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Subject[PATCH 2/3] mm,thp,rmap: subpages_mapcount COMPOUND_MAPPED if PMD-mapped
Can the lock_compound_mapcount() bit_spin_lock apparatus be removed now?
Yes. Not by atomic64_t or cmpxchg games, those get difficult on 32-bit;
but if we slightly abuse subpages_mapcount by additionally demanding that
one bit be set there when the compound page is PMD-mapped, then a cascade
of two atomic ops is able to maintain the stats without bit_spin_lock.

This is harder to reason about than when bit_spin_locked, but I believe
safe; and no drift in stats detected when testing. When there are racing
removes and adds, of course the sequence of operations is less well-
defined; but each operation on subpages_mapcount is atomically good.
What might be disastrous, is if subpages_mapcount could ever fleetingly
appear negative: but the pte lock (or pmd lock) these rmap functions are
called under, ensures that a last remove cannot race ahead of a first add.

Continue to make an exception for hugetlb (PageHuge) pages, though that
exception can be easily removed by a further commit if necessary: leave
subpages_mapcount 0, don't bother with COMPOUND_MAPPED in its case, just
carry on checking compound_mapcount too in folio_mapped(), page_mapped().

Evidence is that this way goes slightly faster than the previous
implementation in all cases (pmds after ptes now taking around 103ms);
and relieves us of worrying about contention on the bit_spin_lock.

Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
---
Documentation/mm/transhuge.rst | 7 +-
include/linux/mm.h | 19 ++++-
include/linux/rmap.h | 12 ++--
mm/debug.c | 2 +-
mm/rmap.c | 124 +++++++--------------------------
5 files changed, 52 insertions(+), 112 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/mm/transhuge.rst b/Documentation/mm/transhuge.rst
index af4c9d70321d..ec3dc5b04226 100644
--- a/Documentation/mm/transhuge.rst
+++ b/Documentation/mm/transhuge.rst
@@ -118,15 +118,14 @@ pages:
succeeds on tail pages.

- map/unmap of PMD entry for the whole compound page increment/decrement
- ->compound_mapcount, stored in the first tail page of the compound page.
+ ->compound_mapcount, stored in the first tail page of the compound page;
+ and also increment/decrement ->subpages_mapcount (also in the first tail)
+ by COMPOUND_MAPPED when compound_mapcount goes from -1 to 0 or 0 to -1.

- map/unmap of sub-pages with PTE entry increment/decrement ->_mapcount
on relevant sub-page of the compound page, and also increment/decrement
->subpages_mapcount, stored in first tail page of the compound page, when
_mapcount goes from -1 to 0 or 0 to -1: counting sub-pages mapped by PTE.
- In order to have race-free accounting of sub-pages mapped, changes to
- sub-page ->_mapcount, ->subpages_mapcount and ->compound_mapcount are
- are all locked by bit_spin_lock of PG_locked in the first tail ->flags.

split_huge_page internally has to distribute the refcounts in the head
page to the tail pages before clearing all PG_head/tail bits from the page
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index c9e46d4d46f2..a2bfb5e4be62 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -828,7 +828,16 @@ static inline int head_compound_mapcount(struct page *head)
}

/*
- * Number of sub-pages mapped by PTE, does not include compound mapcount.
+ * If a 16GB hugetlb page were mapped by PTEs of all of its 4kB sub-pages,
+ * its subpages_mapcount would be 0x400000: choose the COMPOUND_MAPPED bit
+ * above that range, instead of 2*(PMD_SIZE/PAGE_SIZE). Hugetlb currently
+ * leaves subpages_mapcount at 0, but avoid surprise if it participates later.
+ */
+#define COMPOUND_MAPPED 0x800000
+#define SUBPAGES_MAPPED (COMPOUND_MAPPED - 1)
+
+/*
+ * Number of sub-pages mapped by PTE, plus COMPOUND_MAPPED if compound mapped.
* Must be called only on head of compound page.
*/
static inline int head_subpages_mapcount(struct page *head)
@@ -893,8 +902,12 @@ static inline int total_mapcount(struct page *page)

static inline bool folio_large_is_mapped(struct folio *folio)
{
- return atomic_read(folio_mapcount_ptr(folio)) +
- atomic_read(folio_subpages_mapcount_ptr(folio)) >= 0;
+ /*
+ * Reading folio_mapcount_ptr() below could be omitted if hugetlb
+ * participated in incrementing subpages_mapcount when compound mapped.
+ */
+ return atomic_read(folio_mapcount_ptr(folio)) >= 0 ||
+ atomic_read(folio_subpages_mapcount_ptr(folio)) > 0;
}

