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SubjectRe: [PATCH 3/5] bpf: Add bpf_user_ringbuf_drain() helper
On Thu, Aug 11, 2022 at 5:46 PM David Vernet <void@manifault.com> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Aug 11, 2022 at 04:22:43PM -0700, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> > On Mon, Aug 8, 2022 at 8:54 AM David Vernet <void@manifault.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > Now that we have a BPF_MAP_TYPE_USER_RINGBUF map type, we need to add a
> > > helper function that allows BPF programs to drain samples from the ring
> > > buffer, and invoke a callback for each. This patch adds a new
> > > bpf_user_ringbuf_drain() helper that provides this abstraction.
> > >
> > > In order to support this, we needed to also add a new PTR_TO_DYNPTR
> > > register type to reflect a dynptr that was allocated by a helper function
> > > and passed to a BPF program. The verifier currently only supports
> > > PTR_TO_DYNPTR registers that are also DYNPTR_TYPE_LOCAL and MEM_ALLOC.
> >
> > This commit message is a bit too laconic. There is a lot of
> > implications of various parts of this patch, it would be great to
> > highlight most important ones. Please consider elaborating a bit more.
>
> Argh, sent my last email too early that only responded to this too early.
> I'll do this in v3, as mentioned in my other email.
>

no worries

> > > diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
> > > index a341f877b230..ca125648d7fd 100644
> > > --- a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
> > > +++ b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
> > > @@ -5332,6 +5332,13 @@ union bpf_attr {
> > > * **-EACCES** if the SYN cookie is not valid.
> > > *
> > > * **-EPROTONOSUPPORT** if CONFIG_IPV6 is not builtin.
> > > + *
> > > + * long bpf_user_ringbuf_drain(struct bpf_map *map, void *callback_fn, void *ctx, u64 flags)
> > > + * Description
> > > + * Drain samples from the specified user ringbuffer, and invoke the
> > > + * provided callback for each such sample.
> >
> > please specify what's the expected signature of callback_fn
>
> Will do, unfortunatley we're inconsistent in doing this in other helper
> functions, so it wasn't clear from context.

That means we missed it for other helpers. The idea was to always
specify expected signature in UAPI comment, ideally we fix all the
missing cases.

>
> > > + * Return
> > > + * An error if a sample could not be drained.
> >
> > Negative error, right? And might be worth it briefly describing what
> > are the situation(s) when you won't be able to drain a sample?
> >
> > Also please clarify if having no sample to drain is an error or not?
> >
> > It's also important to specify that if no error (and -ENODATA
> > shouldn't be an error, actually) occurred then we get number of
> > consumed samples back.
>
> Agreed, I'll add more data here in the next version.
>
> [...]
>
> > > +
> > > +static __poll_t ringbuf_map_poll_kern(struct bpf_map *map, struct file *filp,
> > > + struct poll_table_struct *pts)
> > > +{
> > > + return ringbuf_map_poll(map, filp, pts, true);
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static __poll_t ringbuf_map_poll_user(struct bpf_map *map, struct file *filp,
> > > + struct poll_table_struct *pts)
> > > +{
> > > + return ringbuf_map_poll(map, filp, pts, false);
> > > }
> >
> > This is an even stronger case where I think we should keep two
> > implementations completely separate. Please keep existing
> > ringbuf_map_poll as is and just add a user variant as a separate
> > implementation
>
> Agreed, I'll split both this and into separate functions (and the mmaps)
> into separate functions.
>
> > > BTF_ID_LIST_SINGLE(ringbuf_map_btf_ids, struct, bpf_ringbuf_map)
> > > @@ -309,7 +326,7 @@ const struct bpf_map_ops ringbuf_map_ops = {
> > > .map_alloc = ringbuf_map_alloc,
> > > .map_free = ringbuf_map_free,
> > > .map_mmap = ringbuf_map_mmap_kern,
> > > - .map_poll = ringbuf_map_poll,
> > > + .map_poll = ringbuf_map_poll_kern,
> > > .map_lookup_elem = ringbuf_map_lookup_elem,
> > > .map_update_elem = ringbuf_map_update_elem,
> > > .map_delete_elem = ringbuf_map_delete_elem,
> > > @@ -323,6 +340,7 @@ const struct bpf_map_ops user_ringbuf_map_ops = {
> > > .map_alloc = ringbuf_map_alloc,
> > > .map_free = ringbuf_map_free,
> > > .map_mmap = ringbuf_map_mmap_user,
> > > + .map_poll = ringbuf_map_poll_user,
> > > .map_lookup_elem = ringbuf_map_lookup_elem,
> > > .map_update_elem = ringbuf_map_update_elem,
> > > .map_delete_elem = ringbuf_map_delete_elem,
> > > @@ -605,3 +623,132 @@ const struct bpf_func_proto bpf_ringbuf_discard_dynptr_proto = {
> > > .arg1_type = ARG_PTR_TO_DYNPTR | DYNPTR_TYPE_RINGBUF | OBJ_RELEASE,
> > > .arg2_type = ARG_ANYTHING,
> > > };
> > > +
> > > +static int __bpf_user_ringbuf_poll(struct bpf_ringbuf *rb, void **sample,
> > > + u32 *size)
> >
> > "poll" part is quite confusing as it has nothing to do with epoll and
> > the other poll implementation. Maybe "peek"? It peek into next sample
> > without consuming it, seems appropriate
> >
> > nit: this declaration can also stay on single line
>
> Yeah, I agree that "poll" is confusing. I think "peek" is a good option. I
> was also considering "consume", but I don't think that makes sense given
> that we're not actually done consuming the sample until we release it.

