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Subject[RFC PATCH v8 17/17] documentation: add ipe documentation
Date
Add IPE's admin and developer documentation to the kernel tree.

Co-developed-by: Fan Wu <wufan@linux.microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Fan Wu <wufan@linux.microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Deven Bowers <deven.desai@linux.microsoft.com>
---
v2:
+ No Changes

v3:
+ Add Acked-by
+ Fixup code block syntax
+ Fix a minor grammatical issue.

v4:
+ Update documentation with the results of other
code changes.

v5:
+ No changes

v6:
+ No changes

v7:
+ Add additional developer-level documentation
+ Update admin-guide docs to reflect changes.
+ Drop Acked-by due to significant changes
+ Added section about audit events in admin-guide

v8:
+ Correct terminology from "audit event" to "audit record"
+ Add associated documentation with the correct "audit event"
terminology.
+ Add some context to the historical motivation for IPE and design
philosophy.
+ Add some content about the securityfs layout in the policies
directory.
+ Various spelling and grammatical corrections.
---
Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst | 739 ++++++++++++++++++
.../admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt | 12 +
Documentation/security/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/security/ipe.rst | 559 +++++++++++++
MAINTAINERS | 2 +
6 files changed, 1314 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/security/ipe.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/index.rst
index a6ba95fbaa9f..ce63be6d64ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/index.rst
@@ -47,3 +47,4 @@ subdirectories.
tomoyo
Yama
SafeSetID
+ ipe
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..58335ce4f85b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,739 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Integrity Policy Enforcement (IPE)
+==================================
+
+.. NOTE::
+
+ This is the documentation for admins, system builders, or individuals
+ attempting to use IPE. If you're looking for more developer-focused
+ documentation about IPE please see `Documentation/security/ipe.rst`
+
+Overview
+--------
+
+IPE is a Linux Security Module which takes a complimentary approach to
+access control. Whereas existing mandatory access control mechanisms
+base their decisions on labels and paths, IPE instead determines
+whether or not an operation should be allowed based on immutable
+security properties of the system component the operation is being
+performed on.
+
+IPE itself does not mandate how the security property should be
+evaluated, but relies on an extensible set of external property providers
+to evaluate the component. IPE makes its decision based on reference
+values for the selected properties, specified in the IPE policy.
+
+The reference values represent the value that the policy writer and the
+local system administrator (based on the policy signature) trust for the
+system to accomplish the desired tasks.
+
+One such provider is for example dm-verity, which is able to represent
+the integrity property of a partition (its immutable state) with a digest.
+
+IPE is compiled under ``CONFIG_SECURITY_IPE`` (Security -> Integrity Policy Enforcement (IPE)).
+
+Use Cases
+---------
+
+IPE works best in fixed-function devices: devices in which their purpose
+is clearly defined and not supposed to be changed (e.g. network firewall
+device in a data center, an IoT device, etcetera), where all software and
+configuration is built and provisioned by the system owner.
+
+IPE is a long-way off for use in general-purpose computing: the Linux
+community as a whole tends to follow a decentralized trust model,
+known as the web of trust, which IPE has no support for as of yet.
+
+IPE, instead of supporting web of trust, supports PKI, which generally
+designates a set of entities that provide a measure of absolute trust.
+
+Additionally, while most packages are signed today, the files inside
+the packages (for instance, the executables), tend to be unsigned. This
+makes it difficult to utilize IPE in systems where a package manager is
+expected to be functional, without major changes to the package manager
+and ecosystem behind it.
+
+DIGLIM [#diglim]_ is a system that when combined with IPE, could be used to
+enable general purpose computing scenarios.
+
+Known Gaps
+----------
+
+IPE cannot verify the integrity of anonymous executable memory, such as
+the trampolines created by gcc closures and libffi (<3.4.2), or JIT'd code.
+Unfortunately, as this is dynamically generated code, there is no way
+for IPE to ensure the integrity of this code to form a trust basis. In all
+cases, the return result for these operations will be whatever the admin
+configures as the ``DEFAULT`` action for ``EXECUTE``.
+
+IPE cannot verify the integrity of interpreted languages' programs when
+these scripts are invoked via ``<interpreter> <file>``. This is because
+the way interpreters execute these files, the scripts themselves are not
+evaluated as executable code through one of IPE's hooks, as they are merely
+files that are read (as opposed to executable code) [#interpreters]_.
+
+Threat Model
+------------
+
+The threat type addressed by IPE is tampering of executable userland
+code beyond the initially booted kernel, and the initial verification of
+kernel modules that are loaded in userland through ``modprobe`` or
+``insmod``.
+
+A bare-minimum example of a threat that should be mitigated by IPE, is
+a hostile binary is downloaded with all required binaries (including
+a loader, libc, etc). With IPE, this hostile binary should not able to
+be executed, nor any of the downloaded binaries.
+
+Tampering violates integrity, and being unable to verify the integrity,
+results in a lack of trust. IPE's role in mitigating this threat is to
+verify the integrity (and authenticity) of all executable code and to
+deny their use if they cannot be trusted (as integrity verification fails,
+or the authorization check fails against the reference value in the policy).
+IPE generates audit logs which may be utilized to detect failures resulting
+from failure to pass policy.
+
+Tampering threat scenarios include modification or replacement of
+executable code by a range of actors including:
+
+- Actors with physical access to the hardware
+- Actors with local network access to the system
+- Actors with access to the deployment system
+- Compromised internal systems under external control
+- Malicious end users of the system
+- Compromised end users of the system
+- Remote (external) compromise of the system
+
+IPE does not mitigate threats arising from malicious authorized
+developers (with access to a signing certificate), or compromised
+developer tools used by authorized developers (i.e. Return Oriented
+Programming attacks). Additionally, IPE draws hard security boundary
+between user mode and kernel mode. As a result, IPE does not provide
+any protections against a kernel level exploit, and a kernel-level
+exploit can disable or tamper with IPE's protections.
+
+Policy
+------
+
+IPE policy is a plain-text [#devdoc]_ policy composed of multiple statements
+over several lines. There is one required line, at the top of the
+policy, indicating the policy name, and the policy version, for
+instance::
+
+ policy_name="Ex Policy" policy_version=0.0.0
+
+The policy name is a unique key identifying this policy in a human
+readable name. This is used to create nodes under securityfs as well as
+uniquely identify policies to deploy new policies vs update existing
+policies.