/**
diff --git a/include/linux/rmap.h b/include/linux/rmap.h
index 860f558126ac..bd3504d11b15 100644
--- a/include/linux/rmap.h
+++ b/include/linux/rmap.h
@@ -204,14 +204,14 @@ void hugepage_add_anon_rmap(struct page *, struct vm_area_struct *,
void hugepage_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *, struct vm_area_struct *,
unsigned long address);

-void page_dup_compound_rmap(struct page *page);
+static inline void __page_dup_rmap(struct page *page, bool compound)
+{
+ atomic_inc(compound ? compound_mapcount_ptr(page) : &page->_mapcount);
+}

static inline void page_dup_file_rmap(struct page *page, bool compound)
{
- if (likely(!compound /* page is mapped by PTE */))
- atomic_inc(&page->_mapcount);
- else
- page_dup_compound_rmap(page);
+ __page_dup_rmap(page, compound);
}

/**
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@ static inline int page_try_dup_anon_rmap(struct page *page, bool compound,
* the page R/O into both processes.
*/
dup:
- page_dup_file_rmap(page, compound);
+ __page_dup_rmap(page, compound);
return 0;
}

diff --git a/mm/debug.c b/mm/debug.c
index 7f8e5f744e42..1ef2ff6a05cb 100644
--- a/mm/debug.c
+++ b/mm/debug.c
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ static void __dump_page(struct page *page)
pr_warn("head:%p order:%u compound_mapcount:%d subpages_mapcount:%d compound_pincount:%d\n",
head, compound_order(head),
head_compound_mapcount(head),
- head_subpages_mapcount(head),
+ head_subpages_mapcount(head) & SUBPAGES_MAPPED,
head_compound_pincount(head));
}

diff --git a/mm/rmap.c b/mm/rmap.c
index 66be8cae640f..5e4ce0a6d6f1 100644
--- a/mm/rmap.c
+++ b/mm/rmap.c
@@ -1085,38 +1085,6 @@ int pfn_mkclean_range(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long nr_pages, pgoff_t pgoff,
return page_vma_mkclean_one(&pvmw);
}

-struct compound_mapcounts {
- unsigned int compound_mapcount;
- unsigned int subpages_mapcount;
-};
-
-/*
- * lock_compound_mapcounts() first locks, then copies subpages_mapcount and
- * compound_mapcount from head[1].compound_mapcount and subpages_mapcount,
- * converting from struct page's internal representation to logical count
- * (that is, adding 1 to compound_mapcount to hide its offset by -1).
- */
-static void lock_compound_mapcounts(struct page *head,
- struct compound_mapcounts *local)
-{
- bit_spin_lock(PG_locked, &head[1].flags);
- local->compound_mapcount = atomic_read(compound_mapcount_ptr(head)) + 1;
- local->subpages_mapcount = atomic_read(subpages_mapcount_ptr(head));
-}
-
-/*
- * After caller has updated subpage._mapcount, local subpages_mapcount and
- * local compound_mapcount, as necessary, unlock_compound_mapcounts() converts
- * and copies them back to the compound head[1] fields, and then unlocks.
- */
-static void unlock_compound_mapcounts(struct page *head,
- struct compound_mapcounts *local)
-{
- atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(head), local->compound_mapcount - 1);
- atomic_set(subpages_mapcount_ptr(head), local->subpages_mapcount);
- bit_spin_unlock(PG_locked, &head[1].flags);
-}
-
int total_compound_mapcount(struct page *head)
{
int mapcount = head_compound_mapcount(head);
@@ -1124,7 +1092,7 @@ int total_compound_mapcount(struct page *head)
int i;

/* In the common case, avoid the loop when no subpages mapped by PTE */
- if (head_subpages_mapcount(head) == 0)
+ if ((head_subpages_mapcount(head) & SUBPAGES_MAPPED) == 0)
return mapcount;
/*
* Add all the PTE mappings of those subpages mapped by PTE.
@@ -1140,35 +1108,6 @@ int total_compound_mapcount(struct page *head)
return mapcount;
}

