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Subject[PATCH V5 00/16] The Runtime Verification (RV) interface
Over the last years, I've been exploring the possibility of
verifying the Linux kernel behavior using Runtime Verification.

Runtime Verification (RV) is a lightweight (yet rigorous) method that
complements classical exhaustive verification techniques (such as model
checking and theorem proving) with a more practical approach for complex

Instead of relying on a fine-grained model of a system (e.g., a
re-implementation a instruction level), RV works by analyzing the trace of the
system's actual execution, comparing it against a formal specification of
the system behavior.

The usage of deterministic automaton for RV is a well-established
approach. In the specific case of the Linux kernel, you can check how
to model complex behavior of the Linux kernel with this paper:

De Oliveira, Daniel Bristot; Cucinotta, Tommaso; De Oliveira, Romulo Silva.
*Efficient formal verification for the Linux kernel.* In: International
Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods. Springer, Cham, 2019.
p. 315-332.

And how efficient is this approach here:

De Oliveira, Daniel B.; De Oliveira, Romulo S.; Cucinotta, Tommaso. *A thread
synchronization model for the PREEMPT_RT Linux kernel.* Journal of Systems
Architecture, 2020, 107: 101729.

tlrd: it is possible to model complex behaviors in a modular way, with
an acceptable overhead (even for production systems). See this
presentation at 2019's ELCE:

Here I am proposing a more practical approach for the usage of deterministic
automata for runtime verification, and it includes:

- An interface for controlling the verification;
- A tool and set of headers that enables the automatic code
generation of the RV monitor (Monitor Synthesis);
- Sample monitors to evaluate the interface;

Given that RV is a tracing consumer, the code is being placed inside the
tracing subsystem (Steven and I have been talking about it for a while).

Features to be added after this patchset:
- safe_wtd monitor (requires further discussion with watchdog maintainers)
- Export symbols for external modules
- dot2bpf
- Add a reactor that enables the visualization of the visited
states via KCOV (Marco Elver & Dmitry Vyukov)
- Add a CRC method to check from user-space if the values
exported by the monitor were not corrupted by any other
kernel task (Gabriele Paoloni)

Changes from v4:
- The watchdog monitor will be discussed on another thread (Daniel)
- s/safe/final/ in the tracepoint definition (Daniel)
- Improved error handling at __init functions (Daniel)
- Remove the hostname from example of commands in a shell (Bagas Sanjaya)
- Added documentation about automata representation in C/DOT/Formal
and this documentation is cited in a comment on all model.h
- Make wwnr a single patch (Daniel/Steven)
- Add the .dot file for each monitor (Daniel)
- Add a document for each monitor (Daniel)
- Add an order for documentation in the index.rst (Daniel)
- Add wip/wwnr/... long description (Steven/Randy)
- Add comments for helper functions (Steven)
- Improve checks in da_monitor.h (Tao Zhou)
- Change final states set to bool (Tao/Daniel)
- Adjust indentation on enabling monitor/reactor (Steven)
- Use strim on buffers from user-space (Steven)
- Remove ifdefs inside functions (Steven)
- Adjust depends on RV in Kconfig (Steven)
- Check empty enabled monitor list (Tao Zhou)
- Fixed Copyright (Steven)
- Adjusted structures' indentation (Steven)
- Fix rv/monitors/$monitor/enabled return value (Song Liu)
- Typos (Punit Agrawal/Randy)
- Improved python scripts w.r.t. consistency (Steve)
- Blamed myself for so many problems :-) (Daniel's mind)
Changes from v3:
- Rebased on 5.19
(rostedt's request were made on 1x1 meetings)
- Moved monitors to monitors/$name/ (Rostedt)
- Consolidate the tracepoints into a single include file in the default
directory (trace/events/rv.h) (Rostedt)
- The tracepoints now record the entire string to the buffer.
- Change the enable_monitors to disable monitors with ! (instead of -).
- Add a suffix to the state/events enums, to avoid conflict in the
vmlinux.h used by eBPF.
- The models are now placed in the $name.h (it used to store the
tracepoints, but they are now consolidated in a single file)
- dot2c and dot2k updated to the changes
- models re-generated with these new standards.
- user-space tools moved to an directory outside of tools/tracing as
other methods of verification/log sources are planned.
Changes from v2:
- Tons of checkpatch and kernel test robot
- Moved files to better places
- Adjusted watchdog tracepoints patch (Guenter Roeck)
- Added pretimeout watchdog events (Peter Enderborg)
- Used task struct to store per-task monitors (Peter Zijlstra)
- Changed the instrumentation to use internal definition of tracepoint
and check the callback signature (Steven Rostedt)
- Used printk_deferred() and removed the comment about deadlocks
(Shuah Khan/John Ogness)
- Some simplifications:
- Removed the safe watchdog nowayout for now (myself)
- Removed export symbols for now (myself)
Changes from V1:
- rebased to the latest kernel;
- code cleanup;
- the watchdog dev monitor;
- safety app;

