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Subject[PATCH v8 16/31] rust: add `kernel` crate's `sync` module
Date
From: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>

This module contains the kernel APIs related to synchronisation that
have been ported or wrapped for usage by Rust code in the kernel and
is shared by all of them.

Co-developed-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Signed-off-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Co-developed-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Signed-off-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Co-developed-by: Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Xu <dxu@dxuuu.xyz>
Co-developed-by: Hsiang-Cheng Yang <rick68@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Hsiang-Cheng Yang <rick68@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Co-developed-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
---
rust/kernel/sync.rs | 161 ++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs | 582 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs | 140 ++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs | 159 ++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs | 111 +++++++
rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs | 149 +++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/nowait.rs | 188 +++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/rcu.rs | 52 +++
rust/kernel/sync/revocable.rs | 246 ++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/rwsem.rs | 196 ++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs | 201 ++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/smutex.rs | 290 +++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs | 357 +++++++++++++++++++++
13 files changed, 2832 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/nowait.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/rcu.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/revocable.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/rwsem.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/smutex.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs

diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync.rs b/rust/kernel/sync.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..dbf705d573e6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,161 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Synchronisation primitives.
+//!
+//! This module contains the kernel APIs related to synchronisation that have been ported or
+//! wrapped for usage by Rust code in the kernel and is shared by all of them.
+//!
+//! # Examples
+//!
+//! ```
+//! # use kernel::mutex_init;
+//! # use kernel::sync::Mutex;
+//! # use alloc::boxed::Box;
+//! # use core::pin::Pin;
+//! // SAFETY: `init` is called below.
+//! let mut data = Pin::from(Box::try_new(unsafe { Mutex::new(10) }).unwrap());
+//! mutex_init!(data.as_mut(), "test::data");
+//!
+//! assert_eq!(*data.lock(), 10);
+//! *data.lock() = 20;
+//! assert_eq!(*data.lock(), 20);
+//! ```
+
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr};
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+mod arc;
+mod condvar;
+mod guard;
+mod locked_by;
+mod mutex;
+mod nowait;
+mod revocable;
+mod rwsem;
+mod seqlock;
+pub mod smutex;
+mod spinlock;
+
+pub use arc::{Ref, RefBorrow, UniqueRef};
+pub use condvar::CondVar;
+pub use guard::{Guard, Lock, LockFactory, LockInfo, LockIniter, ReadLock, WriteLock};
+pub use locked_by::LockedBy;
+pub use mutex::{Mutex, RevocableMutex, RevocableMutexGuard};
+pub use nowait::{NoWaitLock, NoWaitLockGuard};
+pub use revocable::{Revocable, RevocableGuard};
+pub use rwsem::{RevocableRwSemaphore, RevocableRwSemaphoreGuard, RwSemaphore};
+pub use seqlock::{SeqLock, SeqLockReadGuard};
+pub use spinlock::{RawSpinLock, SpinLock};
+
+/// Safely initialises an object that has an `init` function that takes a name and a lock class as
+/// arguments, examples of these are [`Mutex`] and [`SpinLock`]. Each of them also provides a more
+/// specialised name that uses this macro.
+#[doc(hidden)]
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! init_with_lockdep {
+ ($obj:expr, $name:expr) => {{
+ static mut CLASS1: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ static mut CLASS2: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ let obj = $obj;
+ let name = $crate::c_str!($name);
+ // SAFETY: `CLASS1` and `CLASS2` are never used by Rust code directly; the C portion of the
+ // kernel may change it though.
+ #[allow(unused_unsafe)]
+ unsafe {
+ $crate::sync::NeedsLockClass::init(obj, name, CLASS1.as_mut_ptr(), CLASS2.as_mut_ptr())
+ };
+ }};
+}
+
+/// A trait for types that need a lock class during initialisation.
+///
+/// Implementers of this trait benefit from the [`init_with_lockdep`] macro that generates a new
+/// class for each initialisation call site.
+pub trait NeedsLockClass {
+ /// Initialises the type instance so that it can be safely used.
+ ///
+ /// Callers are encouraged to use the [`init_with_lockdep`] macro as it automatically creates a
+ /// new lock class on each usage.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `key1` and `key2` must point to valid memory locations and remain valid until `self` is
+ /// dropped.
+ unsafe fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ key2: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ );
+}
+
+/// Automatically initialises static instances of synchronisation primitives.
+///
+/// The syntax resembles that of regular static variables, except that the value assigned is that
+/// of the protected type (if one exists). In the examples below, all primitives except for
+/// [`CondVar`] require the inner value to be supplied.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```ignore
+/// # use kernel::{init_static_sync, sync::{CondVar, Mutex, RevocableMutex, SpinLock}};
+/// struct Test {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// init_static_sync! {
+/// static A: Mutex<Test> = Test { a: 10, b: 20 };
+///
+/// /// Documentation for `B`.
+/// pub static B: Mutex<u32> = 0;
+///
+/// pub(crate) static C: SpinLock<Test> = Test { a: 10, b: 20 };
+/// static D: CondVar;
+///
+/// static E: RevocableMutex<Test> = Test { a: 30, b: 40 };
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! init_static_sync {
+ ($($(#[$outer:meta])* $v:vis static $id:ident : $t:ty $(= $value:expr)?;)*) => {
+ $(
+ $(#[$outer])*
+ $v static $id: $t = {
+ #[link_section = ".init_array"]
+ #[used]
+ static TMP: extern "C" fn() = {
+ extern "C" fn constructor() {
+ // SAFETY: This locally-defined function is only called from a constructor,
+ // which guarantees that `$id` is not accessible from other threads
+ // concurrently.
+ #[allow(clippy::cast_ref_to_mut)]
+ let mutable = unsafe { &mut *(&$id as *const _ as *mut $t) };
+ // SAFETY: It's a shared static, so it cannot move.
+ let pinned = unsafe { core::pin::Pin::new_unchecked(mutable) };
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!(pinned, stringify!($id));
+ }
+ constructor
+ };
+ $crate::init_static_sync!(@call_new $t, $($value)?)
+ };
+ )*
+ };
+ (@call_new $t:ty, $value:expr) => {{
+ let v = $value;
+ // SAFETY: the initialisation function is called by the constructor above.
+ unsafe { <$t>::new(v) }
+ }};
+ (@call_new $t:ty,) => {
+ // SAFETY: the initialisation function is called by the constructor above.
+ unsafe { <$t>::new() }
+ };
+}
+
+/// Reschedules the caller's task if needed.
+pub fn cond_resched() -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: No arguments, reschedules `current` if needed.
+ unsafe { bindings::cond_resched() != 0 }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..daf4aba08672
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,582 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A reference-counted pointer.
+//!
+//! This module implements a way for users to create reference-counted objects and pointers to
+//! them. Such a pointer automatically increments and decrements the count, and drops the
+//! underlying object when it reaches zero. It is also safe to use concurrently from multiple
+//! threads.
+//!
+//! It is different from the standard library's [`Arc`] in a few ways:
+//! 1. It is backed by the kernel's `refcount_t` type.
+//! 2. It does not support weak references, which allows it to be half the size.
+//! 3. It saturates the reference count instead of aborting when it goes over a threshold.
+//! 4. It does not provide a `get_mut` method, so the ref counted object is pinned.
+//!
+//! [`Arc`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/sync/struct.Arc.html
+
+use crate::{bindings, error::code::*, Error, Opaque, Result};
+use alloc::{
+ alloc::{alloc, dealloc},
+ vec::Vec,
+};
+use core::{
+ alloc::Layout,
+ convert::{AsRef, TryFrom},
+ marker::{PhantomData, Unsize},
+ mem::{ManuallyDrop, MaybeUninit},
+ ops::{Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+ ptr::{self, NonNull},
+};
+
+/// A reference-counted pointer to an instance of `T`.
+///
+/// The reference count is incremented when new instances of [`Ref`] are created, and decremented
+/// when they are dropped. When the count reaches zero, the underlying `T` is also dropped.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The reference count on an instance of [`Ref`] is always non-zero.
+/// The object pointed to by [`Ref`] is always pinned.
+pub struct Ref<T: ?Sized> {
+ ptr: NonNull<RefInner<T>>,
+ _p: PhantomData<RefInner<T>>,
+}
+
+#[repr(C)]
+struct RefInner<T: ?Sized> {
+ refcount: Opaque<bindings::refcount_t>,
+ data: T,
+}
+
+// This is to allow [`Ref`] (and variants) to be used as the type of `self`.
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::Receiver for Ref<T> {}
+
+// This is to allow [`RefBorrow`] (and variants) to be used as the type of `self`.
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::Receiver for RefBorrow<'_, T> {}
+
+// This is to allow coercion from `Ref<T>` to `Ref<U>` if `T` can be converted to the
+// dynamically-sized type (DST) `U`.
+impl<T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> core::ops::CoerceUnsized<Ref<U>> for Ref<T> {}
+
+// This is to allow `Ref<U>` to be dispatched on when `Ref<T>` can be coerced into `Ref<U>`.
+impl<T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> core::ops::DispatchFromDyn<Ref<U>> for Ref<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: It is safe to send `Ref<T>` to another thread when the underlying `T` is `Sync` because
+// it effectively means sharing `&T` (which is safe because `T` is `Sync`); additionally, it needs
+// `T` to be `Send` because any thread that has a `Ref<T>` may ultimately access `T` directly, for
+// example, when the reference count reaches zero and `T` is dropped.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Send for Ref<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: It is safe to send `&Ref<T>` to another thread when the underlying `T` is `Sync` for
+// the same reason as above. `T` needs to be `Send` as well because a thread can clone a `&Ref<T>`
+// into a `Ref<T>`, which may lead to `T` being accessed by the same reasoning as above.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Sync for Ref<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Ref<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new reference counted instance of `T`.
+ pub fn try_new(contents: T) -> Result<Self> {
+ let layout = Layout::new::<RefInner<T>>();
+ // SAFETY: The layout size is guaranteed to be non-zero because `RefInner` contains the
+ // reference count.
+ let inner = NonNull::new(unsafe { alloc(layout) })
+ .ok_or(ENOMEM)?
+ .cast::<RefInner<T>>();
+
+ // INVARIANT: The refcount is initialised to a non-zero value.
