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Subject[PATCH 4.19 232/234] tcp: increase source port perturb table to 2^16
From: Willy Tarreau <>

commit 4c2c8f03a5ab7cb04ec64724d7d176d00bcc91e5 upstream.

Moshe Kol, Amit Klein, and Yossi Gilad reported being able to accurately
identify a client by forcing it to emit only 40 times more connections
than there are entries in the table_perturb[] table. The previous two
improvements consisting in resalting the secret every 10s and adding
randomness to each port selection only slightly improved the situation,
and the current value of 2^8 was too small as it's not very difficult
to make a client emit 10k connections in less than 10 seconds.

Thus we're increasing the perturb table from 2^8 to 2^16 so that the
same precision now requires 2.6M connections, which is more difficult in
this time frame and harder to hide as a background activity. The impact
is that the table now uses 256 kB instead of 1 kB, which could mostly
affect devices making frequent outgoing connections. However such
components usually target a small set of destinations (load balancers,
database clients, perf assessment tools), and in practice only a few
entries will be visited, like before.

A live test at 1 million connections per second showed no performance
difference from the previous value.

Reported-by: Moshe Kol <>
Reported-by: Yossi Gilad <>
Reported-by: Amit Klein <>
Reviewed-by: Eric Dumazet <>
Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau <>
Signed-off-by: Jakub Kicinski <>
Signed-off-by: Ben Hutchings <>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c | 9 +++++----
1 file changed, 5 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

--- a/net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c
+++ b/net/ipv4/inet_hashtables.c
@@ -718,11 +718,12 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(inet_unhash);
* Note that we use 32bit integers (vs RFC 'short integers')
* because 2^16 is not a multiple of num_ephemeral and this
* property might be used by clever attacker.
- * RFC claims using TABLE_LENGTH=10 buckets gives an improvement,
- * we use 256 instead to really give more isolation and
- * privacy, this only consumes 1 KB of kernel memory.
+ * RFC claims using TABLE_LENGTH=10 buckets gives an improvement, though
+ * attacks were since demonstrated, thus we use 65536 instead to really
+ * give more isolation and privacy, at the expense of 256kB of kernel
+ * memory.
static u32 *table_perturb;

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