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Subject[PATCH 0/7] locking/qspinlock: Enhance pvqspinlock & introduce queued unfair lock
This patchset consists of two parts:

1) Patches 1-5 enhance the performance of PV qspinlock especially for
overcommitted guest. The first patch moves all the CPU kicking to
the unlock code. The 2nd and 3rd patches implement a kick-ahead
and wait-early mechanism that was shown to improve performance for
overcommitted guest. They are inspired by the "Do Virtual Machines
Really Scale?" blog from Sanidhya Kashyap. The 4th patch adds
code to collect PV qspinlock statistics. The last patch adds the
pending bit support to PV qspinlock to improve performance at
light load. This is important as the PV queuing code has even
higher overhead than the native queuing code.

2) Patches 6 introduces queued unfair lock as a replacement of the
existing unfair byte lock. The queued unfair lock is fairer
than the byte lock currently in the qspinlock while improving
performance at high contention level. Patch 7 adds a kernel
command line option to KVM for disabling PV spinlock, similar to
the one in Xen, if the administrators choose to do so. The last
patch adds statistics collection to the queued unfair lock code.

Linux kernel builds were run in KVM guest on an 8-socket, 4
cores/socket Westmere-EX system and a 4-socket, 8 cores/socket
Haswell-EX system. So both systems have 32 physical CPUs. VM guests
(no NUMA pinning) were set up with 32, 48 and 60 vCPUs. The kernel
build times (make -j <n>, where <n> was the number of vCPUs) on
various configurations were as follows:

Westere-EX (8x4):

Kernel 32 vCPUs 48 vCPUs 60 vCPUs
------ -------- -------- --------
pvticketlock (4.1.1) 5m02.0s 13m27.6s 15m49.9s
pvqspinlock (4.2-rc1) 3m39.9s 11.17.8s 12m19.9s
patched pvqspinlock 3m38.5s 9m27.8s 9m39.4s
unfair byte lock 4m23.8s 7m14.7s 8m50.4s
unfair queued lock 3m03.4s 3m29.7s 4m15.4s

Haswell-EX (4x8):

Kernel 32 vCPUs 48 vCPUs 60 vCPUs
------ -------- -------- --------
pvticketlock (4.1.1) 1m58.9s 18m57.0s 20m46.1s
pvqspinlock (4.2-rc1) 1m59.9s 18m44.2s 18m57.0s
patched pvqspinlock 2m01.7s 8m03.7s 8m29.5s
unfair byte lock 2m04.5s 2m46.7s 3m15.6s
unfair queued lock 1m59.4s 2m04.9s 2m18.6s

It can be seen that queued unfair lock has the best performance in
almost all the cases. As can be seen in patch 4, the overhead of PV
kicking and waiting is quite high. Unfair locks avoid those overhead
and spend the time on productive work instead. On the other hand,
the pvqspinlock is fair while the byte lock is not. The queued unfair
lock is kind of in the middle between those two. It is not as fair
as the pvqspinlock, but is fairer than the byte lock.

Looking at the PV locks, the pvqspinlock patch did increase performance
in the overcommitted guests by about 20% in Westmere-EX and more than
2X in Haswell-EX. More investigation may be needed to find out why
there was slowdown in Haswell-EX compared with Westmere-EX.

In conclusion, unfair lock is actually better performance-wise when a
VM guest is over-committed. If there is no over-commitment, PV locks
work fine, too.

When the VM guest was changed to NUMA pinned (direct mapping between
physical and virtual CPUs) in the Westmere-EX system, the build
times became:

Kernel 32 vCPUs
------ --------
pvticketlock (4.1.1) 2m47.1s
pvqspinlock (4.2-rc1) 2m45.9s
patched pvqspinlock 2m45.2s
unfair byte lock 2m45.4s
unfair queued lock 2m44.9s

It can be seen that the build times are virtually the same for all
the configurations.

Waiman Long (7):
locking/pvqspinlock: Only kick CPU at unlock time
locking/pvqspinlock: Allow vCPUs kick-ahead
locking/pvqspinlock: Implement wait-early for overcommitted guest
locking/pvqspinlock: Collect slowpath lock statistics
locking/pvqspinlock: Add pending bit support
locking/qspinlock: A fairer queued unfair lock
locking/qspinlock: Collect queued unfair lock slowpath statistics

arch/x86/Kconfig | 8 +
arch/x86/include/asm/qspinlock.h | 17 +-
kernel/locking/qspinlock.c | 140 ++++++++++-
kernel/locking/qspinlock_paravirt.h | 436 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
kernel/locking/qspinlock_unfair.h | 327 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
5 files changed, 880 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 kernel/locking/qspinlock_unfair.h

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