+ let value = RefInner {
+ refcount: Opaque::new(new_refcount()),
+ data: contents,
+ };
+ // SAFETY: `inner` is writable and properly aligned.
+ unsafe { inner.as_ptr().write(value) };
+
+ // SAFETY: We just created `inner` with a reference count of 1, which is owned by the new
+ // `Ref` object.
+ Ok(unsafe { Self::from_inner(inner) })
+ }
+
+ /// Deconstructs a [`Ref`] object into a `usize`.
+ ///
+ /// It can be reconstructed once via [`Ref::from_usize`].
+ pub fn into_usize(obj: Self) -> usize {
+ ManuallyDrop::new(obj).ptr.as_ptr() as _
+ }
+
+ /// Borrows a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_usize`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `encoded` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_usize`]. Additionally,
+ /// [`Ref::from_usize`] can only be called after *all* instances of [`RefBorrow`] have been
+ /// dropped.
+ pub unsafe fn borrow_usize<'a>(encoded: usize) -> RefBorrow<'a, T> {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirement of this function, we know that `encoded` came from
+ // a previous call to `Ref::into_usize`.
+ let inner = NonNull::new(encoded as *mut RefInner<T>).unwrap();
+
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements ensure that the object remains alive for the lifetime of
+ // the returned value. There is no way to create mutable references to the object.
+ unsafe { RefBorrow::new(inner) }
+ }
+
+ /// Recreates a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_usize`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `encoded` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_usize`]. Additionally,
+ /// it can only be called once for each previous call to [`Ref::into_usize`].
+ pub unsafe fn from_usize(encoded: usize) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety invariants we know that `encoded` came from `Ref::into_usize`, so
+ // the reference count held then will be owned by the new `Ref` object.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(encoded as _).unwrap()) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Ref<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new [`Ref`] from an existing [`RefInner`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that `inner` points to a valid location and has a non-zero reference
+ /// count, one of which will be owned by the new [`Ref`] instance.
+ unsafe fn from_inner(inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: By the safety requirements, the invariants hold.
+ Ref {
+ ptr: inner,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Determines if two reference-counted pointers point to the same underlying instance of `T`.
+ pub fn ptr_eq(a: &Self, b: &Self) -> bool {
+ ptr::eq(a.ptr.as_ptr(), b.ptr.as_ptr())
+ }
+
+ /// Deconstructs a [`Ref`] object into a raw pointer.
+ ///
+ /// It can be reconstructed once via [`Ref::from_raw`].
+ pub fn into_raw(obj: Self) -> *const T {
+ let ret = &*obj as *const T;
+ core::mem::forget(obj);
+ ret
+ }
+
+ /// Recreates a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_raw`].
+ ///
+ /// This code relies on the `repr(C)` layout of structs as described in
+ /// <https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/type-layout.html#reprc-structs>.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_raw`]. Additionally, it
+ /// can only be called once for each previous call to [`Ref::into_raw`].
+ pub unsafe fn from_raw(ptr: *const T) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirement ensures that the pointer is valid.
+ let align = core::mem::align_of_val(unsafe { &*ptr });
+ let offset = Layout::new::<RefInner<()>>()
+ .align_to(align)
+ .unwrap()
+ .pad_to_align()
+ .size();
+ // SAFETY: The pointer is in bounds because by the safety requirements `ptr` came from
+ // `Ref::into_raw`, so it is a pointer `offset` bytes from the beginning of the allocation.
+ let data = unsafe { (ptr as *const u8).sub(offset) };
+ let metadata = ptr::metadata(ptr as *const RefInner<T>);
+ let ptr = ptr::from_raw_parts_mut(data as _, metadata);
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements we know that `ptr` came from `Ref::into_raw`, so the
+ // reference count held then will be owned by the new `Ref` object.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(ptr).unwrap()) }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a [`RefBorrow`] from the given [`Ref`].
+ ///
+ /// This is useful when the argument of a function call is a [`RefBorrow`] (e.g., in a method
+ /// receiver), but we have a [`Ref`] instead. Getting a [`RefBorrow`] is free when optimised.
+ #[inline]
+ pub fn as_ref_borrow(&self) -> RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ // SAFETY: The constraint that lifetime of the shared reference must outlive that of
+ // the returned `RefBorrow` ensures that the object remains alive.
+ unsafe { RefBorrow::new(self.ptr) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for Ref<T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to dereference it.
+ unsafe { &self.ptr.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Clone for Ref<T> {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: C `refcount_inc` saturates the refcount, so it cannot overflow to zero.
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to increment the refcount.
+ unsafe { bindings::refcount_inc(self.ptr.as_ref().refcount.get()) };
+
+ // SAFETY: We just incremented the refcount. This increment is now owned by the new `Ref`.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(self.ptr) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> AsRef<T> for Ref<T> {
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to dereference it.
+ unsafe { &self.ptr.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for Ref<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object. We cannot
+ // touch `refcount` after it's decremented to a non-zero value because another thread/CPU
+ // may concurrently decrement it to zero and free it. It is ok to have a raw pointer to
+ // freed/invalid memory as long as it is never dereferenced.
+ let refcount = unsafe { self.ptr.as_ref() }.refcount.get();
+
+ // INVARIANT: If the refcount reaches zero, there are no other instances of `Ref`, and
+ // this instance is being dropped, so the broken invariant is not observable.
+ // SAFETY: Also by the type invariant, we are allowed to decrement the refcount.
+ let is_zero = unsafe { bindings::refcount_dec_and_test(refcount) };
+ if is_zero {
+ // The count reached zero, we must free the memory.
+
+ // SAFETY: This thread holds the only remaining reference to `self`, so it is safe to
+ // get a mutable reference to it.
+ let inner = unsafe { self.ptr.as_mut() };
+ let layout = Layout::for_value(inner);
+ // SAFETY: The value stored in inner is valid.
+ unsafe { core::ptr::drop_in_place(inner) };
+ // SAFETY: The pointer was initialised from the result of a call to `alloc`.
+ unsafe { dealloc(self.ptr.cast().as_ptr(), layout) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> TryFrom<Vec<T>> for Ref<[T]> {
+ type Error = Error;
+
+ fn try_from(mut v: Vec<T>) -> Result<Self> {
+ let value_layout = Layout::array::<T>(v.len())?;
+ let layout = Layout::new::<RefInner<()>>()
+ .extend(value_layout)?
+ .0
+ .pad_to_align();
+ // SAFETY: The layout size is guaranteed to be non-zero because `RefInner` contains the
+ // reference count.
+ let ptr = NonNull::new(unsafe { alloc(layout) }).ok_or(ENOMEM)?;
+ let inner =
+ core::ptr::slice_from_raw_parts_mut(ptr.as_ptr() as _, v.len()) as *mut RefInner<[T]>;
+
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call that returns a `refcount_t` initialised to 1.
+ let count = Opaque::new(unsafe { bindings::REFCOUNT_INIT(1) });
+ // SAFETY: `inner.refcount` is writable and properly aligned.
+ unsafe { core::ptr::addr_of_mut!((*inner).refcount).write(count) };
+ // SAFETY: The contents of `v` as readable and properly aligned; `inner.data` is writable
+ // and properly aligned. There is no overlap between the two because `inner` is a new
+ // allocation.
+ unsafe {
+ core::ptr::copy_nonoverlapping(
+ v.as_ptr(),
+ core::ptr::addr_of_mut!((*inner).data) as *mut [T] as *mut T,
+ v.len(),
+ )
+ };
+ // SAFETY: We're setting the new length to zero, so it is <= to capacity, and old_len..0 is
+ // an empty range (so satisfies vacuously the requirement of being initialised).
+ unsafe { v.set_len(0) };
+ // SAFETY: We just created `inner` with a reference count of 1, which is owned by the new
+ // `Ref` object.
+ Ok(unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(inner).unwrap()) })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<UniqueRef<T>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(item: UniqueRef<T>) -> Self {
+ item.inner
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<UniqueRef<T>> for Pin<UniqueRef<T>> {
+ fn from(obj: UniqueRef<T>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: It is not possible to move/replace `T` inside a `Pin<UniqueRef<T>>` (unless `T`
+ // is `Unpin`), so it is ok to convert it to `Pin<UniqueRef<T>>`.
+ unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(obj) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<Pin<UniqueRef<T>>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(item: Pin<UniqueRef<T>>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants of `Ref` guarantee that the data is pinned.
+ unsafe { Pin::into_inner_unchecked(item).inner }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A borrowed [`Ref`] with manually-managed lifetime.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// There are no mutable references to the underlying [`Ref`], and it remains valid for the lifetime
+/// of the [`RefBorrow`] instance.
+pub struct RefBorrow<'a, T: ?Sized + 'a> {
+ inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>,
+ _p: PhantomData<&'a ()>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Clone for RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ *self
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Copy for RefBorrow<'_, T> {}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ /// Creates a new [`RefBorrow`] instance.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure the following for the lifetime of the returned [`RefBorrow`] instance:
+ /// 1. That `obj` remains valid;
+ /// 2. That no mutable references to `obj` are created.
+ unsafe fn new(inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements guarantee the invariants.
+ Self {
+ inner,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<RefBorrow<'_, T>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(b: RefBorrow<'_, T>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The existence of `b` guarantees that the refcount is non-zero. `ManuallyDrop`
+ // guarantees that `drop` isn't called, so it's ok that the temporary `Ref` doesn't own the
+ // increment.
+ ManuallyDrop::new(unsafe { Ref::from_inner(b.inner) })
+ .deref()
+ .clone()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, the underlying object is still alive with no mutable
+ // references to it, so it is safe to create a shared reference.
+ unsafe { &self.inner.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A refcounted object that is known to have a refcount of 1.
+///
+/// It is mutable and can be converted to a [`Ref`] so that it can be shared.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// `inner` always has a reference count of 1.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// In the following example, we make changes to the inner object before turning it into a
+/// `Ref<Test>` object (after which point, it cannot be mutated directly). Note that `x.into()`
+/// cannot fail.