Exactly, consume is very bad as we don't "consume" it in the sense of
making that space available for reuse.

>
> > > +{
> > > + unsigned long cons_pos, prod_pos;
> > > + u32 sample_len, total_len;
> > > + u32 *hdr;
> > > + int err;
> > > + int busy = 0;
> >
> > nit: combine matching types:
> >
> > u32 sample_len, total_len, *hdr;
> > int err, busy = 0;
>
> Ack.
>
> > > +
> > > + /* If another consumer is already consuming a sample, wait for them to
> > > + * finish.
> > > + */
> > > + if (!atomic_try_cmpxchg(&rb->busy, &busy, 1))
> > > + return -EBUSY;
> > > +
> > > + /* Synchronizes with smp_store_release() in user-space. */
> > > + prod_pos = smp_load_acquire(&rb->producer_pos);
> >
> > I think we should enforce that prod_pos is a multiple of 8
>
> Agreed, I'll add a check and selftest for this.

Yep, consider also adding few tests where user-space intentionally
breaks the contract to make sure that kernel stays intact (if you
already did that, apologies, I haven't looked at selftests much).

>
> > > + /* Synchronizes with smp_store_release() in
> > > + * __bpf_user_ringbuf_sample_release().
> > > + */
> > > + cons_pos = smp_load_acquire(&rb->consumer_pos);
> > > + if (cons_pos >= prod_pos) {
> > > + atomic_set(&rb->busy, 0);
> > > + return -ENODATA;
> > > + }
> > > +
> > > + hdr = (u32 *)((uintptr_t)rb->data + (cons_pos & rb->mask));
> > > + sample_len = *hdr;
> >
> > do we need smp_load_acquire() here? libbpf's ring_buffer
> > implementation uses load_acquire here
>
> I thought about this when I was first adding the logic, but I can't
> convince myself that it's necessary and wasn't able to figure out why we
> did a load acquire on the len in libbpf. The kernel doesn't do a store
> release on the header, so I'm not sure what the load acquire in libbpf
> actually accomplishes. I could certainly be missing something, but I
> _think_ the important thing is that we have load-acquire / store-release
> pairs for the consumer and producer positions.

kernel does xchg on len on the kernel side, which is stronger than
smp_store_release (I think it was Paul's suggestion instead of doing
explicit memory barrier, but my memories are hazy for exact reasons).

Right now this might not be necessary, but if we add support for busy
bit in a sample header, it will be closer to what BPF ringbuf is doing
right now, with producer position being a reservation pointer, but
sample itself won't be "readable" until sample header is updated and
its busy bit is unset.