-/*
- * page_dup_compound_rmap(), used when copying mm,
- * provides a simple example of using lock_ and unlock_compound_mapcounts().
- */
-void page_dup_compound_rmap(struct page *head)
-{
- struct compound_mapcounts mapcounts;
-
- /*
- * Hugetlb pages could use lock_compound_mapcounts(), like THPs do;
- * but at present they are still being managed by atomic operations:
- * which are likely to be somewhat faster, so don't rush to convert
- * them over without evaluating the effect.
- *
- * Note that hugetlb does not call page_add_file_rmap():
- * here is where hugetlb shared page mapcount is raised.
- */
- if (PageHuge(head)) {
- atomic_inc(compound_mapcount_ptr(head));
-
- } else if (PageTransHuge(head)) {
- /* That test is redundant: it's for safety or to optimize out */
-
- lock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
- mapcounts.compound_mapcount++;
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
- }
-}
-
/**
* page_move_anon_rmap - move a page to our anon_vma
* @page: the page to move to our anon_vma
@@ -1278,7 +1217,7 @@ static void __page_check_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
void page_add_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address, rmap_t flags)
{
- struct compound_mapcounts mapcounts;
+ atomic_t *mapped;
int nr = 0, nr_pmdmapped = 0;
bool compound = flags & RMAP_COMPOUND;
bool first;
@@ -1290,24 +1229,20 @@ void page_add_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
first = atomic_inc_and_test(&page->_mapcount);
nr = first;
if (first && PageCompound(page)) {
- struct page *head = compound_head(page);
-
- lock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
- mapcounts.subpages_mapcount++;
- nr = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(compound_head(page));
+ nr = atomic_inc_return_relaxed(mapped);
+ nr = !(nr & COMPOUND_MAPPED);
}
} else if (PageTransHuge(page)) {
/* That test is redundant: it's for safety or to optimize out */

- lock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
- first = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
- mapcounts.compound_mapcount++;
+ first = atomic_inc_and_test(compound_mapcount_ptr(page));
if (first) {
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(page);
+ nr = atomic_add_return_relaxed(COMPOUND_MAPPED, mapped);
nr_pmdmapped = thp_nr_pages(page);
- nr = nr_pmdmapped - mapcounts.subpages_mapcount;
+ nr = nr_pmdmapped - (nr & SUBPAGES_MAPPED);
}
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
}

VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!first && (flags & RMAP_EXCLUSIVE), page);
@@ -1360,6 +1295,7 @@ void page_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageTransHuge(page), page);
/* increment count (starts at -1) */
atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
+ atomic_set(subpages_mapcount_ptr(page), COMPOUND_MAPPED);
nr = thp_nr_pages(page);
__mod_lruvec_page_state(page, NR_ANON_THPS, nr);
}
@@ -1379,7 +1315,7 @@ void page_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
void page_add_file_rmap(struct page *page,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, bool compound)
{
- struct compound_mapcounts mapcounts;
+ atomic_t *mapped;
int nr = 0, nr_pmdmapped = 0;
bool first;

@@ -1390,24 +1326,20 @@ void page_add_file_rmap(struct page *page,
first = atomic_inc_and_test(&page->_mapcount);
nr = first;
if (first && PageCompound(page)) {
- struct page *head = compound_head(page);
-
- lock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
- mapcounts.subpages_mapcount++;
- nr = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(compound_head(page));
+ nr = atomic_inc_return_relaxed(mapped);
+ nr = !(nr & COMPOUND_MAPPED);
}
} else if (PageTransHuge(page)) {
/* That test is redundant: it's for safety or to optimize out */

- lock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
- first = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
- mapcounts.compound_mapcount++;
+ first = atomic_inc_and_test(compound_mapcount_ptr(page));
if (first) {
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(page);
+ nr = atomic_add_return_relaxed(COMPOUND_MAPPED, mapped);
nr_pmdmapped = thp_nr_pages(page);
- nr = nr_pmdmapped - mapcounts.subpages_mapcount;
+ nr = nr_pmdmapped - (nr & SUBPAGES_MAPPED);
}
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
}

if (nr_pmdmapped)
@@ -1431,7 +1363,7 @@ void page_add_file_rmap(struct page *page,
void page_remove_rmap(struct page *page,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, bool compound)
{
- struct compound_mapcounts mapcounts;
+ atomic_t *mapped;
int nr = 0, nr_pmdmapped = 0;
bool last;

@@ -1451,24 +1383,20 @@ void page_remove_rmap(struct page *page,
last = atomic_add_negative(-1, &page->_mapcount);
nr = last;
if (last && PageCompound(page)) {
- struct page *head = compound_head(page);
-
- lock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
- mapcounts.subpages_mapcount--;
- nr = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(head, &mapcounts);
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(compound_head(page));
+ nr = atomic_dec_return_relaxed(mapped);
+ nr = !(nr & COMPOUND_MAPPED);
}
} else if (PageTransHuge(page)) {
/* That test is redundant: it's for safety or to optimize out */

- lock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
- mapcounts.compound_mapcount--;
- last = !mapcounts.compound_mapcount;
+ last = atomic_add_negative(-1, compound_mapcount_ptr(page));
if (last) {
+ mapped = subpages_mapcount_ptr(page);
+ nr = atomic_sub_return_relaxed(COMPOUND_MAPPED, mapped);
nr_pmdmapped = thp_nr_pages(page);
- nr = nr_pmdmapped - mapcounts.subpages_mapcount;
+ nr = nr_pmdmapped - (nr & SUBPAGES_MAPPED);
}
- unlock_compound_mapcounts(page, &mapcounts);
}

if (nr_pmdmapped) {
--
2.35.3
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