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let mut x = UniqueRef::try_new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 })?;
+/// x.a += 1;
+/// x.b += 1;
+/// Ok(x.into())
+/// }
+///
+/// # test();
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the following example we first allocate memory for a ref-counted `Example` but we don't
+/// initialise it on allocation. We do initialise it later with a call to [`UniqueRef::write`],
+/// followed by a conversion to `Ref<Example>`. This is particularly useful when allocation happens
+/// in one context (e.g., sleepable) and initialisation in another (e.g., atomic):
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let x = UniqueRef::try_new_uninit()?;
+/// Ok(x.write(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }).into())
+/// }
+///
+/// # test();
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the last example below, the caller gets a pinned instance of `Example` while converting to
+/// `Ref<Example>`; this is useful in scenarios where one needs a pinned reference during
+/// initialisation, for example, when initialising fields that are wrapped in locks.
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let mut pinned = Pin::from(UniqueRef::try_new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 })?);
+/// // We can modify `pinned` because it is `Unpin`.
+/// pinned.as_mut().a += 1;
+/// Ok(pinned.into())
+/// }
+///
+/// # test();
+/// ```
+pub struct UniqueRef<T: ?Sized> {
+ inner: Ref<T>,
+}
+
+impl<T> UniqueRef<T> {
+ /// Tries to allocate a new [`UniqueRef`] instance.
+ pub fn try_new(value: T) -> Result<Self> {
+ Ok(Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The newly-created object has a ref-count of 1.
+ inner: Ref::try_new(value)?,
+ })
+ }
+
+ /// Tries to allocate a new [`UniqueRef`] instance whose contents are not initialised yet.
+ pub fn try_new_uninit() -> Result<UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>>> {
+ Ok(UniqueRef::<MaybeUninit<T>> {
+ // INVARIANT: The newly-created object has a ref-count of 1.
+ inner: Ref::try_new(MaybeUninit::uninit())?,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>> {
+ /// Converts a `UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>>` into a `UniqueRef<T>` by writing a value into it.
+ pub fn write(mut self, value: T) -> UniqueRef<T> {
+ self.deref_mut().write(value);
+ let inner = ManuallyDrop::new(self).inner.ptr;
+ UniqueRef {
+ // SAFETY: The new `Ref` is taking over `ptr` from `self.inner` (which won't be
+ // dropped). The types are compatible because `MaybeUninit<T>` is compatible with `T`.
+ inner: unsafe { Ref::from_inner(inner.cast()) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for UniqueRef<T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.inner.deref()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> DerefMut for UniqueRef<T> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Ref` type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so
+ // it is safe to dereference it. Additionally, we know there is only one reference when
+ // it's inside a `UniqueRef`, so it is safe to get a mutable reference.
+ unsafe { &mut self.inner.ptr.as_mut().data }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Allows the creation of "reference-counted" globals.
+///
+/// This is achieved by biasing the refcount with +1, which ensures that the count never drops back
+/// to zero (unless buggy unsafe code incorrectly decrements without owning an increment) and
+/// therefore also ensures that `drop` is never called.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, RefBorrow, StaticRef};
+///
+/// const VALUE: u32 = 10;
+/// static SR: StaticRef<u32> = StaticRef::new(VALUE);
+///
+/// fn takes_ref_borrow(v: RefBorrow<'_, u32>) {
+/// assert_eq!(*v, VALUE);
+/// }
+///
+/// fn takes_ref(v: Ref<u32>) {
+/// assert_eq!(*v, VALUE);
+/// }
+///
+/// takes_ref_borrow(SR.as_ref_borrow());
+/// takes_ref(SR.as_ref_borrow().into());
+/// ```
+pub struct StaticRef<T: ?Sized> {
+ inner: RefInner<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: A `StaticRef<T>` is a `Ref<T>` declared statically, so we just use the same criteria for
+// making it `Sync`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Sync for StaticRef<T> {}
+
+impl<T> StaticRef<T> {
+ /// Creates a new instance of a static "ref-counted" object.
+ pub const fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The refcount is initialised to a non-zero value.
+ Self {
+ inner: RefInner {
+ refcount: Opaque::new(new_refcount()),
+ data,
+ },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> StaticRef<T> {
+ /// Creates a [`RefBorrow`] instance from the given static object.
+ ///
+ /// This requires a `'static` lifetime so that it can guarantee that the underlyling object
+ /// remains valid and is effectively pinned.
+ pub fn as_ref_borrow(&'static self) -> RefBorrow<'static, T> {
+ // SAFETY: The static lifetime guarantees that the object remains valid. And the shared
+ // reference guarantees that no mutable references exist.
+ unsafe { RefBorrow::new(NonNull::from(&self.inner)) }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Creates, from a const context, a new instance of `struct refcount_struct` with a refcount of 1.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # // The test below is meant to ensure that `new_refcount` (which is const) mimics
+/// # // `REFCOUNT_INIT`, which is written in C and thus can't be used in a const context.
+/// # // TODO: Once `#[test]` is working, move this to a test and make `new_refcount` private.
+/// # use kernel::bindings;
+/// # // SAFETY: Just an FFI call that returns a `refcount_t` initialised to 1.
+/// # let bindings::refcount_struct {
+/// # refs: bindings::atomic_t { counter: a },
+/// # } = unsafe { bindings::REFCOUNT_INIT(1) };
+/// # let bindings::refcount_struct {
+/// # refs: bindings::atomic_t { counter: b },
+/// # } = kernel::sync::new_refcount();
+/// # assert_eq!(a, b);
+/// ```
+pub const fn new_refcount() -> bindings::refcount_struct {
+ bindings::refcount_struct {
+ refs: bindings::atomic_t { counter: 1 },
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b6102906fb3c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,140 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A condition variable.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct wait_queue_head`] as a condition
+//! variable.
+
+use super::{Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockInfo, NeedsLockClass};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, task::Task, Opaque};
+use core::{marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`CondVar`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! condvar_init {
+ ($condvar:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($condvar, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+// TODO: `bindgen` is not generating this constant. Figure out why.
+const POLLFREE: u32 = 0x4000;
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`struct wait_queue_head`] as a condition variable. It allows the caller to
+/// atomically release the given lock and go to sleep. It reacquires the lock when it wakes up. And
+/// it wakes up when notified by another thread (via [`CondVar::notify_one`] or
+/// [`CondVar::notify_all`]) or because the thread received a signal.
+///
+/// [`struct wait_queue_head`]: ../../../include/linux/wait.h
+pub struct CondVar {
+ pub(crate) wait_list: Opaque<bindings::wait_queue_head>,
+
+ /// A condvar needs to be pinned because it contains a [`struct list_head`] that is
+ /// self-referential, so it cannot be safely moved once it is initialised.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `CondVar` only uses a `struct wait_queue_head`, which is safe to use on any thread.
+#[allow(clippy::non_send_fields_in_send_ty)]
+unsafe impl Send for CondVar {}
+
+// SAFETY: `CondVar` only uses a `struct wait_queue_head`, which is safe to use on multiple threads
+// concurrently.
+unsafe impl Sync for CondVar {}
+
+impl CondVar {
+ /// Constructs a new conditional variable.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call `CondVar::init` before using the conditional variable.
+ pub const unsafe fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ wait_list: Opaque::uninit(),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Atomically releases the given lock (whose ownership is proven by the guard) and puts the
+ /// thread to sleep. It wakes up when notified by [`CondVar::notify_one`] or
+ /// [`CondVar::notify_all`], or when the thread receives a signal.
+ ///
+ /// Returns whether there is a signal pending.
+ #[must_use = "wait returns if a signal is pending, so the caller must check the return value"]
+ pub fn wait<L: Lock<I>, I: LockInfo>(&self, guard: &mut Guard<'_, L, I>) -> bool {
+ let lock = guard.lock;
+ let wait = Opaque::<bindings::wait_queue_entry>::uninit();
+
+ // SAFETY: `wait` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::init_wait(wait.get()) };
+
+ // SAFETY: Both `wait` and `wait_list` point to valid memory.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::prepare_to_wait_exclusive(
+ self.wait_list.get(),
+ wait.get(),
+ bindings::TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE as _,
+ )
+ };
+
+ // SAFETY: The guard is evidence that the caller owns the lock.
+ unsafe { lock.unlock(&mut guard.context) };
+
+ // SAFETY: No arguments, switches to another thread.
+ unsafe { bindings::schedule() };
+
+ guard.context = lock.lock_noguard();
+
+ // SAFETY: Both `wait` and `wait_list` point to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::finish_wait(self.wait_list.get(), wait.get()) };
+
+ Task::current().signal_pending()
+ }
+
+ /// Calls the kernel function to notify the appropriate number of threads with the given flags.
+ fn notify(&self, count: i32, flags: u32) {
+ // SAFETY: `wait_list` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::__wake_up(
+ self.wait_list.get(),
+ bindings::TASK_NORMAL,
+ count,
+ flags as _,
+ )
+ };
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes a single waiter up, if any. This is not 'sticky' in the sense that if no thread is
+ /// waiting, the notification is lost completely (as opposed to automatically waking up the
+ /// next waiter).
+ pub fn notify_one(&self) {
+ self.notify(1, 0);
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes all waiters up, if any. This is not 'sticky' in the sense that if no thread is
+ /// waiting, the notification is lost completely (as opposed to automatically waking up the
+ /// next waiter).
+ pub fn notify_all(&self) {
+ self.notify(0, 0);
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes all waiters up. If they were added by `epoll`, they are also removed from the list of
+ /// waiters. This is useful when cleaning up a condition variable that may be waited on by
+ /// threads that use `epoll`.
+ pub fn free_waiters(&self) {
+ self.notify(1, bindings::POLLHUP | POLLFREE);
+ }
+}
+
+impl NeedsLockClass for CondVar {
+ fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: &'static LockClassKey,
+ _: &'static LockClassKey,
+ ) {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::__init_waitqueue_head(self.wait_list.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key.get())
+ };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..757d85eac7af
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,159 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A generic lock guard and trait.
+//!
+//! This module contains a lock guard that can be used with any locking primitive that implements
+//! the ([`Lock`]) trait. It also contains the definition of the trait, which can be leveraged by
+//! other constructs to work on generic locking primitives.
+
+use super::{LockClassKey, NeedsLockClass};
+use crate::{str::CStr, Bool, False, True};
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+/// Allows mutual exclusion primitives that implement the [`Lock`] trait to automatically unlock
+/// when a guard goes out of scope. It also provides a safe and convenient way to access the data
+/// protected by the lock.