+
+The policy version indicates the current version of the policy (NOT the
+policy syntax version). This is used to prevent rollback of policy to
+potentially insecure previous versions of the policy.
+
+The next portion of IPE policy are rules. Rules are formed by key=value
+pairs, known as properties. IPE rules require two properties: "action",
+which determines what IPE does when it encounters a match against the
+rule, and "op", which determines when that rule should be evaluated.
+The ordering is significant, a rule must start with "op", and end with
+"action". Thus, a minimal rule is::
+
+ op=EXECUTE action=ALLOW
+
+This example will allow any execution. Additional properties are used to
+restrict attributes about the files being evaluated. These properties
+are intended to be descriptions of systems within the kernel that can
+provide a measure of integrity verification, such that IPE can determine
+the trust of the resource based on the "value" half of the property.
+
+Rules are evaluated top-to-bottom. As a result, any revocation rules,
+or denies should be placed early in the file to ensure that these rules
+are evaluated before a rule with "action=ALLOW" is hit.
+
+IPE policy is designed to be only forward compatible. Userspace can read
+what the parser's current configuration (supported statements, properties,
+etcetera) via reading the securityfs entry, 'ipe/config'.
+
+IPE policy supports comments. The character '#' will function as a
+comment, ignoring all characters to the right of '#' until the newline.
+
+The default behavior of IPE evaluations can also be expressed in policy,
+through the ``DEFAULT`` statement. This can be done at a global level,
+or a per-operation level::
+
+ # Global
+ DEFAULT action=ALLOW
+
+ # Operation Specific
+ DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=ALLOW
+
+A default must be set for all known operations in IPE. If you want to
+preserve older policies being compatible with newer kernels that can introduce
+new operations, please set a global default of 'ALLOW', and override the
+defaults on a per-operation basis.
+
+With configurable policy-based LSMs, there's several issues with
+enforcing the configurable policies at startup, around reading and
+parsing the policy:
+
+1. The kernel *should* not read files from userland, so directly reading
+ the policy file is prohibited.
+2. The kernel command line has a character limit, and one kernel module
+ should not reserve the entire character limit for its own
+ configuration.
+3. There are various boot loaders in the kernel ecosystem, so handing
+ off a memory block would be costly to maintain.
+
+As a result, IPE has addressed this problem through a concept of a "boot
+policy". A boot policy is a minimal policy, compiled into the kernel.
+This policy is intended to get the system to a state where userland is
+set up and ready to receive commands, at which point a more complex
+policy can be deployed via securityfs. The boot policy can be specified
+via the Kconfig, ``SECURITY_IPE_BOOT_POLICY``, which accepts a path to
+a plain-text version of the IPE policy to apply. This policy will be
+compiled into the kernel. If not specified, IPE will be disabled until
+a policy is deployed and activated through securityfs.
+
+Deploying Policies
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Policies can be deployed from userland through securityfs. These policies
+are signed through the PKCS#7 message format to enforce some level of
+authorization of the policies (prohibiting an attacker from gaining
+unconstrained root, and deploying an "allow all" policy). These
+policies must be signed by a certificate that chains to the
+``SYSTEM_TRUSTED_KEYRING``. Through openssl, the signing can be done via::
+
+ openssl smime -sign \
+ -in "$MY_POLICY" \
+ -signer "$MY_CERTIFICATE" \
+ -inkey "$MY_PRIVATE_KEY" \
+ -noattr \
+ -nodetach \
+ -nosmimecap \
+ -outform der \
+ -out "$MY_POLICY.p7b"
+
+Deploying the policies is done through securityfs, through the
+``new_policy`` node. To deploy a policy, simply cat the file into the
+securityfs node::
+
+ cat "$MY_POLICY.p7b" > /sys/kernel/security/ipe/new_policy
+
+Upon success, this will create one subdirectory under
+``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/policies/``. The subdirectory will be the
+``policy_name`` field of the policy deployed, so for the example above,
+the directory will be ``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/policies/Ex\ Policy``.
+Within this directory, there will be five files: ``pkcs7``, ``policy``,
+``active``, ``update``, and ``delete``.
+
+The ``pkcs7`` file is read only. Reading will provide the raw PKCS#7 data
+that was provided to the kernel, representing the policy. Writing, will
+deploy an in-place policy update.If the policy being read is the boot
+policy, when read, this will return ENOENT, as this policy is not signed.
+
+The ``policy`` file is read only. Reading will provide the PKCS#7 inner
+content of the policy, which will be the plain text policy.
+
+The ``active`` file is used to set a policy as the currently active policy.
+This file is rw, and accepts a value of ``"1"`` to set the policy as active.
+Since only a single policy can be active at one time, all other policies
+will be marked inactive. The policy being marked active must have a policy
+version greater or equal to the currently-running version.
+
+The ``update`` file is used to update a policy that is already present in
+the kernel. This file is write-only and accepts a PKCS#7 signed policy.
+One check will always be performed on this policy: the policy_names must
+match with the updated version and the existing version. One additional check
+may be made: If the policy being updated is the active policy, the updated
+policy must have a policy version greater than or equal to the currently-running
+version; This is to prevent rollback attacks.
+
+The ``delete`` file is used to remove a policy that is no longer needed.
+This file is write-only and accepts a value of ``1`` to delete the policy.
+On deletion, the securityfs node representing the policy will be removed.
+The policy that is currently active cannot be deleted.
+
+Similarly, the writes to both ``update`` and ``new_policy`` above will
+result in an error upon syntactically invalid or untrusted policies.
+In the case of ``new_policy``, it will also error if a policy already
+exists with the same ``policy_name``.
+
+Deploying these policies will *not* cause IPE to start enforcing this
+policy. Once deployment is successful, a policy can be marked as active,
+via ``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/$policy_name/active``. IPE will enforce
+whatever policy is marked as active. For our example, we can activate
+the ``Ex Policy`` via::
+
+ echo 1 > "/sys/kernel/security/ipe/Ex Policy/active"
+
+At which point, ``Ex Policy`` will now be the enforced policy on the
+system.
+
+IPE also provides a way to delete policies. This can be done via the
+``delete`` securityfs node, ``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/$policy_name/delete``.
+Writing ``1`` to that file will delete that node::
+
+ echo 1 > "/sys/kernel/security/ipe/$policy_name/delete"
+
+There is only one requirement to delete a policy:
+
+1. The policy being deleted must not be the active policy.
