7074.060753404679 |
| | +80.62% | +102.84% | +86.83% | +87.05% | +187.70% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_110 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 31258.548 | 41685.942 | 36224.262500000004 | 36592.803 | 2680.4950001193283 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 74168.507 | 94616.572 | 82115.45999999999 | 81169.6525 | 4481.52286411527 |
| | +137.27% | +126.97% | +126.69% | +121.82% | +67.19% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_112 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 31130.401 | 38908.904 | 35375.443100000004 | 35829.6035 | 2290.1349177377056 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 73258.73 | 92613.135 | 81351.41166666667 | 80899.55249999999 | 4220.631828597486 |
| | +135.33% | +138.03% | +129.97% | +125.79% | +84.30% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_1 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 564433.945 | 595277.365 | 573625.4990333333 | 569636.4879999999 | 8382.325888292982 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 563737.055 | 591576.036 | 580978.3862666666 | 586013.3670000001 | 9974.96387222383 |
| | -0.12% | -0.62% | +1.28% | +2.87% | +19.00% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_4 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.029701865e+06 | 2.089334274e+06 | 2.062801138933333e+06 | 2.059596098e+06 | 14075.442079268854 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 2.068478884e+06 | 2.12696578e+06 | 2.0998217110999995e+06 | 2.1048569074999997e+06 | 14703.254715627592 |
| | +1.91% | +1.80% | +1.79% | +2.20% | +4.46% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_7 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.072865342e+06 | 3.302000943e+06 | 3.169453882633334e+06 | 3.167175195e+06 | 50915.049503127535 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 3.123651261e+06 | 3.48522451e+06 | 3.3531759071666673e+06 | 3.351685131e+06 | 68012.57859696122 |
| | +1.65% | +5.55% | +5.80% | +5.83% | +33.58% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_12 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 4.215664312e+06 | 5.12743371e+06 | 4.703126739933333e+06 | 4.728185016e+06 | 240286.8825153738 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 4.968388093e+06 | 5.69411546e+06 | 5.359866512633331e+06 | 5.413731953e+06 | 207070.2801760229 |
| | +17.86% | +11.05% | +13.96% | +14.50% | -13.82% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_21 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.947870087e+06 | 5.151356879e+06 | 4.5692916812333325e+06 | 4.575656394e+06 | 287930.17681688163 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 6.631669322e+06 | 8.009437176e+06 | 7.552175649799999e+06 | 7.6175255265e+06 | 317684.09702681314 |
| | +67.98% | +55.48% | +65.28% | +66.48% | +10.33% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_30 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.789153013e+06 | 4.456429949e+06 | 4.1501704604999996e+06 | 4.139623102e+06 | 158198.37530642716 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 5.321981541e+06 | 7.794407019e+06 | 6.994074038533334e+06 | 7.011582908e+06 | 503444.05851691077 |
| | +40.45% | +74.90% | +68.52% | +69.38% | +218.24% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_48 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.496402856e+06 | 4.644547516e+06 | 3.820860616866667e+06 | 3.7869018389999997e+06 | 211076.70378028657 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 5.699219322e+06 | 7.20952334e+06 | 6.456858787866667e+06 | 6.41562651e+06 | 450973.69897164387 |
| | +63.00% | +55.23% | +68.99% | +69.42% | +113.65% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_79 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.479105285e+06 | 4.035012999e+06 | 3.7728950527e+06 | 3.730774097e+06 | 142408.19600171916 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 6.740820473e+06 | 8.557811658e+06 | 7.495920335099999e+06 | 7.4525865505e+06 | 458003.8944174562 |
| | +93.75% | +112.09% | +98.68% | +99.76% | +221.61% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_110 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.223198632e+06 | 4.134061429e+06 | 3.660475087133333e+06 | 3.7196672410000004e+06 | 250346.40765518686 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 7.766066553e+06 | 1.0045628577e+07 | 8.546153794033334e+06 | 8.481194604e+06 | 479152.6121881429 |
| | +140.94% | +143.00% | +133.47% | +128.01% | +91.40% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_112 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 3.208729058e+06 | 3.960855868e+06 | 3.627510960199999e+06 | 3.6704841215000004e+06 | 228364.6649597633 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 7.697393128e+06 | 9.643206206e+06 | 8.579052920500001e+06 | 8.4982216315e+06 | 429771.9693968675 |
| | +139.89% | +143.46% | +136.50% | +131.53% | +88.20% | <not defined>


============================================================================================================================================================


Host: 2x AMD Rome CPU, 64 cores / 128 threads each = 128 cores / 256 threads, 1 TiB RAM

[*] KERNELS
+-----------------+
| BASE KERNEL (A) |
+-----------------+
Kernel File: upstream-5-12.tar.xz