+#[must_use = "the lock unlocks immediately when the guard is unused"]
+pub struct Guard<'a, L: Lock<I> + ?Sized, I: LockInfo = WriteLock> {
+ pub(crate) lock: &'a L,
+ pub(crate) context: L::GuardContext,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Guard` is sync when the data protected by the lock is also sync. This is more
+// conservative than the default compiler implementation; more details can be found on
+// <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/41622> -- it refers to `MutexGuard` from the standard
+// library.
+unsafe impl<L, I> Sync for Guard<'_, L, I>
+where
+ L: Lock<I> + ?Sized,
+ L::Inner: Sync,
+ I: LockInfo,
+{
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock<I> + ?Sized, I: LockInfo> core::ops::Deref for Guard<'_, L, I> {
+ type Target = L::Inner;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to deref the protected data.
+ unsafe { &*self.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock<I> + ?Sized, I: LockInfo<Writable = True>> core::ops::DerefMut for Guard<'_, L, I> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to deref the protected data.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock<I> + ?Sized, I: LockInfo> Drop for Guard<'_, L, I> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to unlock it.
+ unsafe { self.lock.unlock(&mut self.context) };
+ }
+}
+
+impl<'a, L: Lock<I> + ?Sized, I: LockInfo> Guard<'a, L, I> {
+ /// Constructs a new immutable lock guard.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that it owns the lock.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn new(lock: &'a L, context: L::GuardContext) -> Self {
+ Self { lock, context }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Specifies properties of a lock.
+pub trait LockInfo {
+ /// Determines if the data protected by a lock is writable.
+ type Writable: Bool;
+}
+
+/// A marker for locks that only allow reading.
+pub struct ReadLock;
+impl LockInfo for ReadLock {
+ type Writable = False;
+}
+
+/// A marker for locks that allow reading and writing.
+pub struct WriteLock;
+impl LockInfo for WriteLock {
+ type Writable = True;
+}
+
+/// A generic mutual exclusion primitive.
+///
+/// [`Guard`] is written such that any mutual exclusion primitive that can implement this trait can
+/// also benefit from having an automatic way to unlock itself.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// - Implementers of this trait with the [`WriteLock`] marker must ensure that only one thread/CPU
+/// may access the protected data once the lock is held, that is, between calls to `lock_noguard`
+/// and `unlock`.
+/// - Implementers of all other markers must ensure that a mutable reference to the protected data
+/// is not active in any thread/CPU because at least one shared reference is active between calls
+/// to `lock_noguard` and `unlock`.
+pub unsafe trait Lock<I: LockInfo = WriteLock> {
+ /// The type of the data protected by the lock.
+ type Inner: ?Sized;
+
+ /// The type of context, if any, that needs to be stored in the guard.
+ type GuardContext;
+
+ /// Acquires the lock, making the caller its owner.
+ #[must_use]
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> Self::GuardContext;
+
+ /// Reacquires the lock, making the caller its owner.
+ ///
+ /// The guard context before the last unlock is passed in.
+ ///
+ /// Locks that don't require this state on relock can simply use the default implementation
+ /// that calls [`Lock::lock_noguard`].
+ fn relock(&self, ctx: &mut Self::GuardContext) {
+ *ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ }
+
+ /// Releases the lock, giving up ownership of the lock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// It must only be called by the current owner of the lock.
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, context: &mut Self::GuardContext);
+
+ /// Returns the data protected by the lock.
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &core::cell::UnsafeCell<Self::Inner>;
+}
+
+/// A creator of instances of a mutual exclusion (lock) primitive.
+pub trait LockFactory {
+ /// The parametrised type of the mutual exclusion primitive that can be created by this factory.
+ type LockedType<T>;
+
+ /// Constructs a new instance of the mutual exclusion primitive.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`LockIniter::init_lock`] before using the lock.
+ unsafe fn new_lock<T>(data: T) -> Self::LockedType<T>;
+}
+
+/// A lock that can be initialised with a single lock class key.
+pub trait LockIniter {
+ /// Initialises the lock instance so that it can be safely used.
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr, key: &'static LockClassKey);
+}
+
+impl<L: LockIniter> NeedsLockClass for L {
+ fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: &'static LockClassKey,
+ _: &'static LockClassKey,
+ ) {
+ self.init_lock(name, key);
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2dc6e3a77420
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A wrapper for data protected by a lock that does not wrap it.
+
+use super::{Guard, Lock};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, ops::Deref, ptr};
+
+/// Allows access to some data to be serialised by a lock that does not wrap it.
+///
+/// In most cases, data protected by a lock is wrapped by the appropriate lock type, e.g.,
+/// [`super::Mutex`] or [`super::SpinLock`]. [`LockedBy`] is meant for cases when this is not
+/// possible. For example, if a container has a lock and some data in the contained elements needs
+/// to be protected by the same lock.
+///
+/// [`LockedBy`] wraps the data in lieu of another locking primitive, and only allows access to it
+/// when the caller shows evidence that 'external' lock is locked.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// The following is an example for illustrative purposes: `InnerDirectory::bytes_used` is an
+/// aggregate of all `InnerFile::bytes_used` and must be kept consistent; so we wrap `InnerFile` in
+/// a `LockedBy` so that it shares a lock with `InnerDirectory`. This allows us to enforce at
+/// compile-time that access to `InnerFile` is only granted when an `InnerDirectory` is also
+/// locked; we enforce at run time that the right `InnerDirectory` is locked.
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::{LockedBy, Mutex};
+///
+/// struct InnerFile {
+/// bytes_used: u64,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct File {
+/// name: String,
+/// inner: LockedBy<InnerFile, Mutex<InnerDirectory>>,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct InnerDirectory {
+/// /// The sum of the bytes used by all files.
+/// bytes_used: u64,
+/// files: Vec<File>,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct Directory {
+/// name: String,
+/// inner: Mutex<InnerDirectory>,
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct LockedBy<T: ?Sized, L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ owner: *const L::Inner,
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `LockedBy` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send, L: Lock + ?Sized> Send for LockedBy<T, L> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `LockedBy` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send, L: Lock + ?Sized> Sync for LockedBy<T, L> {}
+
+impl<T, L: Lock + ?Sized> LockedBy<T, L> {
+ /// Constructs a new instance of [`LockedBy`].
+ ///
+ /// It stores a raw pointer to the owner that is never dereferenced. It is only used to ensure
+ /// that the right owner is being used to access the protected data. If the owner is freed, the
+ /// data becomes inaccessible; if another instance of the owner is allocated *on the same
+ /// memory location*, the data becomes accessible again: none of this affects memory safety
+ /// because in any case at most one thread (or CPU) can access the protected data at a time.
+ pub fn new(owner: &L, data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ owner: owner.locked_data().get(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(data),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized, L: Lock + ?Sized> LockedBy<T, L> {
+ /// Returns a reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// [`Guard`]) that the owner is locked.
+ pub fn access<'a>(&'a self, guard: &'a Guard<'_, L>) -> &'a T {
+ if !ptr::eq(guard.deref(), self.owner) {
+ panic!("guard does not match owner");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `guard` is evidence that the owner is locked.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// mutable [`Guard`]) that the owner is locked mutably.
+ pub fn access_mut<'a>(&'a self, guard: &'a mut Guard<'_, L>) -> &'a mut T {
+ if !ptr::eq(guard.deref().deref(), self.owner) {
+ panic!("guard does not match owner");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `guard` is evidence that the owner is locked.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// mutable owner) that the owner is locked mutably. Showing a mutable reference to the owner
+ /// is sufficient because we know no other references can exist to it.
+ pub fn access_from_mut<'a>(&'a self, owner: &'a mut L::Inner) -> &'a mut T {
+ if !ptr::eq(owner, self.owner) {
+ panic!("mismatched owners");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `owner` is evidence that there is only one reference to the owner.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c51ae5e3a8a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,149 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel mutex.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct mutex`].
+
+use super::{Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockIniter, WriteLock};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`Mutex`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! mutex_init {
+ ($mutex:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($mutex, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`struct mutex`]. When multiple threads attempt to lock the same mutex,
+/// only one at a time is allowed to progress, the others will block (sleep) until the mutex is
+/// unlocked, at which point another thread will be allowed to wake up and make progress.
+///
+/// A [`Mutex`] must first be initialised with a call to [`Mutex::init_lock`] before it can be
+/// used. The [`mutex_init`] macro is provided to automatically assign a new lock class to a mutex
+/// instance.
+///
+/// Since it may block, [`Mutex`] needs to be used with care in atomic contexts.
+///
+/// [`struct mutex`]: ../../../include/linux/mutex.h
+pub struct Mutex<T: ?Sized> {
+ /// The kernel `struct mutex` object.
+ mutex: Opaque<bindings::mutex>,
+
+ /// A mutex needs to be pinned because it contains a [`struct list_head`] that is
+ /// self-referential, so it cannot be safely moved once it is initialised.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ /// The data protected by the mutex.
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+#[allow(clippy::non_send_fields_in_send_ty)]
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for Mutex<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for Mutex<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new mutex.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`Mutex::init_lock`] before using the mutex.
+ pub const unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ mutex: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Locks the mutex and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one thread at
+ /// a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The mutex was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockFactory for Mutex<T> {
+ type LockedType<U> = Mutex<U>;
+
+ unsafe fn new_lock<U>(data: U) -> Mutex<U> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { Mutex::new(data) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockIniter for Mutex<T> {
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr, key: &'static LockClassKey) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__mutex_init(self.mutex.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key.get()) };
+ }
+}
+
+pub struct EmptyGuardContext;
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `struct mutex` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for Mutex<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `mutex` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::mutex_lock(self.mutex.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the mutex is owned by the
+ // caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::mutex_unlock(self.mutex.get()) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+/// A revocable mutex.
+///
+/// That is, a mutex to which access can be revoked at runtime. It is a specialisation of the more
+/// generic [`super::revocable::Revocable`].
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::RevocableMutex;
+/// # use kernel::revocable_init;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn read_sum(v: &RevocableMutex<Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let guard = v.try_write()?;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// // SAFETY: We call `revocable_init` immediately below.
+/// let mut v = unsafe { RevocableMutex::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We never move out of `v`.
+/// let pinned = unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut v) };
+/// revocable_init!(pinned, "example::v");
+/// assert_eq!(read_sum(&v), Some(30));
+/// v.revoke();
+/// assert_eq!(read_sum(&v), None);
+/// ```
+pub type RevocableMutex<T> = super::revocable::Revocable<Mutex<()>, T>;
+
+/// A guard for a revocable mutex.