+
+.. NOTE::
+
+ If a traditional MAC system is enabled (SELinux, apparmor, smack), all
+ writes to ipe's securityfs nodes require ``CAP_MAC_ADMIN``.
+
+Modes
+~~~~~
+
+IPE supports two modes of operation: permissive (similar to SELinux's
+permissive mode) and enforce. Permissive mode performs the same checks
+as enforce mode, and logs policy violations, but will not enforce the
+policy. This allows users to test policies before enforcing them.
+
+The default mode is enforce, and can be changed via the kernel command
+line parameter ``ipe.enforce=(0|1)``, or the securityfs node
+``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/enforce``.
+
+.. NOTE::
+
+ If a traditional MAC system is enabled (SELinux, apparmor, smack, etcetera),
+ all writes to ipe's securityfs nodes require ``CAP_MAC_ADMIN``.
+
+Audit Events
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+1420 AUDIT_IPE_ACCESS
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Event Examples::
+
+ type=1420 audit(1653364370.067:61): path="/root/fs/rw/plain/execve" dev="vdc1" ino=16 rule="DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=DENY"
+ type=1300 audit(1653364370.067:61): arch=c000003e syscall=10 success=no exit=-13 a0=7f0bf0644000 a1=4f80 a2=5 a3=7f0bf043d300 items=0 ppid=455 pid=737 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=ttyS0 ses=3 comm="mprotect" exe="/root/host/mprotect" subj=kernel key=(null)
+ type=1327 audit(1653364370.067:61): proctitle=686F73742F6D70726F7465637400534800527C5700527C5800706C61696E2F657865637665
+
+ type=1420 audit(1653364735.161:64): rule="DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=DENY"
+ type=1300 audit(1653364735.161:64): arch=c000003e syscall=9 success=no exit=-13 a0=0 a1=1000 a2=4 a3=20 items=0 ppid=455 pid=774 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=ttyS0 ses=3 comm="mmap" exe="/root/host/mmap" subj=kernel key=(null)
+ type=1327 audit(1653364735.161:64): proctitle=686F73742F6D6D617000410058⏎
+
+This event indicates that IPE made an access control decision; the IPE specific
+record (1420) will always be emitted in conjunction with a ``AUDITSYSCALL`` record.
+
+Determining whether IPE is in permissive can be derived from the success and exit
+field of the AUDITSYSCALL record
+
+
+
+Field descriptions:
+
++---------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| Field | Value Type | Optional? | Description of Value |
++===============+============+===========+=========================================================================+
+| path | string | Yes | The absolute path to the file that was the subject of the evaluation |
++---------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| ino | integer | Yes | The inode number of the file that was the subject of the evaluation |
++---------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| dev | string | Yes | The device name that the file under evaluation belongs to, e.g. vda |
++---------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| rule | string | No | The exact rule in IPE's policy that the evaluation matched |
++---------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+1403 AUDIT_MAC_POLICY_LOAD
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Event Example::
+
+ type=1403 audit(1653425529.927:53): policy_name="dmverity_roothash" policy_version=0.0.0 sha256=A9C5803309F80D2B84D7C047534BE8B60EF121C8E1F351F2A8EFFA617B7F0686
+ type=1300 audit(1653425529.927:53): arch=c000003e syscall=1 success=yes exit=6215 a0=1 a1=7f07adfe4000 a2=1847 a3=22 items=0 ppid=441 pid=445 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=)
+ type=1327 audit(1653425529.927:53): proctitle=63617400706F6C69636965732F646D7665726974795F726F6F74686173682E706F6C2E703762
+
+This record will always be emitted in conjunction with a ``AUDITSYSCALL`` record for the ``write`` syscall.
+
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| Field | Value Type | Optional? | Description of Value |
++================+============+===========+==============================================================+
+| policy_name | string | No | The policy_name field of the policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| policy_version | string | No | The policy_version field of the policy |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha1 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha256 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha384 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha512 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+1405 AUDIT_MAC_CONFIG_CHANGE
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Event Example::
+
+ type=1405 audit(1653425583.136:54): policy_name="dmverity_roothash" policy_version=0.0.0 sha256=A9C5803309F80D2B84D7C047534BE8B60EF121C8E1F351F2A8EFFA617B7F0686
+ type=1300 audit(1653425583.136:54): arch=c000003e syscall=1 success=yes exit=2 a0=1 a1=55c1065e5c60 a2=2 a3=7fe683990020 items=0 ppid=405 pid=441 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 e)
+ type=1327 audit(1653425583.136:54): proctitle="-bash"
+
+This record will always be emitted in conjunction with a ``AUDITSYSCALL`` record for the ``write`` syscall.
+
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| Field | Value Type | Optional? | Description of Value |
++================+============+===========+==============================================================+
+| policy_name | string | No | The policy_name field of the policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| policy_version | string | No | The policy_version field of the policy |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha1 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha256 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha384 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+| sha512 | string | Yes* | A flat hash of the policy. Can be used to identify a policy. |
++----------------+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+1404 AUDIT_MAC_STATUS
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Event Examples::
+
+ type=1404 audit(1653425689.008:55): permissive=1
+ type=1300 audit(1653425689.008:55): arch=c000003e syscall=1 success=yes exit=2 a0=1 a1=55c1065e5c60 a2=2 a3=0 items=0 ppid=405 pid=441 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=)
+ type=1327 audit(1653425689.008:55): proctitle="-bash"
+
+ type=1404 audit(1653425689.008:55): permissive=0
+ type=1300 audit(1653425689.008:55): arch=c000003e syscall=1 success=yes exit=2 a0=1 a1=55c1065e5c60 a2=2 a3=0 items=0 ppid=405 pid=441 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=)
+ type=1327 audit(1653425689.008:55): proctitle="-bash"
+
+This record will always be emitted in conjunction with a ``AUDITSYSCALL`` record for the ``write`` syscall.
+
++------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+| Field | Value Type | Optional? | Description of Value |
++============+============+===========+===================================================================+
+| permissive | integer | No | The state IPE is being switched to. 1 is permissive, 0 is enforce |
++------------+------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
+
+
+\* These fields are mutually exclusive with each other depending on the value of ``CONFIG_IPE_AUDIT_HASH_ALG``,
+ but at least one will be present.
+
+Success Auditing
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+IPE supports success auditing. When enabled, all events that pass IPE
+policy and are not blocked will emit an audit event. This is disabled by
+default, and can be enabled via the kernel command line
+``ipe.success_audit=(0|1)`` or the securityfs node,
+``/sys/kernel/security/ipe/success_audit``.