+-----------------+
| TEST KERNEL (B) |
+-----------------+
Kernel File: spf-5-12.tar.xz


[*] TAGS
LABEL | VALUE
-------------------------------+-----------------
kernel_version | 5.12.0-smp-DEV
kernel_version_major | 5
kernel_version_minor | 12
machine_platform_arch | X86_64
machine_platform_genus | rome
machine_total_logical_cores | 256
machine_total_physical_cores | 128
machine_total_ram_gib | 1024
test_name | pft
user | axelrasmussen

Note: values are delimited by colon (:)


[*] METRICS
LABEL | COUNT | MIN | MAX | MEAN | MEDIAN | STDDEV | DIRECTION
---------------------+-------+-----------------+------------------+------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+----------------
pft_faults_cpu_1 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 1.322299227e+06 | 1.350579319e+06 | 1.3360688650999998e+06 | 1.332799986e+06 | 8036.2199341743535 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 1.315533425e+06 | 1.335456188e+06 | 1.3275440968000002e+06 | 1.3296407555e+06 | 6298.976910285278 |
| | -0.51% | -1.12% | -0.64% | -0.24% | -21.62% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_4 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 599753.078 | 835196.831 | 785973.1949666667 | 818552.9575 | 71177.98344956583 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 1.033135922e+06 | 1.069290557e+06 | 1.0482872088333336e+06 | 1.0468814775e+06 | 10779.7490408502 |
| | +72.26% | +28.03% | +33.37% | +27.89% | -84.86% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_7 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 347767.594 | 582284.169 | 508009.3081 | 532618.8404999999 | 76179.64543982298 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 876652.745 | 963373.111 | 928708.5755333335 | 933480.6370000001 | 22305.420182136346 |
| | +152.08% | +65.45% | +82.81% | +75.26% | -70.72% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_12 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 220799.208 | 305899.445 | 280923.0221 | 286852.4555 | 19497.416638332666 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 339602.001 | 531225.324 | 468710.86046666675 | 505322.6055 | 63089.14230805185 |
| | +53.81% | +73.66% | +66.85% | +76.16% | +223.58% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_21 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 127237.472 | 213103.883 | 171006.9222 | 186122.27850000001 | 28325.93727251356 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 171981.459 | 239555.654 | 208386.11153333331 | 219433.95549999998 | 21608.36313357416 |
| | +35.17% | +12.41% | +21.86% | +17.90% | -23.72% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_30 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 98673.026 | 217605.193 | 165832.00136666666 | 181021.78100000002 | 37277.826073472075 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 124005.714 | 221043.49 | 186948.93826666664 | 203430.498 | 28825.232853924826 |
| | +25.67% | +1.58% | +12.73% | +12.38% | -22.67% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_48 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 88635.374 | 201202.155 | 164099.58250000002 | 178427.289 | 31615.465775759487 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 103850.066 | 198347.633 | 165546.73610000004 | 189675.25900000002 | 33104.97333224132 |
| | +17.17% | -1.42% | +0.88% | +6.30% | +4.71% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_79 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 81102.261 | 89112.314 | 83463.4302 | 83469.707 | 1869.7214449321116 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 83875.566 | 94160.682 | 91835.6409 | 92396.381 | 2578.3539781233358 |
| | +3.42% | +5.67% | +10.03% | +10.69% | +37.90% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_110 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 77305.793 | 83501.445 | 81548.62710000001 | 81830.84099999999 | 1372.4842285878892 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 76212.241 | 78931.508 | 78123.50329999998 | 78462.183 | 762.927436545318 |
| | -1.41% | -5.47% | -4.20% | -4.12% | -44.41% | <not defined>
pft_faults_cpu_128 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 75343.922 | 82741.042 | 80366.33486666666 | 80530.75899999999 | 1430.3656765353558 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 72095.698 | 74123.908 | 73297.6984 | 73425.3245 | 571.842103541272 |
| | -4.31% | -10.41% | -8.80% | -8.82% | -60.02% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_1 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 1.317050628e+06 | 1.345243569e+06 | 1.3311298687999998e+06 | 1.3281300295000002e+06 | 8035.465831526684 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 1.311461655e+06 | 1.330935614e+06 | 1.3231212217333335e+06 | 1.3250745915e+06 | 6193.445975030056 |
| | -0.42% | -1.06% | -0.60% | -0.23% | -22.92% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_4 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.389687474e+06 | 3.327314892e+06 | 3.1228356446666666e+06 | 3.2612643784999996e+06 | 289852.17947539146 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 4.102518552e+06 | 4.250608035e+06 | 4.1639243518333333e+06 | 4.157235491e+06 | 41878.60201517858 |
| | +71.68% | +27.75% | +33.34% | +27.47% | -85.55% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_7 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.414012583e+06 | 4.032415905e+06 | 3.5188523367000003e+06 | 3.6881281375e+06 | 524652.8315124605 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 5.959160786e+06 | 6.580231542e+06 | 6.329055505566668e+06 | 6.3639131035e+06 | 147685.48556391377 |
| | +146.86% | +63.18% | +79.86% | +72.55% | -71.85% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_12 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.636643985e+06 | 3.648873092e+06 | 3.352667637600001e+06 | 3.4238721715e+06 | 231685.81558700278 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 3.95869994e+06 | 6.222621801e+06 | 5.5047526395666655e+06 | 5.925404714e+06 | 728923.8441016441 |
| | +50.14% | +70.54% | +64.19% | +73.06% | +214.62% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_21 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.659931432e+06 | 4.417172596e+06 | 3.5592916604333334e+06 | 3.8707699085e+06 | 581152.2296007784 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 3.550370032e+06 | 4.92603416e+06 | 4.2723118866e+06 | 4.490487737e+06 | 438423.4518313975 |
| | +33.48% | +11.52% | +20.03% | +16.01% | -24.56% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_30 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 2.946083199e+06 | 6.423331347e+06 | 4.914002587066667e+06 | 5.3587292535e+06 | 1.0898160729269844e+06 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 3.64123808e+06 | 6.532025228e+06 | 5.492737309800002e+06 | 5.97391926e+06 | 843563.7696236438 |
| | +23.60% | +1.69% | +11.78% | +11.48% | -22.60% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_48 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 4.214980049e+06 | 9.528581084e+06 | 7.7757277348e+06 | 8.448662988499999e+06 | 1.4883900190462691e+06 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 4.84579977e+06 | 9.330363688e+06 | 7.751113585633334e+06 | 8.8988808295e+06 | 1.5801553180324829e+06 |
| | +14.97% | -2.08% | -0.32% | +5.33% | +6.17% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_79 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 6.348996215e+06 | 6.985977576e+06 | 6.533078342966668e+06 | 6.5315793925e+06 | 151519.46530198734 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 6.484637033e+06 | 7.169593031e+06 | 6.984747101799999e+06 | 7.004222881e+06 | 164329.43630222118 |
| | +2.14% | +2.63% | +6.91% | +7.24% | +8.45% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_110 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 7.880294448e+06 | 9.09788171e+06 | 8.874888452533334e+06 | 8.9250222115e+06 | 218417.912935066 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 7.887984615e+06 | 8.408191775e+06 | 8.3027231049666675e+06 | 8.3457714105e+06 | 104353.66169193448 |
| | +0.10% | -7.58% | -6.45% | -6.49% | -52.22% | <not defined>
pft_faults_sec_128 | | | | | | |
(A) 9f4ad9e425a1 | 30 | 8.659779012e+06 | 1.0498137566e+07 | 1.01219317397e+07 | 1.0153906594999999e+07 | 329224.7320975063 |
(B) b864a2166b52 | 30 | 8.906613971e+06 | 9.256002835e+06 | 9.113201005133333e+06 | 9.114904465e+06 | 96222.63922675727 |
| | +2.85% | -11.83% | -9.97% | -10.23% | -70.77% | <not defined>