+pub type RevocableMutexGuard<'a, T, I = WriteLock> =
+ super::revocable::RevocableGuard<'a, Mutex<()>, T, I>;
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/nowait.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/nowait.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..09852d71aeb2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/nowait.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,188 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A lock that never waits.
+
+use core::cell::UnsafeCell;
+use core::sync::atomic::{AtomicU8, Ordering};
+
+const LOCKED: u8 = 1;
+const CONTENDED: u8 = 2;
+
+/// A lock that only offers a [`try_lock`](NoWaitLock::try_lock) method.
+///
+/// That is, on contention it doesn't offer a way for the caller to block waiting for the current
+/// owner to release the lock. This is useful for best-effort kind of scenarios where waiting is
+/// never needed: in such cases, users don't need a full-featured mutex or spinlock.
+///
+/// When the lock is released via call to [`NoWaitLockGuard::unlock`], it indicates to the caller
+/// whether there was contention (i.e., if another thread tried and failed to acquire this lock).
+/// If the return value is `false`, there was definitely no contention but if it is `true`, it's
+/// possible that the contention was when attempting to acquire the lock.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::NoWaitLock;
+///
+/// #[derive(PartialEq)]
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// let x = NoWaitLock::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 });
+///
+/// // Modifying the protected value.
+/// {
+/// let mut guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert_eq!(guard.a, 10);
+/// assert_eq!(guard.b, 20);
+/// guard.a += 20;
+/// guard.b += 20;
+/// assert_eq!(guard.a, 30);
+/// assert_eq!(guard.b, 40);
+/// }
+///
+/// // Reading the protected value.
+/// {
+/// let guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert_eq!(guard.a, 30);
+/// assert_eq!(guard.b, 40);
+/// }
+///
+/// // Second acquire fails, but succeeds after the guard is dropped.
+/// {
+/// let guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert!(x.try_lock().is_none());
+///
+/// drop(guard);
+/// assert!(x.try_lock().is_some());
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// The following examples use the [`NoWaitLockGuard::unlock`] to release the lock and check for
+/// contention.
+///
+/// ```
+/// use kernel::sync::NoWaitLock;
+///
+/// #[derive(PartialEq)]
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// let x = NoWaitLock::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 });
+///
+/// // No contention when lock is released.
+/// let guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert_eq!(guard.unlock(), false);
+///
+/// // Contention detected.
+/// let guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert!(x.try_lock().is_none());
+/// assert_eq!(guard.unlock(), true);
+///
+/// // No contention again.
+/// let guard = x.try_lock().unwrap();
+/// assert_eq!(guard.a, 10);
+/// assert_eq!(guard.b, 20);
+/// assert_eq!(guard.unlock(), false);
+/// ```
+pub struct NoWaitLock<T: ?Sized> {
+ state: AtomicU8,
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `NoWaitLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for NoWaitLock<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `NoWaitLock` only allows a single thread at a time to access the interior mutability it
+// provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for NoWaitLock<T> {}
+
+impl<T> NoWaitLock<T> {
+ /// Creates a new instance of the no-wait lock.
+ pub fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ state: AtomicU8::new(0),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(data),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> NoWaitLock<T> {
+ /// Tries to acquire the lock.
+ ///
+ /// If no other thread/CPU currently owns the lock, it returns a guard that can be used to
+ /// access the protected data. Otherwise (i.e., the lock is already owned), it returns `None`.
+ pub fn try_lock(&self) -> Option<NoWaitLockGuard<'_, T>> {
+ // Fast path -- just set the LOCKED bit.
+ //
+ // Acquire ordering matches the release in `NoWaitLockGuard::drop` or
+ // `NoWaitLockGuard::unlock`.
+ if self.state.fetch_or(LOCKED, Ordering::Acquire) & LOCKED == 0 {
+ // INVARIANTS: The thread that manages to set the `LOCKED` bit becomes the owner.
+ return Some(NoWaitLockGuard { lock: self });
+ }
+
+ // Set the `CONTENDED` bit.
+ //
+ // If the `LOCKED` bit has since been reset, the lock was released and the caller becomes
+ // the owner of the lock. It will see the `CONTENDED` bit when it releases the lock even if
+ // there was no additional contention but this is allowed by the interface.
+ if self.state.fetch_or(CONTENDED | LOCKED, Ordering::Relaxed) & LOCKED == 0 {
+ // INVARIANTS: The thread that manages to set the `LOCKED` bit becomes the owner.
+ Some(NoWaitLockGuard { lock: self })
+ } else {
+ None
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A guard for the holder of the no-wait lock.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// Only the current owner can have an instance of [`NoWaitLockGuard`].
+pub struct NoWaitLockGuard<'a, T: ?Sized> {
+ lock: &'a NoWaitLock<T>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> NoWaitLockGuard<'_, T> {
+ /// Unlocks the no-wait lock.
+ ///
+ /// The return value indicates whether there was contention while the lock was held, that is,
+ /// whether another thread tried (and failed) to acquire the lock.
+ pub fn unlock(self) -> bool {
+ // Matches the acquire in `NoWaitLock::try_lock`.
+ let contention = self.lock.state.swap(0, Ordering::Release) & CONTENDED != 0;
+ core::mem::forget(self);
+ contention
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::Deref for NoWaitLockGuard<'_, T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariant guarantees that only the owner has an instance of the guard,
+ // so the owner is the only one that can call this function.
+ unsafe { &*self.lock.data.get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::DerefMut for NoWaitLockGuard<'_, T> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariant guarantees that only the owner has an instance of the guard,
+ // so the owner is the only one that can call this function.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.lock.data.get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for NoWaitLockGuard<'_, T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // Matches the acquire in `NoWaitLock::try_lock`.
+ self.lock.state.store(0, Ordering::Release);
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/rcu.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/rcu.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1a1c8ea49359
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/rcu.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! RCU support.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/rcupdate.h`](../../../../include/linux/rcupdate.h)
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use core::marker::PhantomData;
+
+/// Evidence that the RCU read side lock is held on the current thread/CPU.
+///
+/// The type is explicitly not `Send` because this property is per-thread/CPU.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The RCU read side lock is actually held while instances of this guard exist.
+pub struct Guard {
+ _not_send: PhantomData<*mut ()>,
+}
+
+impl Guard {
+ /// Acquires the RCU read side lock and returns a guard.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: An FFI call with no additional requirements.
+ unsafe { bindings::rcu_read_lock() };
+ // INVARIANT: The RCU read side lock was just acquired above.
+ Self {
+ _not_send: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Explicitly releases the RCU read side lock.
+ pub fn unlock(self) {}
+}
+
+impl Default for Guard {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Guard {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, the rcu read side is locked, so it is ok to unlock it.
+ unsafe { bindings::rcu_read_unlock() };
+ }
+}
+
+/// Acquires the RCU read side lock.
+pub fn read_lock() -> Guard {
+ Guard::new()
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/revocable.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/revocable.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8fd7f07f2a65
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/revocable.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,246 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Synchronisation primitives where access to their contents can be revoked at runtime.
+
+use crate::{
+ str::CStr,
+ sync::{Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockInfo, NeedsLockClass, ReadLock, WriteLock},
+ True,
+};
+use core::{
+ mem::MaybeUninit,
+ ops::{Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+};
+
+/// The state within the revocable synchronisation primitive.
+///
+/// We don't use simply `Option<T>` because we need to drop in-place because the contents are
+/// implicitly pinned.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The `is_available` field determines if `data` is initialised.
+pub struct Inner<T> {
+ is_available: bool,
+ data: MaybeUninit<T>,
+}
+
+impl<T> Inner<T> {
+ fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: `data` is initialised and `is_available` is `true`, so the state matches.
+ Self {
+ is_available: true,
+ data: MaybeUninit::new(data),
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn drop_in_place(&mut self) {
+ if !self.is_available {
+ // Already dropped.
+ return;
+ }
+
+ // INVARIANT: `data` is being dropped and `is_available` is set to `false`, so the state
+ // matches.
+ self.is_available = false;
+
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, `data` is valid because `is_available` was true.
+ unsafe { self.data.assume_init_drop() };
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> Drop for Inner<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ self.drop_in_place();
+ }
+}
+
+/// Revocable synchronisation primitive.
+///
+/// That is, it wraps synchronisation primitives so that access to their contents can be revoked at
+/// runtime, rendering them inacessible.
+///
+/// Once access is revoked and all concurrent users complete (i.e., all existing instances of
+/// [`RevocableGuard`] are dropped), the wrapped object is also dropped.
+///
+/// For better ergonomics, we advise the use of specialisations of this struct, for example,
+/// [`super::RevocableMutex`] and [`super::RevocableRwSemaphore`]. Callers that do not need to
+/// sleep while holding on to a guard should use [`crate::revocable::Revocable`] instead, which is
+/// more efficient as it uses RCU to keep objects alive.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::{Mutex, Revocable};
+/// # use kernel::revocable_init;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn add_two(v: &Revocable<Mutex<()>, Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let mut guard = v.try_write()?;
+/// guard.a += 2;
+/// guard.b += 2;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// // SAFETY: We call `revocable_init` immediately below.
+/// let mut v = unsafe { Revocable::<Mutex<()>, Example>::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We never move out of `v`.
+/// let pinned = unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut v) };
+/// revocable_init!(pinned, "example::v");
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), Some(34));
+/// v.revoke();
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), None);
+/// ```
+pub struct Revocable<F: LockFactory, T> {
+ inner: F::LockedType<Inner<T>>,
+}
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`Revocable`] instance with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! revocable_init {
+ ($mutex:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($mutex, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T> Revocable<F, T> {
+ /// Creates a new revocable instance of the given lock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`Revocable::init`] before using the revocable synch primitive.
+ pub unsafe fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of this function require that `Revocable::init`
+ // be called before the returned object can be used. Lock initialisation is called
+ // from `Revocable::init`.
+ inner: unsafe { F::new_lock(Inner::new(data)) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T> NeedsLockClass for Revocable<F, T>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: NeedsLockClass,
+{
+ fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: &'static LockClassKey,
+ key2: &'static LockClassKey,
+ ) {
+ // SAFETY: `inner` is pinned when `self` is.