>
> > > + /* Check that the sample can fit into a dynptr. */
> > > + err = bpf_dynptr_check_size(sample_len);
> > > + if (err) {
> > > + atomic_set(&rb->busy, 0);
> > > + return err;
> > > + }
> > > +
> > > + /* Check that the sample fits within the region advertised by the
> > > + * consumer position.
> > > + */
> > > + total_len = sample_len + BPF_RINGBUF_HDR_SZ;
> >
> > round up to closest multiple of 8? All the pointers into ringbuf data
> > area should be 8-byte aligned
>
> Will do.
>
> > > + if (total_len > prod_pos - cons_pos) {
> > > + atomic_set(&rb->busy, 0);
> > > + return -E2BIG;
> > > + }
> > > +
> > > + /* Check that the sample fits within the data region of the ring buffer.
> > > + */
> > > + if (total_len > rb->mask + 1) {
> > > + atomic_set(&rb->busy, 0);
> > > + return -E2BIG;
> > > + }
> > > +
> > > + /* consumer_pos is updated when the sample is released.
> > > + */
> > > +
> >
> > nit: unnecessary empty line
> >
> > and please keep single-line comments as single-line, no */ on separate
> > line in such case
>
> Will do.
>
> > > + *sample = (void *)((uintptr_t)rb->data +
> > > + ((cons_pos + BPF_RINGBUF_HDR_SZ) & rb->mask));
> > > + *size = sample_len;
> > > +
> > > + return 0;
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +static void
> > > +__bpf_user_ringbuf_sample_release(struct bpf_ringbuf *rb, size_t size,
> > > + u64 flags)
> >
> > try to keep single lines if they are under 100 characters
>
> Ack, this seems to really differ by subsystem. I'll follow this norm for
> BPF.

It's a relatively recent relaxation (like a year old or something) in
kernel coding style. Single-line usually has much better readability,
so I prefer that while staying within reasonable limits.

>
> > > +{
> > > +
> > > +
> >
> > empty lines, why?
>
> Apologies, thanks for catching this.
>
> > > + /* To release the ringbuffer, just increment the producer position to
> > > + * signal that a new sample can be consumed. The busy bit is cleared by
> > > + * userspace when posting a new sample to the ringbuffer.
> > > + */
> > > + smp_store_release(&rb->consumer_pos, rb->consumer_pos + size +
> > > + BPF_RINGBUF_HDR_SZ);
> > > +
> > > + if (flags & BPF_RB_FORCE_WAKEUP || !(flags & BPF_RB_NO_WAKEUP))
> >
> > please use () around bit operator expressions
>
> Ack.
>
> > > + irq_work_queue(&rb->work);
> > > +
> > > + atomic_set(&rb->busy, 0);
> >
> > set busy before scheduling irq_work? why delaying?
>
> Yeah, I thought about this. I don't think there's any problem with clearing
> busy before we schedule the irq_work_queue(). I elected to do this to err
> on the side of simpler logic until we observed contention, but yeah, let me
> just do the more performant thing here.

busy is like a global lock, so freeing it ASAP is good, so yeah,
unless there are some bad implications, let's do it early

>
> > > +}
> > > +
> > > +BPF_CALL_4(bpf_user_ringbuf_drain, struct bpf_map *, map,
> > > + void *, callback_fn, void *, callback_ctx, u64, flags)
> > > +{
> > > + struct bpf_ringbuf *rb;
> > > + long num_samples = 0, ret = 0;
> > > + int err;
> > > + bpf_callback_t callback = (bpf_callback_t)callback_fn;
> > > + u64 wakeup_flags = BPF_RB_NO_WAKEUP | BPF_RB_FORCE_WAKEUP;
> > > +
> > > + if (unlikely(flags & ~wakeup_flags))
> > > + return -EINVAL;
> > > +
> > > + /* The two wakeup flags are mutually exclusive. */
> > > + if (unlikely((flags & wakeup_flags) == wakeup_flags))
> > > + return -EINVAL;
> >
> > we don't check this for existing ringbuf, so maybe let's keep it
> > consistent? FORCE_WAKEUP is just stronger than NO_WAKEUP
>
> Ack.
>
> > > +
> > > + rb = container_of(map, struct bpf_ringbuf_map, map)->rb;
> > > + do {
> > > + u32 size;
> > > + void *sample;
> > > +
> > > + err = __bpf_user_ringbuf_poll(rb, &sample, &size);
> > > +
> >
> > nit: don't keep empty line between function call and error check
>
> Ack.
>
> > > + if (!err) {
> >
> > so -ENODATA is a special error and you should stop if you get that.
> > But for any other error we should propagate error back, not just
> > silently consuming it
> >
> > maybe
> >
> > err = ...
> > if (err) {
> > if (err == -ENODATA)
> > break;
> > return err;
> > }
> >
> > ?
>
> Agreed, I'll fix this.
>
> > > + struct bpf_dynptr_kern dynptr;
> > > +
> > > + bpf_dynptr_init(&dynptr, sample, BPF_DYNPTR_TYPE_LOCAL,
> > > + 0, size);
> >
> > we should try to avoid unnecessary re-initialization of dynptr, let's
> > initialize it once and then just update data and size field inside the
> > loop?
>
> Hmm ok, let me give that a try.
>

discussed this offline, it might not be worth the hassle given dynptr
init is just setting 4 fields