============================================================================================================================================================


CPU cache info (getconf -a | grep CACHE):

Rome:
LEVEL1_ICACHE_SIZE 32768
LEVEL1_ICACHE_ASSOC 8
LEVEL1_ICACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL1_DCACHE_SIZE 32768
LEVEL1_DCACHE_ASSOC 8
LEVEL1_DCACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL2_CACHE_SIZE 524288
LEVEL2_CACHE_ASSOC 8
LEVEL2_CACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL3_CACHE_SIZE 268435456
LEVEL3_CACHE_ASSOC 0
LEVEL3_CACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL4_CACHE_SIZE 0
LEVEL4_CACHE_ASSOC 0
LEVEL4_CACHE_LINESIZE 0

Skylake:
LEVEL1_ICACHE_SIZE 32768
LEVEL1_ICACHE_ASSOC 8
LEVEL1_ICACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL1_DCACHE_SIZE 32768
LEVEL1_DCACHE_ASSOC 8
LEVEL1_DCACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL2_CACHE_SIZE 1048576
LEVEL2_CACHE_ASSOC 16
LEVEL2_CACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL3_CACHE_SIZE 40370176
LEVEL3_CACHE_ASSOC 11
LEVEL3_CACHE_LINESIZE 64
LEVEL4_CACHE_SIZE 0
LEVEL4_CACHE_ASSOC 0
LEVEL4_CACHE_LINESIZE 0

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