+
+This is *very* noisy, as IPE will check every user-mode binary on the
+system, but is useful for debugging policies.
+
+.. NOTE::
+
+ If a traditional MAC system is enabled (SELinux, apparmor, smack, etcetera),
+ all writes to ipe's securityfs nodes require ``CAP_MAC_ADMIN``.
+
+Properties
+----------
+
+As explained above, IPE properties are ``key=value`` pairs expressed in
+IPE policy. Two properties are built-into the policy parser: 'op' and
+'action'. The other properties are determinstic attributes to express
+across files. Currently those properties are: '``boot_verified``',
+'``dmverity_signature``', '``dmverity_roothash``', '``fsverity_signature``',
+'``fsverity_digest``'. A description of all properties supported by IPE
+are listed below:
+
+op
+~~
+
+Indicates the operation for a rule to apply to. Must be in every rule,
+as the first token. IPE supports the following operations:
+
+Version 1
+
+ ``EXECUTE``
+
+ Pertains to any file attempting to be executed, or loaded as an
+ executable.
+
+ ``FIRMWARE``:
+
+ Pertains to firmware being loaded via the firmware_class interface.
+ This covers both the preallocated buffer and the firmware file
+ itself.
+
+ ``KMODULE``:
+
+ Pertains to loading kernel modules via ``modprobe`` or ``insmod``.
+
+ ``KEXEC_IMAGE``:
+
+ Pertains to kernel images loading via ``kexec``.
+
+ ``KEXEC_INITRAMFS``
+
+ Pertains to initrd images loading via ``kexec --initrd``.
+
+ ``POLICY``:
+
+ Controls loading polcies via reading a kernel-space initiated read.
+
+ An example of such is loading IMA policies by writing the path
+ to the policy file to ``$securityfs/ima/policy``
+
+ ``X509_CERT``:
+
+ Controls loading IMA certificates through the Kconfigs,
+ ``CONFIG_IMA_X509_PATH`` and ``CONFIG_EVM_X509_PATH``.
+
+ ``KERNEL_READ``:
+
+ Short hand for all of the following: ``FIRMWARE``, ``KMODULE``,
+ ``KEXEC_IMAGE``, ``KEXEC_INITRAMFS``, ``POLICY``, and ``X509_CERT``.
+
+ This effectively maps to any kernel-space initiated read.
+
+action
+~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ Determines what IPE should do when a rule matches. Must be in every
+ rule, as the final clause. Can be one of:
+
+ ``ALLOW``:
+
+ If the rule matches, explicitly allow access to the resource to proceed
+ without executing any more rules.
+
+ ``DENY``:
+
+ If the rule matches, explicitly prohibit access to the resource to
+ proceed without executing any more rules.
+
+boot_verified
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ This property can be utilized for authorization of the first super-block
+ that executes a file. This is almost always init. Typically this is used
+ for systems with an initramfs or other initial disk, where this is unmounted
+ before the system becomes available, and is not covered by any other property.
+ This property is controlled by the Kconfig, ``CONFIG_IPE_PROP_BOOT_VERIFIED``.
+ The format of this property is::
+
+ boot_verified=(TRUE|FALSE)
+
+
+ .. WARNING::
+
+ This property will trust any disk where the first execution evaluation
+ occurs. If you do *NOT* have a startup disk that is unpacked and unmounted
+ (like initramfs), then it will automatically trust the root filesystem and
+ potentially overauthorize the entire disk.
+
+dmverity_roothash
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ This property can be utilized for authorization or revocation of
+ specific dm-verity volumes, identified via root hash. It has a
+ dependency on the DM_VERITY module. This property is controlled by the
+ Kconfig ``CONFIG_IPE_PROP_DM_VERITY_ROOTHASH``. The format of this property
+ is::
+
+ dmverity_roothash=DigestName:HexadecimalString
+
+ The supported DigestNames for dmverity_roothash are [#dmveritydigests]_ [#securedigest]_ :
+
+ + blake2b-512
+ + blake2s-256
+ + sha1
+ + sha256
+ + sha384
+ + sha512
+ + sha3-224
+ + sha3-256
+ + sha3-384
+ + sha3-512
+ + md4
+ + md5
+ + sm3
+ + rmd160
+
+dmverity_signature
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ This property can be utilized for authorization of all dm-verity volumes
+ that have a signed roothash that chains to a keyring specified by dm-verity's
+ configuration, either the system trusted keyring, or the secondary keyring.
+ It has an additional dependency on the ``DM_VERITY_VERIFY_ROOTHASH_SIG``
+ Kconfig. This property is controlled by the Kconfig
+ ``CONFIG_IPE_PROP_DM_VERITY_SIGNATURE``. The format of this property is::
+
+ dmverity_signature=(TRUE|FALSE)
+
+fsverity_digest
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ This property can be utilized for authorization or revocation of
+ specific fsverity enabled file, identified via its fsverity digest.
+ It has a dependency on the FS_VERITY module. This property is
+ controlled by the Kconfig ``CONFIG_IPE_PROP_FS_VERITY_DIGEST``.
+ The format of this property is::
+
+ fsverity_digest=DigestName:HexadecimalString
+
+ The supported DigestNames for dmverity_roothash are [#fsveritydigest] [#securedigest]_ :
+
+ + sha256
+ + sha512
+
+fsverity_signature
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Version 1
+
+ This property can be utilized for authorization of all fsverity enabled
+ files that is verified by fsverity. The keyring that the signature is
+ verified against is subject to fsverity's configuration, typically the fsverity
+ keyring. It has a dependency on the ``CONFIG_FS_VERITY_BUILTIN_SIGNATURES``
+ Kconfig. This property is controlled by the Kconfig
+ ``CONFIG_IPE_PROP_FS_VERITY_SIGNATURE``. The format of this property is::
+
+ fsverity_signature=(TRUE|FALSE)
+
+Policy Examples
+---------------
+
+Allow all
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="Allow All" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=ALLOW
+
+Allow only initial superblock
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="Allow All Initial SB" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE boot_verified=TRUE action=ALLOW
+
+Allow any signed dm-verity volume and the initial superblock
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="AllowSignedAndInitial" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE boot_verified=TRUE action=ALLOW
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_signature=TRUE action=ALLOW
+
+Prohibit execution from a specific dm-verity volume
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="AllowSignedAndInitial" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_roothash=sha256:cd2c5bae7c6c579edaae4353049d58eb5f2e8be0244bf05345bc8e5ed257baff action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE boot_verified=TRUE action=ALLOW
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_signature=TRUE action=ALLOW
+
+Allow only a specific dm-verity volume
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="AllowSignedAndInitial" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_roothash=sha256:401fcec5944823ae12f62726e8184407a5fa9599783f030dec146938 action=ALLOW
+
+Allow any signed fs-verity file
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="AllowSignedFSVerity" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE fsverity_signature=TRUE action=ALLOW
+
+Prohibit execution of a specific fs-verity file
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+::
+
+ policy_name="ProhibitSpecificFSVF" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+ op=EXECUTE fsverity_digest=sha256:fd88f2b8824e197f850bf4c5109bea5cf0ee38104f710843bb72da796ba5af9e action=DENY
+ op=EXECUTE boot_verified=TRUE action=ALLOW
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_signature=TRUE action=ALLOW
+
+Additional Information
+----------------------
+
+- `Github Repository <https://github.com/microsoft/ipe>`_
+- `Design Documentation </security/ipe>`_
+
+FAQ
+---
+
+Q:
+ What's the difference between other LSMs which provide a measure of
+ trust-based access control?