+ let inner = unsafe { self.map_unchecked_mut(|r| &mut r.inner) };
+ inner.init(name, key1, key2);
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T> Revocable<F, T>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ /// Revokes access to and drops the wrapped object.
+ ///
+ /// Revocation and dropping happen after ongoing accessors complete.
+ pub fn revoke(&self) {
+ self.lock().drop_in_place();
+ }
+
+ /// Tries to lock the \[revocable\] wrapped object in write (exclusive) mode.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `None` if the object has been revoked and is therefore no longer accessible.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a guard that gives access to the object otherwise; the object is guaranteed to
+ /// remain accessible while the guard is alive. Callers are allowed to sleep while holding on
+ /// to the returned guard.
+ pub fn try_write(&self) -> Option<RevocableGuard<'_, F, T, WriteLock>> {
+ let inner = self.lock();
+ if !inner.is_available {
+ return None;
+ }
+ Some(RevocableGuard::new(inner))
+ }
+
+ fn lock(&self) -> Guard<'_, F::LockedType<Inner<T>>> {
+ let ctx = self.inner.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The lock was acquired in the call above.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(&self.inner, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T> Revocable<F, T>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<ReadLock, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ /// Tries to lock the \[revocable\] wrapped object in read (shared) mode.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `None` if the object has been revoked and is therefore no longer accessible.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a guard that gives access to the object otherwise; the object is guaranteed to
+ /// remain accessible while the guard is alive. Callers are allowed to sleep while holding on
+ /// to the returned guard.
+ pub fn try_read(&self) -> Option<RevocableGuard<'_, F, T, ReadLock>> {
+ let ctx = self.inner.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The lock was acquired in the call above.
+ let inner = unsafe { Guard::new(&self.inner, ctx) };
+ if !inner.is_available {
+ return None;
+ }
+ Some(RevocableGuard::new(inner))
+ }
+}
+
+/// A guard that allows access to a revocable object and keeps it alive.
+pub struct RevocableGuard<'a, F: LockFactory, T, I: LockInfo>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<I, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ guard: Guard<'a, F::LockedType<Inner<T>>, I>,
+}
+
+impl<'a, F: LockFactory, T, I: LockInfo> RevocableGuard<'a, F, T, I>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<I, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ fn new(guard: Guard<'a, F::LockedType<Inner<T>>, I>) -> Self {
+ Self { guard }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T, I: LockInfo<Writable = True>> RevocableGuard<'_, F, T, I>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<I, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ /// Returns a pinned mutable reference to the wrapped object.
+ pub fn as_pinned_mut(&mut self) -> Pin<&mut T> {
+ // SAFETY: Revocable mutexes must be pinned, so we choose to always project the data as
+ // pinned as well (i.e., we guarantee we never move it).
+ unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut *self) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T, I: LockInfo> Deref for RevocableGuard<'_, F, T, I>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<I, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ unsafe { &*self.guard.data.as_ptr() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<F: LockFactory, T, I: LockInfo<Writable = True>> DerefMut for RevocableGuard<'_, F, T, I>
+where
+ F::LockedType<Inner<T>>: Lock<I, Inner = Inner<T>>,
+{
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ unsafe { &mut *self.guard.data.as_mut_ptr() }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/rwsem.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/rwsem.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6556d7d30d36
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/rwsem.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,196 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel read/write mutex.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct rw_semaphore`].
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/rwsem.h`](../../../../include/linux/rwsem.h)
+
+use super::{
+ mutex::EmptyGuardContext, Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockIniter, ReadLock,
+ WriteLock,
+};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`RwSemaphore`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! rwsemaphore_init {
+ ($rwsem:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($rwsem, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`struct rw_semaphore`].
+///
+/// It's a read/write mutex. That is, it allows multiple readers to acquire it concurrently, but
+/// only one writer at a time. On contention, waiters sleep.
+///
+/// A [`RwSemaphore`] must first be initialised with a call to [`RwSemaphore::init_lock`] before it
+/// can be used. The [`rwsemaphore_init`] macro is provided to automatically assign a new lock
+/// class to an [`RwSemaphore`] instance.
+///
+/// Since it may block, [`RwSemaphore`] needs to be used with care in atomic contexts.
+///
+/// [`struct rw_semaphore`]: ../../../include/linux/rwsem.h
+pub struct RwSemaphore<T: ?Sized> {
+ /// The kernel `struct rw_semaphore` object.
+ rwsem: Opaque<bindings::rw_semaphore>,
+
+ /// An rwsem needs to be pinned because it contains a [`struct list_head`] that is
+ /// self-referential, so it cannot be safely moved once it is initialised.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ /// The data protected by the rwsem.
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `RwSemaphore` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+#[allow(clippy::non_send_fields_in_send_ty)]
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for RwSemaphore<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `RwSemaphore` requires that the protected type be `Sync` for it to be `Sync` as well
+// because the read mode allows multiple threads to access the protected data concurrently. It
+// requires `Send` because the write lock allows a `&mut T` to be accessible from an arbitrary
+// thread.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send + Sync> Sync for RwSemaphore<T> {}
+
+impl<T> RwSemaphore<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new rw semaphore.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`RwSemaphore::init_lock`] before using the rw semaphore.
+ pub unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ rwsem: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RwSemaphore<T> {
+ /// Locks the rw semaphore in write (exclusive) mode and gives the caller access to the data
+ /// protected by it. Only one thread at a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn write(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The rw semaphore was just acquired in write mode.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the rw semaphore in read (shared) mode and gives the caller access to the data
+ /// protected by it. Only one thread at a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn read(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, ReadLock> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock<ReadLock>>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The rw semaphore was just acquired in read mode.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockFactory for RwSemaphore<T> {
+ type LockedType<U> = RwSemaphore<U>;
+
+ unsafe fn new_lock<U>(data: U) -> RwSemaphore<U> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { RwSemaphore::new(data) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockIniter for RwSemaphore<T> {
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr, key: &'static LockClassKey) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__init_rwsem(self.rwsem.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key.get()) };
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `struct rw_semaphore` object ensures mutual exclusion because it's
+// acquired in write mode.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for RwSemaphore<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `rwsem` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::down_write(self.rwsem.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the rw semaphore is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::up_write(self.rwsem.get()) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `struct rw_semaphore` object ensures that only shared references
+// are accessible from other threads because it's acquired in read mode.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock<ReadLock> for RwSemaphore<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `rwsem` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::down_read(self.rwsem.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the rw semaphore is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::up_read(self.rwsem.get()) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+/// A revocable rw semaphore.
+///
+/// That is, a read/write semaphore to which access can be revoked at runtime. It is a
+/// specialisation of the more generic [`super::revocable::Revocable`].
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::RevocableRwSemaphore;
+/// # use kernel::revocable_init;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn read_sum(v: &RevocableRwSemaphore<Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let guard = v.try_read()?;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// fn add_two(v: &RevocableRwSemaphore<Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let mut guard = v.try_write()?;
+/// guard.a += 2;
+/// guard.b += 2;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// // SAFETY: We call `revocable_init` immediately below.
+/// let mut v = unsafe { RevocableRwSemaphore::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We never move out of `v`.
+/// let pinned = unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut v) };
+/// revocable_init!(pinned, "example::v");
+/// assert_eq!(read_sum(&v), Some(30));
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), Some(34));
+/// v.revoke();
+/// assert_eq!(read_sum(&v), None);
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), None);
+/// ```
+pub type RevocableRwSemaphore<T> = super::revocable::Revocable<RwSemaphore<()>, T>;
+
+/// A guard for a revocable rw semaphore..
+pub type RevocableRwSemaphoreGuard<'a, T, I = WriteLock> =
+ super::revocable::RevocableGuard<'a, RwSemaphore<()>, T, I>;
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..5014e70621f6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,201 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel sequential lock (seqlock).
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the sequential locks based on the kernel's `seqcount_t` and
+//! any locks implementing the [`LockFactory`] trait.
+//!
+//! See <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/locking/seqlock.rst>.
+
+use super::{Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockIniter, NeedsLockClass, ReadLock};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, ops::Deref, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Exposes sequential locks backed by the kernel's `seqcount_t`.
+///
+/// The write-side critical section is protected by a lock implementing the [`LockFactory`] trait.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// use core::sync::atomic::{AtomicU32, Ordering};
+/// use kernel::sync::{SeqLock, SpinLock};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: AtomicU32,
+/// b: AtomicU32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn get_sum(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) -> u32 {
+/// // Use `access` to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// v.access(|e| e.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed) + e.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed))
+/// }
+///
+/// fn get_sum_with_guard(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) -> u32 {
+/// // Use `read` and `need_retry` in a loop to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// loop {
+/// let guard = v.read();
+/// let sum = guard.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed) + guard.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// if !guard.need_retry() {
+/// break sum;
+/// }
+/// }
+/// }
+///
+/// fn inc_each(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) {
+/// // Use a write-side guard to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// let guard = v.write();
+/// let a = guard.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// guard.a.store(a + 1, Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// let b = guard.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// guard.b.store(b + 1, Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct SeqLock<L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ _p: PhantomPinned,
+ count: Opaque<bindings::seqcount>,
+ write_lock: L,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `SeqLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects and the
+// underlying lock can.
+#[allow(clippy::non_send_fields_in_send_ty)]
+unsafe impl<L: Lock + Send> Send for SeqLock<L> where L::Inner: Send {}
+
+// SAFETY: `SeqLock` allows concurrent access to the data it protects by both readers and writers,
+// so it requires that the data it protects be `Sync`, as well as the underlying lock.
+unsafe impl<L: Lock + Sync> Sync for SeqLock<L> where L::Inner: Sync {}
+
+impl<L: Lock> SeqLock<L> {
+ /// Constructs a new instance of [`SeqLock`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`SeqLock::init`] before using the seqlock.
+ pub unsafe fn new(data: L::Inner) -> Self
+ where
+ L: LockFactory<LockedType<L::Inner> = L>,
+ L::Inner: Sized,
+ {
+ Self {
+ _p: PhantomPinned,
+ count: Opaque::uninit(),
+ // SAFETY: `L::init_lock` is called from `SeqLock::init`, which is required to be
+ // called by the function's safety requirements.
