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Subject[RFC, WIP, v7 0/4] media: vidtv: implement a virtual DVB driver
From: "Daniel W. S. Almeida" <>

This series is work in progress. It represents the current work done on a
virtual DVB driver for the Linux media subsystem. I am new to the media
subsystem and to kernel development in general.

This driver aims to:
- Serve as template for new DVB driver writers
- Help userspace application writers in general
- Push fake audio/video to userspace for testing
- Push debug information to userspace via debugfs
The Virtual Digital TV Driver (vidtv)


Vidtv is a virtual DVB driver that aims to serve as a reference for driver
writers by serving as a template. It also validates the existing media DVB
APIs, thus helping userspace application writers.

Currently, it consists of:

- A fake tuner driver, which will report a bad signal quality if the chosen
frequency is too far away from a table of valid frequencies for a
particular delivery system.

- A fake demod driver, which will constantly poll the fake signal quality
returned by the tuner, simulating a device that can lose/reacquire a lock
on the signal depending on the CNR levels.

- A fake bridge driver, which is the module responsible for modprobing the
fake tuner and demod modules and implementing the demux logic. This module
takes parameters at initialization that will dictate how the simulation

- Code reponsible for encoding a valid MPEG Transport Stream, which is then
passed to the bridge driver. This fake stream contains some hardcoded content.
For now, we have a single, audio-only channel containing a single MPEG
Elementary Stream, which in turn contains a SMPTE 302m encoded sine-wave.
Note that this particular encoder was chosen because it is the easiest
way to encode PCM audio data in a MPEG Transport Stream.

Building vidtv
vidtv is a test driver and thus is **not** enabled by default when
compiling the kernel.

In order to enable compilation of vidtv:

- Enable **DVB_TEST_DRIVERS**, then
- Enable **DVB_VIDTV**

When compiled as a module, expect the following .ko files:

- dvb_vidtv_tuner.ko

- dvb_vidtv_demod.ko

- dvb_vidtv_bridge.ko

Running vidtv
When compiled as a module, run::

modprobe dvb_vidtv_bridge

That's it! The bridge driver will initialize the tuner and demod drivers as
part of its own initialization.

You can optionally define some command-line arguments to vidtv, see the
documentation for more info.

Testing vidtv with v4l-utils

Start by installing v4l-utils and then modprobing vidtv::

modprobe dvb_vidtv_bridge

If the driver is OK, it should load and its probing code will run. This will
pull in the tuner and demod drivers.

Using dvb-fe-tool

The first step to check whether the demod loaded successfully is to run::

$ dvb-fe-tool

This should return what is currently set up at the demod struct, i.e.::

static const struct dvb_frontend_ops vidtv_demod_ops = {
.delsys = {

.info = {
.name = "Dummy demod for DVB-T/T2/C/S/S2",
.frequency_min_hz = 51 * MHz,
.frequency_max_hz = 2150 * MHz,
.frequency_stepsize_hz = 62500,
.frequency_tolerance_hz = 29500 * kHz,
.symbol_rate_min = 1000000,
.symbol_rate_max = 45000000,

.caps = FE_CAN_FEC_1_2 |
FE_CAN_FEC_2_3 |
FE_CAN_FEC_3_4 |
FE_CAN_FEC_4_5 |
FE_CAN_FEC_5_6 |
FE_CAN_FEC_6_7 |
FE_CAN_FEC_7_8 |
FE_CAN_FEC_8_9 |
FE_CAN_QAM_128 |
FE_CAN_QAM_256 |


Using dvb-scan

In order to tune into a channel and read the PSI tables, we can use dvb-scan.

For this, one should provide a configuration file known as a 'scan file',
here's an example::

FREQUENCY = 330000000
SYMBOL_RATE = 6940000

The parameters depend on the video standard you're testing.

Vidtv is a fake driver and does not validate much of the information
in the scan file. Just specifying 'FREQUENCY' and 'DELIVERY_SYSTEM'
should be enough for DVB-T/DVB-T2. For DVB-S/DVB-C however, you
should also provide 'SYMBOL_RATE'.

Assuming this channel is named 'channel.conf', you can then run::

$ dvbv5-scan dresden_dvbc_channel.conf

Using dvb-zap

dvbv5-zap is a command line tool that can be used to record MPEG-TS to disk. The
typical use is to tune into a channel and put it into record mode. The example
below - which is taken from the documentation - illustrates that::

$ dvbv5-zap -c dvb_channel.conf "trilhas sonoras" -r
using demux '/dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0'
reading channels from file 'dvb_channel.conf'
service has pid type 05: 204
tuning to 573000000 Hz
audio pid 104
dvb_set_pesfilter 104
Lock (0x1f) Quality= Good Signal= 100.00% C/N= -13.80dB UCB= 70 postBER= 3.14x10^-3 PER= 0
DVR interface '/dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0' can now be opened

The channel can be watched by playing the contents of the DVR interface, with
some player that recognizes the MPEG-TS format, such as *mplayer* or *vlc*.

By playing the contents of the stream one can visually inspect the workings of
vidtv, e.g.::

$ mplayer /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0

Changes in v7:
Collapse commits (10->4)
Add RestructuredText documentation
Fix checkpatch warnings
Add calls to dvb_module_release and i2c_del_adapter in the bridge driver
Add kernel-doc comments

Changes in v6:
Addressed the following issues:
- Makefile was not actually compiling everything;
- The bridge driver should be a platform driver;
- There are lots of warnings and other errors produced
by the driver.