+
+A:
+
+ In general, there's two other LSMs that can provide similar functionality:
+ IMA, and Loadpin.
+
+ IMA and IPE are functionally very similar. The significant difference between
+ the two is the policy. [#devdoc]_
+
+ Loadpin and IPE differ fairly dramatically, as Loadpin controls only the IPE
+ equivalent of ``KERNEL_READ``, whereas IPE is capable of controlling execution,
+ on top of ``KERNEL_READ``. The trust model is also different; Loadpin roots its
+ trust in the initial super-block, instead, IPE roots its trust in the kernel
+ itself (via ``SYSTEM_TRUSTED_KEYS``).
+
+-----------
+
+.. [#diglim] 1: https://lore.kernel.org/bpf/4d6932e96d774227b42721d9f645ba51@huawei.com/T/
+
+.. [#interpreters] There is `some interest in solving this issue <https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20220321161557.495388-1-mic@digikod.net/>`_.
+
+.. [#devdoc] Please see `Documentation/security/ipe.rst` for more on this topic.
+
+.. [#fsveritydigest] These hash algorithms are based on values accepted by fsverity-utils;
+ IPE does not impose any restrictions on the digest algorithm itself;
+ thus, this list may be out of date.
+
+.. [#dmveritydigests] These hash algorithms are based on values accepted by dm-verity,
+ specifically ``crypto_alloc_ahash`` in ``verity_ctr``; ``veritysetup``
+ does support more algorithms than the list above. IPE does not impose
+ any restrictions on the digest algorithm itself; thus, this list
+ may be out of date.
+
+.. [#securedigest] Please ensure you are using cryptographically secure hash functions;
+ just because something is *supported* does not mean it is *secure*.
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
index 8090130b544b..d5a23ca0a1b4 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -2164,6 +2164,18 @@
ipcmni_extend [KNL] Extend the maximum number of unique System V
IPC identifiers from 32,768 to 16,777,216.

+ ipe.enforce= [IPE]
+ Format: <bool>
+ Determine whether IPE starts in permissive (0) or
+ enforce (1) mode. The default is enforce.
+
+ ipe.success_audit=
+ [IPE]
+ Format: <bool>
+ Start IPE with success auditing enabled, emitting
+ an audit event when a binary is allowed. The default
+ is 0.
+
irqaffinity= [SMP] Set the default irq affinity mask
The argument is a cpu list, as described above.

diff --git a/Documentation/security/index.rst b/Documentation/security/index.rst
index 6ed8d2fa6f9e..a5248d4fd510 100644
--- a/Documentation/security/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/security/index.rst
@@ -18,3 +18,4 @@ Security Documentation
digsig
landlock
secrets/index
+ ipe
diff --git a/Documentation/security/ipe.rst b/Documentation/security/ipe.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d043a95cd73e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/security/ipe.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,559 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+Integrity Policy Enforcement (IPE) - Kernel Documentation
+=========================================================
+
+.. NOTE::
+
+ This is documentation targeted at developers, instead of administrators.
+ If you're looking for documentation on the usage of IPE, please see
+ `Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst`
+
+Historical Motivation
+---------------------
+
+The original issue that prompted IPE's implementation was the creation
+of a locked-down system. This system would be born-secure, and have
+strong integrity guarantees over both the executable code, and specific
+*data files* on the system, that were critical to its function. These
+specific data files would not be readable unless they passed integrity
+policy. A mandatory access control system would be present, and
+as a result, xattrs would have to be protected. This lead to a selection
+of what would provide the integrity claims. At the time, there were two
+main mechanisms considered that could guarantee integrity for the system
+with these requirements:
+
+ 1. IMA + EVM Signatures
+ 2. DM-Verity
+
+Both options were carefully considered, however the choice to use DM-Verity
+over IMA+EVM as the *integrity mechanism* in the original use case of IPE
+was due to three main reasons:
+
+ 1. Protection of additional attack vectors:
+
+ * With IMA+EVM, without an encryption solution, the system is vulnerable
+ to offline attack against the aforemetioned specific data files.
+
+ Unlike executables, read operations (like those on the protected data
+ files), cannot be enforced to be globally integrtiy verified. This means
+ there must be some form of selector to determine whether a read should
+ enforce the integrity policy, or it should not.
+
+ At the time, this was done with mandatory access control labels. An IMA
+ policy would indicate what labels required integrity verification, which
+ presented an issue: EVM would protect the label, but if an attacker could
+ modify filesystem offline, the attacker could wipe all the xattrs -
+ including the SELinux labels that would be used to determine whether the
+ file should be subject to integrity policy.
+
+ With DM-Verity, as the xattrs are saved as part of the merkel tree, if
+ offline mount occurs against the filesystem protected by dm-verity, the
+ checksum no longer matches and the file fails to be read.
+
+ * As user-mode binaries are paged in Linux, dm-verity also offers the
+ additional protection against a hostile block device. In such an attack,
+ the block device reports the appropriate content for the IMA hash
+ initially, passing the required integrity check. Then, on the page fault
+ that accesses the real data, will report the attacker's payload. Since
+ dm-verity will check the data when the page fault occurs (and the disk
+ access), this attack is mitigated.
+
+ 2. Performance:
+
+ * dm-verity provides integrity verification on demand as blocks are
+ read versus requiring the entire file being read into memory for
+ validation.