+ write_lock: unsafe { L::new_lock(data) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> SeqLock<L> {
+ /// Accesses the protected data in read mode.
+ ///
+ /// Readers and writers are allowed to run concurrently, so callers must check if they need to
+ /// refetch the values before they are used (e.g., because a writer changed them concurrently,
+ /// rendering them potentially inconsistent). The check is performed via calls to
+ /// [`SeqLockReadGuard::need_retry`].
+ pub fn read(&self) -> SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ SeqLockReadGuard {
+ lock: self,
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ start_count: unsafe { bindings::read_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) },
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Accesses the protected data in read mode.
+ ///
+ /// The provided closure is called repeatedly if it may have accessed inconsistent data (e.g.,
+ /// because a concurrent writer modified it). This is a wrapper around [`SeqLock::read`] and
+ /// [`SeqLockReadGuard::need_retry`] in a loop.
+ pub fn access<F: Fn(&L::Inner) -> R, R>(&self, cb: F) -> R {
+ loop {
+ let guard = self.read();
+ let ret = cb(&guard);
+ if !guard.need_retry() {
+ return ret;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the underlying lock and returns a guard that allows access to the protected data.
+ ///
+ /// The guard is not mutable though because readers are still allowed to concurrently access
+ /// the data. The protected data structure needs to provide interior mutability itself (e.g.,
+ /// via atomic types) for the individual fields that can be mutated.
+ pub fn write(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, ReadLock> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The seqlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: LockIniter + Lock + ?Sized> NeedsLockClass for SeqLock<L> {
+ fn init(
+ mut self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: &'static LockClassKey,
+ key2: &'static LockClassKey,
+ ) {
+ // SAFETY: `write_lock` is pinned when `self` is.
+ let pinned = unsafe { self.as_mut().map_unchecked_mut(|s| &mut s.write_lock) };
+ pinned.init_lock(name, key1);
+ // SAFETY: `key2` is valid as it has a static lifetime.
+ unsafe { bindings::__seqcount_init(self.count.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key2.get()) };
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying lock ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> Lock<ReadLock> for SeqLock<L> {
+ type Inner = L::Inner;
+ type GuardContext = L::GuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> L::GuardContext {
+ let ctx = self.write_lock.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) };
+ ctx
+ }
+
+ fn relock(&self, ctx: &mut L::GuardContext) {
+ self.write_lock.relock(ctx);
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) };
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, ctx: &mut L::GuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that lock is owned by the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_end(self.count.get()) };
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that lock is owned by the caller.
+ unsafe { self.write_lock.unlock(ctx) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<L::Inner> {
+ self.write_lock.locked_data()
+ }
+}
+
+/// Allows read-side access to data protected by a sequential lock.
+pub struct SeqLockReadGuard<'a, L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ lock: &'a SeqLock<L>,
+ start_count: u32,
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ /// Determine if the callers needs to retry reading values.
+ ///
+ /// It returns `true` when a concurrent writer ran between the guard being created and
+ /// [`Self::need_retry`] being called.
+ pub fn need_retry(&self) -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: `count` is valid because the guard guarantees that the lock remains alive.
+ unsafe { bindings::read_seqcount_retry(self.lock.count.get(), self.start_count) != 0 }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> Deref for SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ type Target = L::Inner;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: We only ever allow shared access to the protected data.
+ unsafe { &*self.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/smutex.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/smutex.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e19dd966640a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/smutex.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,290 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A simple mutex implementation.
+//!
+//! Differently from [`super::Mutex`], this implementation does not require pinning, so the
+//! ergonomics are much improved, though the implementation is not as feature-rich as the C-based
+//! one. The main advantage is that it doesn't impose unsafe blocks on callers.
+//!
+//! The mutex is made up of 2 words in addition to the data it protects. The first one is accessed
+//! concurrently by threads trying to acquire and release the mutex, it contains a "stack" of
+//! waiters and a "locked" bit; the second one is only accessible by the thread holding the mutex,
+//! it contains a queue of waiters. Waiters are moved from the stack to the queue when the mutex is
+//! next unlocked while the stack is non-empty and the queue is empty. A single waiter is popped
+//! from the wait queue when the owner of the mutex unlocks it.
+//!
+//! The initial state of the mutex is `<locked=0, stack=[], queue=[]>`, meaning that it isn't
+//! locked and both the waiter stack and queue are empty.
+//!
+//! A lock operation transitions the mutex to state `<locked=1, stack=[], queue=[]>`.
+//!
+//! An unlock operation transitions the mutex back to the initial state, however, an attempt to
+//! lock the mutex while it's already locked results in a waiter being created (on the stack) and
+//! pushed onto the stack, so the state is `<locked=1, stack=[W1], queue=[]>`.
+//!
+//! Another thread trying to lock the mutex results in another waiter being pushed onto the stack,
+//! so the state becomes `<locked=1, stack=[W2, W1], queue=[]>`.
+//!
+//! In such states (queue is empty but stack is non-empty), the unlock operation is performed in
+//! three steps:
+//! 1. The stack is popped (but the mutex remains locked), so the state is:
+//! `<locked=1, stack=[], queue=[]>`
+//! 2. The stack is turned into a queue by reversing it, so the state is:
+//! `<locked=1, stack=[], queue=[W1, W2]>
+//! 3. Finally, the lock is released, and the first waiter is awakened, so the state is:
+//! `<locked=0, stack=[], queue=[W2]>`
+//!
+//! The mutex remains accessible to any threads attempting to lock it in any of the intermediate
+//! states above. For example, while it is locked, other threads may add waiters to the stack
+//! (which is ok because we want to release the ones on the queue first); another example is that
+//! another thread may acquire the mutex before waiter W1 in the example above, this makes the
+//! mutex unfair but this is desirable because the thread is running already and may in fact
+//! release the lock before W1 manages to get scheduled -- it also mitigates the lock convoy
+//! problem when the releasing thread wants to immediately acquire the lock again: it will be
+//! allowed to do so (as long as W1 doesn't get to it first).
+//!
+//! When the waiter queue is non-empty, unlocking the mutex always results in the first waiter being
+//! popped form the queue and awakened.
+
+use super::{mutex::EmptyGuardContext, Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockIniter};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::sync::atomic::{AtomicUsize, Ordering};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, pin::Pin};
+
+/// The value that is OR'd into the [`Mutex::waiter_stack`] when the mutex is locked.
+const LOCKED: usize = 1;
+
+/// A simple mutex.
+///
+/// This is mutual-exclusion primitive. It guarantees that only one thread at a time may access the
+/// data it protects. When multiple threads attempt to lock the same mutex, only one at a time is
+/// allowed to progress, the others will block (sleep) until the mutex is unlocked, at which point
+/// another thread will be allowed to wake up and make progress.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::{Result, sync::Ref, sync::smutex::Mutex};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// static EXAMPLE: Mutex<Example> = Mutex::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 });
+///
+/// fn inc_a(example: &Mutex<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = example.lock();
+/// guard.a += 1;
+/// }
+///
+/// fn sum(example: &Mutex<Example>) -> u32 {
+/// let guard = example.lock();
+/// guard.a + guard.b
+/// }
+///
+/// fn try_new(a: u32, b: u32) -> Result<Ref<Mutex<Example>>> {
+/// Ref::try_new(Mutex::new(Example { a, b }))
+/// }
+///
+/// assert_eq!(EXAMPLE.lock().a, 10);
+/// assert_eq!(sum(&EXAMPLE), 30);
+///
+/// inc_a(&EXAMPLE);
+///
+/// assert_eq!(EXAMPLE.lock().a, 11);
+/// assert_eq!(sum(&EXAMPLE), 31);
+///
+/// # try_new(42, 43);
+/// ```
+pub struct Mutex<T: ?Sized> {
+ /// A stack of waiters.
+ ///
+ /// It is accessed atomically by threads lock/unlocking the mutex. Additionally, the
+ /// least-significant bit is used to indicate whether the mutex is locked or not.
+ waiter_stack: AtomicUsize,
+
+ /// A queue of waiters.
+ ///
+ /// This is only accessible to the holder of the mutex. When the owner of the mutex is
+ /// unlocking it, it will move waiters from the stack to the queue when the queue is empty and
+ /// the stack non-empty.
+ waiter_queue: UnsafeCell<*mut Waiter>,
+
+ /// The data protected by the mutex.
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+#[allow(clippy::non_send_fields_in_send_ty)]
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for Mutex<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for Mutex<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Creates a new instance of the mutex.
+ pub const fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ waiter_stack: AtomicUsize::new(0),
+ waiter_queue: UnsafeCell::new(core::ptr::null_mut()),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(data),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Locks the mutex and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one thread at
+ /// a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The mutex was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockFactory for Mutex<T> {
+ type LockedType<U> = Mutex<U>;
+
+ unsafe fn new_lock<U>(data: U) -> Mutex<U> {
+ Mutex::new(data)
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockIniter for Mutex<T> {
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, _name: &'static CStr, _key: &'static LockClassKey) {}
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The mutex implementation ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for Mutex<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ loop {
+ // Try the fast path: the caller owns the mutex if we manage to set the `LOCKED` bit.
+ //
+ // The `acquire` order matches with one of the `release` ones in `unlock`.
+ if self.waiter_stack.fetch_or(LOCKED, Ordering::Acquire) & LOCKED == 0 {
+ return EmptyGuardContext;
+ }
+
+ // Slow path: we'll likely need to wait, so initialise a local waiter struct.
+ let mut waiter = Waiter {
+ completion: Opaque::uninit(),
+ next: core::ptr::null_mut(),
+ };
+
+ // SAFETY: The completion object was just allocated on the stack and is valid for
+ // writes.
+ unsafe { bindings::init_completion(waiter.completion.get()) };
+
+ // Try to enqueue the waiter by pushing into onto the waiter stack. We want to do it
+ // only while the mutex is locked by another thread.
+ loop {
+ // We use relaxed here because we're just reading the value we'll CAS later (which
+ // has a stronger ordering on success).
+ let mut v = self.waiter_stack.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+ if v & LOCKED == 0 {
+ // The mutex was released by another thread, so try to acquire it.
+ //
+ // The `acquire` order matches with one of the `release` ones in `unlock`.