Changes in v5:

Removed all calls to WARN_ON in favor of pr_warn_ratelimited
Add a #define for pr_fmt
Reworked the byte swapping logic for big/little endian support:
big endian fields now prepended with __beXX for 'sparse' checks
bitfields now laid in reverse order if LITTLE_ENDIAN_BITFIELD
is set

media: vidtv: implement a tuner driver
Return -EINVAL instead of -1 in vidtv_tuner_check_frequency_shift
media: vidtv: implement a demodulator driver
Add POLL_THRD_TIME #define
Implement dvb_frontend_ops as a single struct instead of three
media: vidtv: move config structs into a separate header
Removed this commit, configs are now in vidtv_tuner.h and vidtv_demod.h
media: vidtv: add a bridge driver
module_param: all fs permissions set to 0
removed param 'chosen_delsys'
module_param: removed "optional" string: all module_params are optional
renamed vidtv_bridge -> vidtv_bridg: so the source code and module names
are different
media: vidtv: add wrappers for memcpy and memset
Added kernel-docs
write address is now computed internally
media: vidtv: add MPEG TS common code
Drop packets if the buffer is full
media: vidtv: implement a PSI generator
Removed vidtv_psi_ts_psi_write_stuffing()
Forcibly align misaligned buffers
Drop packets if buffer is full
media: vidtv: implement a PES packetizer
Remove vidtv_extract_bits() in favor of GENMASK() and bitwise &
Forcibly align misaligned buffers
media: vidtv: Implement a SMPTE 302M encoder
Added kernel-docs for struct vidtv_encoder
media: vidtv: Add a MPEG Transport Stream Multiplexer
Added check for minimum and maximum buffer size.
Drop packets if buffer is full

Changes in v4:
Added a PES packetizer
Implemented a minimum version of the SMPTE 302m encoder for AES3 audio
Fixed endianness in the PSI generator, converting fields to big endian where applicable
Added a minimal TS mux abstraction

Changes in v3:
Added a bridge driver
Renamed the driver to vidtv
Renamed/reworked commits into smaller pieces
Moved the driver into its own directory
Fixed the code for the signal strength in the tuner
Removed useless enums in the tuner driver (e.g. lock_status, power_status...)
Reworked the logic for the poll_snr thread in the demodulator driver
Moved MPEG related code to the bridge driver, as it controls the demux logic
Changed literals to #defines, used sizeof in place of integer literals when
computing the size of PSI structs
Moved the MPEG PSI tables to the heap to reduce stack space usage
Now using usleep_range in place of msleep_interruptible in the MPEG TS thread
Wrapped memcpy and memset to protect against buffer overflow when writing to the
MPEG TS buffer.

Changes in v2:
Attempted not to break assignments into multiple lines as much as possible.
Code now passes checkpatch strict mode

media: dvb_dummy_tuner: implement driver skeleton
Changed snr values to mili db
Return value from 0-100 to indicate how far off the requested
frequency is from a valid one

Use the frequency shift to interpolate between 34dB and 10dB if
we can not match against the SNR lookup table
Remove sleep calls for suspend/resume

Fix memcpy call for the config struct

media: dvb_dummy_fe.c: lose TS lock on bad snr
Randomly recover the TS lock if the signal quality improves

media: dvb_dummy_fe.c: write PSI information into DMX buffer
Split the patch into multiple header/source files

Hexadecimal literals are now lower case

Prefer short function names / reduce function signatures

Add #defines for constants when computing section lengths

Change signature for functions that take a dummy channel as
argument (i.e. channels* is now channels[NUM_CHANNELS])
Daniel W. S. Almeida (4):
media: vidtv: implement a tuner driver
media: vidtv: implement a demodulator driver
media: vidtv: add a bridge driver
media: Documentation: vidtv: Add ReST documentation for vidtv

.../driver-api/media/drivers/index.rst | 1 +
.../driver-api/media/drivers/vidtv.rst | 415 ++++++
drivers/media/test-drivers/Kconfig | 16 +
drivers/media/test-drivers/Makefile | 1 +
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/Kconfig | 11 +
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/Makefile | 9 +
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_bridge.c | 520 ++++++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_bridge.h | 60 +
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_channel.c | 327 +++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_channel.h | 82 ++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_common.c | 86 ++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_common.h | 34 +
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_demod.c | 440 +++++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_demod.h | 73 ++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_encoder.h | 103 ++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_mux.c | 437 +++++++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_mux.h | 157 +++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_pes.c | 450 +++++++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_pes.h | 243 ++++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_psi.c | 1160 +++++++++++++++++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_psi.h | 674 ++++++++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_s302m.c | 643 +++++++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_s302m.h | 141 ++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_ts.c | 165 +++
drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_ts.h | 138 ++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_tuner.c | 427 ++++++
.../media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_tuner.h | 43 +
28 files changed, 6864 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/driver-api/media/drivers/vidtv.rst
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/Kconfig
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/Makefile
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_bridge.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_bridge.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_channel.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_channel.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_common.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_common.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_demod.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_demod.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_encoder.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_mux.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_mux.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_pes.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_pes.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_psi.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_psi.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_s302m.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_s302m.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_ts.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_ts.h
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_tuner.c
create mode 100644 drivers/media/test-drivers/vidtv/vidtv_tuner.h


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