> > > + ret = callback((u64)&dynptr,
> > > + (u64)(uintptr_t)callback_ctx, 0, 0, 0);
> > > +
> > > + __bpf_user_ringbuf_sample_release(rb, size, flags);
> > > + num_samples++;
> > > + }
> > > + } while (err == 0 && num_samples < 4096 && ret == 0);
> > > +
> >
> > 4096 is pretty arbitrary. Definitely worth noting it somewhere and it
> > seems somewhat low, tbh...
> >
> > ideally we'd cond_resched() from time to time, but that would require
> > BPF program to be sleepable, so we can't do that :(
>
> Yeah, I knew this would come up in discussion. I would love to do
> cond_resched() here, but as you said, I don't think it's an option :-/ And
> given the fact that we're calling back into the BPF program, we have to be
> cognizant of things taking a while and clogging up the CPU. What do you
> think is a more reasonable number than 4096?

I don't know, tbh, but 4096 seems pretty low. For bpf_loop() we allow
up to 2mln iterations. I'd bump it up to 64-128K range, probably. But
also please move it into some internal #define'd constant, not some
integer literal buried in a code

>
> [...]
>
> > > case ARG_PTR_TO_DYNPTR:
> > > + /* We only need to check for initialized / uninitialized helper
> > > + * dynptr args if the dynptr is not MEM_ALLOC, as the assumption
> > > + * is that if it is, that a helper function initialized the
> > > + * dynptr on behalf of the BPF program.
> > > + */
> > > + if (reg->type & MEM_ALLOC)
> >
> > Isn't PTR_TO_DYNPTR enough indication? Do we need MEM_ALLOC modifier?
> > Normal dynptr created and used inside BPF program on the stack are
> > actually PTR_TO_STACK, so that should be enough distinction? Or am I
> > missing something?
>
> I think this would also work in the current state of the codebase, but IIUC
> it relies on PTR_TO_STACK being the only way that a BPF program could ever
> allocate a dynptr. I was trying to guard against the case of a helper being
> added in the future that e.g. returned a dynamically allocated dynptr that
> the caller would eventually need to release in another helper call.
> MEM_ALLOC seems like the correct modifier to more generally denote that the
> dynptr was externally allocated. If you think this is overkill I'm totally
> fine with removing MEM_ALLOC. We can always add it down the road if we add
> a new helper that requires it.
>

Hm.. I don't see a huge need for more flags for this, so I'd keep it
simple for now and if in the future we do have such a use case, we'll
address it at that time?


> [...]
>
> > > @@ -7477,11 +7524,15 @@ static int check_helper_call(struct bpf_verifier_env *env, struct bpf_insn *insn
> > > /* Find the id of the dynptr we're acquiring a reference to */
> > > for (i = 0; i < MAX_BPF_FUNC_REG_ARGS; i++) {
> > > if (arg_type_is_dynptr(fn->arg_type[i])) {
> > > + struct bpf_reg_state *reg = &regs[BPF_REG_1 + i];
> > > +
> > > if (dynptr_id) {
> > > verbose(env, "verifier internal error: multiple dynptr args in func\n");
> > > return -EFAULT;
> > > }
> > > - dynptr_id = stack_slot_get_id(env, &regs[BPF_REG_1 + i]);
> > > +
> > > + if (!(reg->type & MEM_ALLOC))
> > > + dynptr_id = stack_slot_get_id(env, reg);
> >
> > this part has changed in bpf-next
>
> Yeah, this is all rewired in the new version I sent out in v2 (and will
> send out in v3 when I apply your other suggestions).

Cool, thanks. It was a pretty tight race between my comments and your v2 :)

>
> [...]
>
> Thanks for the thorough review!
>
> - David

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