+
+ 3. Simplicity of signing:
+
+ * No need for two signatures (IMA, then EVM): one signature covers
+ an entire block device.
+ * Signatures can be stored externally to the filesystem metadata.
+ * The signature supports an x.509-based signing infrastructure.
+
+The next step was to choose a *policy* to enforce the integrity mechanism.
+The minimum requirements for the policy were:
+
+ 1. The policy itself must be integrity verified (preventing trivial
+ attack against it).
+ 2. The policy itself must be resistant to rollback attacks.
+ 3. The policy enforcement must have a permissive-like mode.
+ 4. The policy must be able to be updated, in its entirety, without
+ a reboot.
+ 5. Policy updates must be atomic.
+ 6. The policy must support *revocations* of previously authored
+ components.
+ 7. The policy must be auditable, at any point-of-time.
+
+IMA, as the only integrity policy mechanism at the time, was
+considered against these list of requirements, and did not fulfill
+all of the minimum requirements. Extending IMA to cover these
+requirements was considered, but ultimately discarded for a
+two reasons:
+
+ 1. Regression risk; many of these changes would result in
+ dramatic code changes to IMA, which is already present in the
+ kernel, and therefore might impact users.
+
+ 2. IMA was used in the system for measurement and attestation;
+ separation of measurement policy from local integrity policy
+ enforcement was considered favorable.
+
+Due to these reasons, it was decided that a new LSM should be created,
+whose responsibility would be only the local integrity policy enforcement.
+
+Role and Scope
+--------------
+
+IPE, as its name implies, is fundamentally an integrity policy enforcement
+solution; IPE does not mandate how integrity is provided, but instead
+leaves that decision to the system administrator to set the security bar,
+via the mechanisms that they select that suit their individual needs.
+There are several different integrity solutions that provide a different
+level of security guarantees; and IPE allows sysadmins to express policy for
+theoretically all of them.
+
+IPE additionally does not provide a mechanism that provides integrity
+by itself: there are better layers to create such systems, and a mechanism
+of proving integrity has next to nothing to do with the policy of enforcing
+that integrity claim.
+
+Therefore, IPE was designed around:
+
+ 1. Easy integrations with integrity providers.
+ 2. Ease of use for platform administrators/sysadmins.
+
+Design Rationale:
+-----------------
+
+IPE was designed after evluating existing integrity policy solutions
+in other operating systems and environments. In this survey of other
+implementations, there were a few pitfalls identified:
+
+ 1. Policies were not readable by humans, usually requiring a binary
+ intermediary format.
+ 2. A single, non-customizable action was implicitly taken as a default.
+ 3. Debugging the policy required manual steps to determine what rule was violated.
+ 4. Authoring a policy required an in-depth knowledge of the larger system,
+ or operating system.
+
+IPE attempts to avoid all of these pifalls.
+
+Policy
+~~~~~~
+
+Plain Text
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+IPE's policy is plain-text. This introduces slightly larger policy files than
+other LSMs, but solves two major problems that occurs with some integrity policy
+solutions on other platforms.
+
+The first issue is one of code maintenance and duplication. To author policies,
+the policy has to be some form of string representation (be it structured,
+through XML, JSON, YAML, etcetera), to allow the policy author to understand
+what is being written. In a hypothetical binary policy design, a serializer
+is necessary to write the policy from the human readable form, to the binary
+form, and a deserializer is needed to interpret the binary form into a data
+structure in the kernel.
+
+Eventually, another deserializer will be needed to transform the binary from
+back into the human-readable form with as much information preserved. This is because a
+user of this access control system will have to keep a lookup table of a checksum
+and the original file itself to try to understand what policies have been deployed
+on this system and what policies have not. For a single user, this may be alright,
+as old policies can be discarded almost immediately after the update takes hold.
+For users that manage computer fleets in the thousands, if not hundreds of thousands,
+with multiple different operating systems, and multiple different operational needs,
+this quickly becomes an issue, as stale policies from years ago may be present,
+quickly resulting in the need to recover the policy or fund extensive infrastructure
+to track what each policy contains.
+
+With now three separate serializer/deserializers, maintenance becomes costly. If the
+policy avoids the binary format, there is only one required serializer: from the
+human-readable form to the data structure ine kernel, saving on code maintenance,
+and retaining operability.
+
+The second issue with a binary format is one of transparency. As IPE controls
+access based on the trust of the system's resources, it's policy must also be
+trusted to be changed. This is done through signatures, resulting in needing
+signing as a process. Signing, as a process, is typically done with a
+high security bar, as anything signed can be used to attack integrity
+enforcement systems. It is also important that, when signing something, that
+the signer is aware of what they are signing. A binary policy can cause
+obfuscation of that fact; what signers see is an opaque binary blob. A
+plain-text policy, on the other hand, the signers see the actual policy
+submitted for signing.
+
+Boot Policy
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+IPE, if configured appropriately, is able to enforce a policy as soon as a
+kernel is booted and usermode starts. That implies some level of storage
+of the policy to apply the minute usermode starts. Generally, that storage
+can be handled in one of three ways:
+
+ 1. The policy file(s) live on disk and the kernel loads the policy prior
+ to an code path that would result in an enforcement decision.
+ 2. The policy file(s) are passed by the bootloader to the kernel, who
+ parses the policy.
+ 3. There is a policy file that is compiled into the kernel that is
+ parsed and enforced on initialization.
+
+The first option has problems: the kernel reading files from userspace
+is typically discouraged and very uncommon in the kernel.
+
+The second option also has problems: Linux supports a variety of bootloaders
+across its entire ecosystem - every bootloader would have to support this
+new methodology or there must be an independent source. It would likely
+result in more drastic changes to the kernel startup than necessary.
+
+The third option is the best but it's important to be aware that the policy
+will take disk space against the kernel it's compiled in. It's important to
+keep this policy generalized enough that userspace can load a new, more
+complicated policy, but restrictive enough that it will not overauthorize
+and cause security issues.
+
+The initramfs provides a way that this bootup path can be established. The
+kernel starts with a minimal policy, that trusts the initramfs only. Inside
+the initramfs, when the real rootfs is mounted, but not yet transferred to,
+it deploys and activates a policy that trusts the new root filesystem.
+This prevents overauthorization at any step, and keeps the kernel policy
+to a minimal size.