+ v = self.waiter_stack.fetch_or(LOCKED, Ordering::Acquire);
+ if v & LOCKED == 0 {
+ return EmptyGuardContext;
+ }
+ }
+
+ waiter.next = (v & !LOCKED) as _;
+
+ // The `release` order matches with `acquire` in `unlock` when the stack is swapped
+ // out. We use release order here to ensure that the other thread can see our
+ // waiter fully initialised.
+ if self
+ .waiter_stack
+ .compare_exchange(
+ v,
+ (&mut waiter as *mut _ as usize) | LOCKED,
+ Ordering::Release,
+ Ordering::Relaxed,
+ )
+ .is_ok()
+ {
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ // Wait for the owner to lock to wake this thread up.
+ //
+ // SAFETY: Completion object was previously initialised with `init_completion` and
+ // remains valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::wait_for_completion(waiter.completion.get()) };
+ }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the mutex, so it is safe to manipulate the local wait queue.
+ let mut waiter = unsafe { *self.waiter_queue.get() };
+ loop {
+ // If we have a non-empty local queue of waiters, pop the first one, release the mutex,
+ // and wake it up (the popped waiter).
+ if !waiter.is_null() {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the mutex, so it is safe to manipulate the local wait
+ // queue.
+ unsafe { *self.waiter_queue.get() = (*waiter).next };
+
+ // The `release` order matches with one of the `acquire` ones in `lock_noguard`.
+ self.waiter_stack.fetch_and(!LOCKED, Ordering::Release);
+
+ // Wake up the first waiter.
+ //
+ // SAFETY: The completion object was initialised before being added to the wait
+ // stack and is only removed above, when called completed. So it is safe for
+ // writes.
+ unsafe { bindings::complete_all((*waiter).completion.get()) };
+ return;
+ }
+
+ // Try the fast path when there are no local waiters.
+ //
+ // The `release` order matches with one of the `acquire` ones in `lock_noguard`.
+ if self
+ .waiter_stack
+ .compare_exchange(LOCKED, 0, Ordering::Release, Ordering::Relaxed)
+ .is_ok()
+ {
+ return;
+ }
+
+ // We don't have a local queue, so pull the whole stack off, reverse it, and use it as a
+ // local queue. Since we're manipulating this queue, we need to keep ownership of the
+ // mutex.
+ //
+ // The `acquire` order matches with the `release` one in `lock_noguard` where a waiter
+ // is pushed onto the stack. It ensures that we see the fully-initialised waiter.
+ let mut stack =
+ (self.waiter_stack.swap(LOCKED, Ordering::Acquire) & !LOCKED) as *mut Waiter;
+ while !stack.is_null() {
+ // SAFETY: The caller still owns the mutex, so it is safe to manipulate the
+ // elements of the wait queue, which will soon become that wait queue.
+ let next = unsafe { (*stack).next };
+
+ // SAFETY: Same as above.
+ unsafe { (*stack).next = waiter };
+
+ waiter = stack;
+ stack = next;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+struct Waiter {
+ completion: Opaque<bindings::completion>,
+ next: *mut Waiter,
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b326af4196bb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,357 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel spinlock.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct spinlock`].
+//!
+//! See <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/locking/spinlocks.txt>.
+
+use super::{
+ mutex::EmptyGuardContext, Guard, Lock, LockClassKey, LockFactory, LockInfo, LockIniter,
+ WriteLock,
+};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque, True};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`SpinLock`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! spinlock_init {
+ ($spinlock:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($spinlock, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`spinlock_t`]. When multiple CPUs attempt to lock the same spinlock, only
+/// one at a time is allowed to progress, the others will block (spinning) until the spinlock is
+/// unlocked, at which point another CPU will be allowed to make progress.
+///
+/// A [`SpinLock`] must first be initialised with a call to [`SpinLock::init_lock`] before it can be
+/// used. The [`spinlock_init`] macro is provided to automatically assign a new lock class to a
+/// spinlock instance.
+///
+/// There are two ways to acquire the lock:
+/// - [`SpinLock::lock`], which doesn't manage interrupt state, so it should be used in only two
+/// cases: (a) when the caller knows that interrupts are disabled, or (b) when callers never use
+/// it in atomic context (e.g., interrupt handlers), in which case it is ok for interrupts to be
+/// enabled.
+/// - [`SpinLock::lock_irqdisable`], which disables interrupts if they are enabled before
+/// acquiring the lock. When the lock is released, the interrupt state is automatically returned
+/// to its value before [`SpinLock::lock_irqdisable`] was called.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::SpinLock;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires spinlock without changing interrupt state.
+/// fn lock_example(value: &SpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock();
+/// guard.a = 10;
+/// guard.b = 20;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires spinlock and disables interrupts while holding it.
+/// fn lock_irqdisable_example(value: &SpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock_irqdisable();
+/// guard.a = 30;
+/// guard.b = 40;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Initialises a spinlock.
+/// // SAFETY: `spinlock_init` is called below.
+/// let mut value = unsafe { SpinLock::new(Example { a: 1, b: 2 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We don't move `value`.
+/// kernel::spinlock_init!(unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut value) }, "value");
+///
+/// // Calls the example functions.
+/// assert_eq!(value.lock().a, 1);
+/// lock_example(&value);
+/// assert_eq!(value.lock().a, 10);
+/// lock_irqdisable_example(&value);
+/// assert_eq!(value.lock().a, 30);
+/// ```
+///
+/// [`spinlock_t`]: ../../../include/linux/spinlock.h
+pub struct SpinLock<T: ?Sized> {
+ spin_lock: Opaque<bindings::spinlock>,
+
+ /// Spinlocks are architecture-defined. So we conservatively require them to be pinned in case
+ /// some architecture uses self-references now or in the future.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `SpinLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for SpinLock<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `SpinLock` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for SpinLock<T> {}
+
+impl<T> SpinLock<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new spinlock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`SpinLock::init_lock`] before using the spinlock.
+ pub const unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ spin_lock: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> SpinLock<T> {
+ /// Locks the spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one thread
+ /// at a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, WriteLock> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock<WriteLock>>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Additionally it
+ /// disables interrupts (if they are enabled).
+ ///
+ /// When the lock in unlocked, the interrupt state (enabled/disabled) is restored.
+ pub fn lock_irqdisable(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, DisabledInterrupts> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock<DisabledInterrupts>>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockFactory for SpinLock<T> {
+ type LockedType<U> = SpinLock<U>;
+
+ unsafe fn new_lock<U>(data: U) -> SpinLock<U> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { SpinLock::new(data) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockIniter for SpinLock<T> {
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr, key: &'static LockClassKey) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__spin_lock_init(self.spin_lock.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key.get()) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// A type state indicating that interrupts were disabled.
+pub struct DisabledInterrupts;
+impl LockInfo for DisabledInterrupts {
+ type Writable = True;
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `spinlock_t` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for SpinLock<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_lock(self.spin_lock.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_unlock(self.spin_lock.get()) }
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `spinlock_t` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock<DisabledInterrupts> for SpinLock<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = core::ffi::c_ulong;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> core::ffi::c_ulong {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_lock_irqsave(self.spin_lock.get()) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, ctx: &mut core::ffi::c_ulong) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_unlock_irqrestore(self.spin_lock.get(), *ctx) }
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`RawSpinLock`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! rawspinlock_init {
+ ($spinlock:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($spinlock, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`raw_spinlock_t`].
+///
+/// It is very similar to [`SpinLock`], except that it is guaranteed not to sleep even on RT
+/// variants of the kernel.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::RawSpinLock;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires the raw spinlock without changing interrupt state.
+/// fn lock_example(value: &RawSpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock();
+/// guard.a = 10;
+/// guard.b = 20;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires the raw spinlock and disables interrupts while holding it.
+/// fn lock_irqdisable_example(value: &RawSpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock_irqdisable();
+/// guard.a = 30;
+/// guard.b = 40;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Initialises a raw spinlock and calls the example functions.
+/// fn spinlock_example() {
+/// // SAFETY: `rawspinlock_init` is called below.
+/// let mut value = unsafe { RawSpinLock::new(Example { a: 1, b: 2 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We don't move `value`.
+/// kernel::rawspinlock_init!(unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut value) }, "value");
+/// lock_example(&value);
+/// lock_irqdisable_example(&value);
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// [`raw_spinlock_t`]: ../../../include/linux/spinlock.h
+pub struct RawSpinLock<T: ?Sized> {
+ spin_lock: Opaque<bindings::raw_spinlock>,
+
+ // Spinlocks are architecture-defined. So we conservatively require them to be pinned in case
+ // some architecture uses self-references now or in the future.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `RawSpinLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for RawSpinLock<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `RawSpinLock` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as
+// the data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for RawSpinLock<T> {}
+
+impl<T> RawSpinLock<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new raw spinlock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`RawSpinLock::init_lock`] before using the raw spinlock.
+ pub const unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ spin_lock: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RawSpinLock<T> {
+ /// Locks the raw spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one
+ /// thread at a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, WriteLock> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock<WriteLock>>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The raw spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the raw spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it.
+ /// Additionally it disables interrupts (if they are enabled).
+ ///
+ /// When the lock in unlocked, the interrupt state (enabled/disabled) is restored.
+ pub fn lock_irqdisable(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self, DisabledInterrupts> {
+ let ctx = <Self as Lock<DisabledInterrupts>>::lock_noguard(self);
+ // SAFETY: The raw spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockFactory for RawSpinLock<T> {
+ type LockedType<U> = RawSpinLock<U>;
+
+ unsafe fn new_lock<U>(data: U) -> RawSpinLock<U> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { RawSpinLock::new(data) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> LockIniter for RawSpinLock<T> {
+ fn init_lock(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr, key: &'static LockClassKey) {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::_raw_spin_lock_init(self.spin_lock.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key.get())
+ };
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `raw_spinlock_t` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for RawSpinLock<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::raw_spin_lock(self.spin_lock.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the raw spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::raw_spin_unlock(self.spin_lock.get()) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `raw_spinlock_t` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock<DisabledInterrupts> for RawSpinLock<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = core::ffi::c_ulong;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> core::ffi::c_ulong {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::raw_spin_lock_irqsave(self.spin_lock.get()) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, ctx: &mut core::ffi::c_ulong) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the raw spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(self.spin_lock.get(), *ctx) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
--
2.37.1
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