Daniel Bristot de Oliveira (16):
rv: Add Runtime Verification (RV) interface
rv: Add runtime reactors interface
rv/include: Add helper functions for deterministic automata
rv/include: Add deterministic automata monitor definition via C macros
rv/include: Add instrumentation helper functions
Documentation/rv: Add a basic documentation
tools/rv: Add dot2c
Documentation/rv: Add deterministic automaton documentation
tools/rv: Add dot2k
Documentation/rv: Add deterministic automata monitor synthesis
Documentation/rv: Add deterministic automata instrumentation
rv/monitor: Add the wip monitor skeleton created by dot2k
rv/monitor: Add the wip monitor
rv/monitor: Add the wwnr monitor
rv/reactor: Add the printk reactor
rv/reactor: Add the panic reactor

Documentation/trace/index.rst | 1 +
.../trace/rv/da_monitor_instrumentation.rst | 169 ++++
.../trace/rv/da_monitor_synthesis.rst | 147 ++++
.../trace/rv/deterministic_automata.rst | 184 +++++
Documentation/trace/rv/index.rst | 14 +
Documentation/trace/rv/monitor_wip.rst | 55 ++
Documentation/trace/rv/monitor_wwnr.rst | 45 ++
.../trace/rv/runtime-verification.rst | 233 ++++++
include/linux/rv.h | 35 +
include/linux/sched.h | 11 +
include/rv/automata.h | 75 ++
include/rv/da_monitor.h | 524 +++++++++++++
include/rv/instrumentation.h | 29 +
include/rv/rv.h | 32 +
include/trace/events/rv.h | 142 ++++
kernel/fork.c | 14 +
kernel/trace/Kconfig | 2 +
kernel/trace/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/trace/rv/Kconfig | 81 ++
kernel/trace/rv/Makefile | 8 +
kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wip/wip.c | 91 +++
kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wip/wip.h | 46 ++
kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wwnr/wwnr.c | 90 +++
kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wwnr/wwnr.h | 46 ++
kernel/trace/rv/reactor_panic.c | 43 +
kernel/trace/rv/reactor_printk.c | 42 +
kernel/trace/rv/rv.c | 739 ++++++++++++++++++
kernel/trace/rv/rv.h | 65 ++
kernel/trace/rv/rv_reactors.c | 488 ++++++++++++
kernel/trace/trace.c | 2 +
kernel/trace/trace.h | 9 +
tools/verification/dot2/Makefile | 26 +
tools/verification/dot2/ | 174 +++++
tools/verification/dot2/dot2c | 26 +
tools/verification/dot2/ | 254 ++++++
tools/verification/dot2/dot2k | 47 ++
tools/verification/dot2/ | 177 +++++
.../dot2/dot2k_templates/main_global.c | 94 +++
.../dot2/dot2k_templates/main_per_cpu.c | 94 +++
.../dot2/dot2k_templates/main_per_task.c | 94 +++
tools/verification/models/ | 16 +
tools/verification/models/ | 16 +
42 files changed, 4481 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/da_monitor_instrumentation.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/da_monitor_synthesis.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/deterministic_automata.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/index.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/monitor_wip.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/monitor_wwnr.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/trace/rv/runtime-verification.rst
create mode 100644 include/linux/rv.h
create mode 100644 include/rv/automata.h
create mode 100644 include/rv/da_monitor.h
create mode 100644 include/rv/instrumentation.h
create mode 100644 include/rv/rv.h
create mode 100644 include/trace/events/rv.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/Kconfig
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/Makefile
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wip/wip.c
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wip/wip.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wwnr/wwnr.c
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/monitors/wwnr/wwnr.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/reactor_panic.c
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/reactor_printk.c
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/rv.c
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/rv.h
create mode 100644 kernel/trace/rv/rv_reactors.c
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/Makefile
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/dot2c
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/dot2k
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/dot2k_templates/main_global.c
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/dot2k_templates/main_per_cpu.c
create mode 100644 tools/verification/dot2/dot2k_templates/main_per_task.c
create mode 100644 tools/verification/models/
create mode 100644 tools/verification/models/


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