+
+Startup
+^^^^^^^
+
+Not every system, however starts with an initramfs, so the startup policy
+compiled into the kernel will need some flexibility to express how trust
+is established for the next phase of the bootup. To this end, if we just
+make the compiled-in policy a full IPE policy, it allows system builders
+to express the first stage bootup requirements appropriately.
+
+Updatable, Rebootless Policy
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As requirements change over time (vulnerabilities are found in previously
+trusted applcations, keys roll, etcetera). Updating a kernel to change the
+meet those security goals is not always a suitable option, as updates are not
+always risk-free, and blocking a security update leaves systems vulnerable.
+This means IPE requires a policy that can be completely updated (allowing
+revocations of existing policy) from a source external to the kernel (allowing
+policies to be updated without updating the kernel).
+
+Additionally, since the kernel is stateless between invocations, and reading
+policy files off the disk from kernel space is a bad idea(tm), then the
+policy updates have to be done rebootlessly.
+
+To allow an update from an external source, it could be potentially malicious,
+so this policy needs to have a way to be identified as trusted. This is
+done via a signature chained to a trust source in the kernel. Arbitrarily,
+this is the ``SYSTEM_TRUSTED_KEYRING``, a keyring that is initially
+populated at kernel compile-time, as this matches the expectation that the
+author of the compiled-in policy described above is the same entity that can
+deploy policy updates.
+
+Anti-Rollback / Anti-Replay
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Over time, vulnerabilities are found and trusted resources may not be
+trusted anymore. IPE's policy has no exception to this. There can be
+instances where a mistaken policy author deploys an insecure policy,
+before correcting it with a secure policy.
+
+Assuming that as soon as the insecure policy is signed, and an attacker
+acquires the insecure policy, IPE needs a way to prevent rollback
+from the secure policy update to the insecure policy update.
+
+Initially, IPE's policy can have a policy_version that states the
+minimum required version across all policies that can be active on
+the system. This will prevent rollback while the system is live.
+
+.. WARNING::
+
+ However, since the kernel is stateless across boots, this policy
+ version will be reset to 0.0.0 on the next boot. System builders
+ need to be aware of this, and ensure the new secure policies are
+ deployed ASAP after a boot to ensure that the window of
+ opportunity is minimal for an attacker to deploy the insecure policy.
+
+Implicit Actions:
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The issue of impicit actions only becomes visible when you consider
+a mixed level of security bars across multiple operations in a system.
+For example, consider a system that has strong integrity guarantees
+over both the executable code, and specific *data files* on the system,
+that were critical to its function. In this system, three types of policies
+are possible:
+
+ 1. A policy in which failure to match any rules in the policy results
+ in the action being denied.
+ 2. A policy in which failure to match any rules in the policy results
+ in the action being allowed.
+ 3. A policy in which the action taken when no rules are matched is
+ specified by the policy author.
+
+The first option could make a policy like this::
+
+ op=EXECUTE integrity_verified=YES action=DENY
+
+In the example system, this works well for the executables, as all
+executables should have integrity guarantees, without exception. The
+issue becomes with the second requirement about specific data files.
+This would result in a policy like this (assuming each line is
+evaluated in order)::
+
+ op=EXECUTE integrity_verified=YES action=DENY
+
+ op=READ integrity_verified=NO label=critical_t action=DENY
+ op=READ action=ALLOW
+
+This is somewhat clear if you read the docs, understand the policy
+is executed in order and that the default is a denial; however, the
+last line effectively changes that default to an ALLOW. This is
+required, because in a realistic system, there are some unverified
+reads (imagine appending to a log file).
+
+The second option, matching no rules results in an allow, is clearer
+for the specific data files::
+
+ op=READ integrity_verified=NO label=critical_t action=DENY
+
+And, like the first option, falls short with the opposite scenario,
+effectively needing to override the default::
+
+ op=EXECUTE integrity_verified=YES action=ALLOW
+ op=EXECUTE action=DENY
+
+ op=READ integrity_verified=NO label=critical_t action=DENY
+
+This leaves the third option. Instead of making users be clever
+and override the default with an empty rule, force the end-user
+to consider what the appropriate default should be for their
+scenario and explicitly state it::
+
+ DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=DENY
+ op=EXECUTE integrity_verified=YES action=ALLOW
+
+ DEFAULT op=READ action=ALLOW
+ op=READ integrity_verified=NO label=critical_t action=DENY
+
+Policy Debugging:
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When developing a policy, it is useful to know what line of the policy
+is being violated to reduce debugging costs; narrowing the scope of the
+investigation to the exact line that resulted in the action. Some integrity
+policy systems do not provide this information, instead providing the
+information that was used in the evaluation. This then requires a correlation
+with the policy to evaluate what went wrong.
+
+Instead, IPE just emits the rule that was matched. This limits the scope
+of the investigation to the exact policy line (in the case of a specific
+rule), or the section (in the case of a DEFAULT). This decreases iteration
+and investigation times when policy failures are observed while evaluating
+policies.
+
+IPE's policy engine is also designed in a way that it makes it obvious to
+a human of how to investigate a policy failure. Each line is evaluated in
+the sequence that is written, so the algorithm is very simple to follow
+for humans to recreate the steps and could have caused the failure. In other
+surveyed systems, optimizations occur (sorting rules, for instance) when loading
+the policy. In those systems, it requires multiple steps to debug, and the
+algorithm may not always be clear to the end-user without reading the code first.
+
+Simplified Policy:
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Finally, IPE's policy is designed for sysadmins, not kernel developers. Instead
+of covering individual LSM hooks (or syscalls), IPE covers operations. This means
+instead of sysadmins needing to know that the syscalls ``mmap``, ``mprotect``,
+``execve``, and ``uselib`` must have rules protecting them, they must simple know
+that they want to restrict code execution. This limits the amount of bypasses that
+could occur due to a lack of knowledge of the underlying system; whereas the
+maintainers of IPE, being kernel developers can make the correct choice to determine
+whether something maps to these operations, and under what conditions.
+
+Implementation Notes
+--------------------
+
+Context
+~~~~~~~
+
+An ``ipe_context`` structure represent a context in which IPE can be enforced.
+It contains all the typical values that one would expect to be global:
+
+ 1. Enforce/Permissive State
+ 2. Active Policy
+ 3. List of Policies
+ 4. Success Auditing State
+
+A context is created at boot time and attached to the ``task_struct`` as a
+security blob. All new ``task_struct`` will inherit the original ``ipe_context``
+that the system boots with. This structure is reference counted.
+
+Initially, a system will only ever have one context; for ``init``, and since
+all userspace processes are descendents of ``init``, all of usermode will have
+this execution context.
+
+This architecture has some advantages - namely, it allows for a natural
+extension for IPE to create new contexts, such as applying a different
+active policy to a descendent process.
+
+Anonymous Memory
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Anonymous memory isn't treated any differently from any other access in IPE.
+When anonymous memory is mapped with ``+X``, it still comes into the ``file_mmap``
+or ``file_mprotect`` hook, but with a ``NULL`` file object. This is submitted to
+the evaluation, like any other file, however, all current trust mechanisms will
+return false as there is nothing to evaluate. This means anonymous memory
+execution is subject to whatever the ``DEFAULT`` is for ``EXECUTE``.
+
+.. WARNING::
+
+ This also occurs with the ``kernel_load_data`` hook, which is used by signed
+ and compressed kernel modules. Using signed and compressed kernel modules with
+ IPE will always result in the ``DEFAULT`` action for ``KMODULE``.
+
+Policy Parser
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The policy parser is the staple of IPE's functionality, providing a
+modular way to introduce new integrations. As such, it's functionality
+is divided into 3 passes. This has the benefit of clearly defined pre
+and post-condition states after each pass, providing debugging benefits
+when something goes wrong.
+
+In pass1, the policy is transformed into a 2D, jagged, array of tokens,
+where a token is defined as a "key=value" pair, or a singular token,
+for example, "DEFAULT". Quoted values are parsed as a single value-pair,
+which is why ``<linux/parser.h>`` is insufficient - it does not
+understand quoted values.
+
+In pass2, the jagged array produced in pass1 is partially ingested,
+creating a partial policy where no rules have been parsed. Metadata
+and references are available within that partial policy that can
+be consumed in pass3.
+
+Examples of parsing that would be done in pass2::
+
+ policy_name="my-policy" policy_version=0.0.0
+ DEFAULT action=DENY
+
+In pass3, the remaining lines in the jagged array produced in pass1 and
+partially consumed in pass2 are consumed completely. This results in
+parsing all the rules in the policy. Pass3 can leverage the data created
+in pass2.
+
+Example lines parsed in pass3::
+
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_signature=TRUE action=DENY
+
+A rule is strictly defined as: starts with the ``op`` token and ends with
+the ``action`` token.
+
+After this pass, a policy is deemed fully constructed but not yet valid,
+as there could be missing elements (such as a required DEFAULT for all
+actions, missing a policy_name), etcetera.
+
+The purpose in the division of pass2 and pass3 is to allow for
+declarations in IPE's syntax. For example, in the future, if we were
+to introduce this syntax::
+
+ CERTIFICATE=FakeCert thumbprint=DEADBEEF CN="Contoso"
+
+And use it like so::
+
+ op=EXECUTE dmverity_signature=FakeCert action=ALLOW
+
+The ``CERTIFICATE`` lines can be grouped together at any place in the policy.
+
+After pass3, an IPE policy can still be technically invalid for use, as
+a policy can be lacking required elements to eliminated the possibility
+of undefined or unknown behavior.
+
+A concrete example is when a policy does not define a default action for
+all possibilities::
+
+ DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=ALLOW
+
+At this point, while the policy is syntactically valid, it is not
+semantically valid - it does not contain enough information to
+determine what should be done for an operation other than
+``EXECUTE``. As IPE's design explicitly prohibits the implicit
+setting of a ``DEFAULT``, it is important to avoid cases like these.
+
+To resolve all these cases, a final check on the policy is done to ensure
+it valid for use.
+
+In all cases, the parser is the number one bottleneck when it comes to
+IPE's performance, but has the benefit of executing infrequently, and
+as a direct consequence of user-input.
+
+Module vs Parser
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A "module", "trust provider", or "property" as defined in IPE's code is an
+integration with an external subsystem that provides a way to identify a
+resource as trusted. It's the code that powers the key=value pairs in between
+the ``op`` token and the ``action`` token. These are called in pass3 when
+parsing a policy (via the ``parse`` method), and during evaluation when
+evaluating a access attempt (via the ``eval`` method). These discrete modules
+are single files in ``security/ipe/modules`` and are versioned independently.
+The documentation in the admin guide can be used to cross reference which
+version supports which syntax.
+
+A "parser", on the other hand is a discrete unit of code that is *only*
+used when parsing a policy in pass2. The intention is to make it easy
+to introduce statements, like the ``DEFAULT`` statement::
+
+ DEFAULT op=EXECUTE action=ALLOW
+ DEFAULT action=ALLOW
+
+or, the policy header::
+
+ policy_name="MyPolicy" policy_version=0.0.0
+
+These individual fragments of code gain access to manipulating IPE's policy
+structure directly, as opposed to the opaque ``void *`` given to modules.
+
+Securityfs Interface
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The per-policy securityfs tree is somewhat unique. For example, for
+a standard securityfs policy tree::
+
+ MyPolicy
+ |- active
+ |- raw
+ |- policy
+ |- name
+ |- version
+ |- update
+
+The policy is stored in the ``->i_private`` data of the MyPolicy inode,
+while each child's ``->i_private``, it stores the MyPolicy inode. This
+simplifies policy updates massively, as the alternative designs are to:
+
+ 1. Use d_parent, which has potential issues with flexibility, if there
+ eventually becomes a subdirectory underneath MyPolicy; as it's unclear
+ how many levels of ``d_parent`` you have to iterate up to.
+
+ 2. Store the policy data in each inode's ``->i_private``. This has issues
+ when it comes to updating a policy - every update needs to cascade to
+ each ``->i_private``, and if it fails, for whatever reason, the
+ operation has to be reverted on each inode.
+
+With this implementation, you can solve the flexibility problem of 1, as
+now when you create a theoretical subdirectory you just set the
+``->i_private`` data appropriately. You also solve the update problem of
+two, as you simply update or revert on the one inode that all other inodes
+reference.
+
+Tests
+-----
+
+IPE has KUnit Tests, testing primarily the parser and the context structures.
diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index f7333d07a9df..e03b6c413baf 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -9797,6 +9797,8 @@ INTEGRITY POLICY ENFORCEMENT (IPE)
M: Deven Bowers <deven.desai@linux.microsoft.com>
M: Fan Wu <wufan@linux.microsoft.com>
S: Supported
+F: Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/ipe.rst
+F: Documentation/security/ipe.rst
F: scripts/ipe/
F: security/ipe/

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2.25.1
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