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Subject[PATCH 12/17] Kbuild: add Rust support
Date
From: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>

Having all the new files in place, we now enable Rust support
in the build system, including `Kconfig` entries related to Rust,
the Rust configuration printer, the target definition files,
the version detection script and a few other bits.

In the future, we will likely want to generate the target files
on the fly via a script.

Co-developed-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Signed-off-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Co-developed-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Signed-off-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Co-developed-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Co-developed-by: Boqun Feng <boqun.feng@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Boqun Feng <boqun.feng@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Sumera Priyadarsini <sylphrenadin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Sumera Priyadarsini <sylphrenadin@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Co-developed-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Signed-off-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Co-developed-by: Boris-Chengbiao Zhou <bobo1239@web.de>
Signed-off-by: Boris-Chengbiao Zhou <bobo1239@web.de>
Co-developed-by: Fox Chen <foxhlchen@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Fox Chen <foxhlchen@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Ayaan Zaidi <zaidi.ayaan@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Ayaan Zaidi <zaidi.ayaan@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Douglas Su <d0u9.su@outlook.com>
Signed-off-by: Douglas Su <d0u9.su@outlook.com>
Co-developed-by: Yuki Okushi <jtitor@2k36.org>
Signed-off-by: Yuki Okushi <jtitor@2k36.org>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
---
.gitignore | 5 +
.rustfmt.toml | 12 ++
Documentation/process/changes.rst | 13 ++
Makefile | 159 ++++++++++++++-
arch/arm/rust/target.json | 28 +++
arch/arm64/rust/target.json | 35 ++++
arch/powerpc/rust/target.json | 30 +++
arch/riscv/Makefile | 1 +
arch/riscv/rust/rv32ima.json | 37 ++++
arch/riscv/rust/rv32imac.json | 37 ++++
arch/riscv/rust/rv64ima.json | 37 ++++
arch/riscv/rust/rv64imac.json | 37 ++++
arch/x86/rust/target.json | 37 ++++
init/Kconfig | 28 +++
lib/Kconfig.debug | 144 ++++++++++++++
rust/.gitignore | 6 +
rust/Makefile | 316 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
rust/bindgen_parameters | 13 ++
scripts/Makefile.build | 22 +++
scripts/Makefile.lib | 12 ++
scripts/kconfig/confdata.c | 67 ++++++-
scripts/rust-version.sh | 31 +++
22 files changed, 1099 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 .rustfmt.toml
create mode 100644 arch/arm/rust/target.json
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/rust/target.json
create mode 100644 arch/powerpc/rust/target.json
create mode 100644 arch/riscv/rust/rv32ima.json
create mode 100644 arch/riscv/rust/rv32imac.json
create mode 100644 arch/riscv/rust/rv64ima.json
create mode 100644 arch/riscv/rust/rv64imac.json
create mode 100644 arch/x86/rust/target.json
create mode 100644 rust/.gitignore
create mode 100644 rust/Makefile
create mode 100644 rust/bindgen_parameters
create mode 100755 scripts/rust-version.sh

diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 7afd412dadd..48c68948f47 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@
*.o
*.o.*
*.patch
+*.rmeta
*.s
*.so
*.so.dbg
@@ -96,6 +97,7 @@ modules.order
!.gitattributes
!.gitignore
!.mailmap
+!.rustfmt.toml

#
# Generated include files
@@ -161,3 +163,6 @@ x509.genkey

# Documentation toolchain
sphinx_*/
+
+# Rust analyzer configuration
+/rust-project.json
diff --git a/.rustfmt.toml b/.rustfmt.toml
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..4fea7c464f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.rustfmt.toml
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+edition = "2018"
+newline_style = "Unix"
+
+# Unstable options that help catching some mistakes in formatting and that we may want to enable
+# when they become stable.
+#
+# They are kept here since they are useful to run from time to time.
+#format_code_in_doc_comments = true
+#reorder_impl_items = true
+#comment_width = 100
+#wrap_comments = true
+#normalize_comments = true
diff --git a/Documentation/process/changes.rst b/Documentation/process/changes.rst
index d3a8557b66a..7654a7105dc 100644
--- a/Documentation/process/changes.rst
+++ b/Documentation/process/changes.rst
@@ -26,11 +26,18 @@ running a Linux kernel. Also, not all tools are necessary on all
systems; obviously, if you don't have any PC Card hardware, for example,
you probably needn't concern yourself with pcmciautils.

+Furthermore, note that newer versions of the Rust toolchain may or may not work
+because, for the moment, we depend on some unstable features. Thus, unless you
+know what you are doing, use the exact version listed here. Please see
+:ref:`Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst <rust_quick_start>` for details.
+
====================== =============== ========================================
Program Minimal version Command to check the version
====================== =============== ========================================
GNU C 4.9 gcc --version
Clang/LLVM (optional) 10.0.1 clang --version
+rustc (optional) 1.54.0-beta.1 rustc --version
+bindgen (optional) 0.56.0 bindgen --version
GNU make 3.81 make --version
binutils 2.23 ld -v
flex 2.5.35 flex --version
@@ -329,6 +336,12 @@ Sphinx
Please see :ref:`sphinx_install` in :ref:`Documentation/doc-guide/sphinx.rst <sphinxdoc>`
for details about Sphinx requirements.

+rustdoc
+-------
+
+``rustdoc`` is used to generate Rust documentation. Please see
+:ref:`Documentation/rust/docs.rst <rust_docs>` for more information.
+
Getting updated software
========================

diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 6e823d8bd64..c814b209b6c 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -120,6 +120,13 @@ endif

export KBUILD_CHECKSRC

+# Enable "clippy" (a linter) as part of the Rust compilation.
+#
+# Use 'make CLIPPY=1' to enable it.
+ifeq ("$(origin CLIPPY)", "command line")
+ KBUILD_CLIPPY := $(CLIPPY)
+endif
+
# Use make M=dir or set the environment variable KBUILD_EXTMOD to specify the
# directory of external module to build. Setting M= takes precedence.
ifeq ("$(origin M)", "command line")
@@ -263,7 +270,7 @@ no-dot-config-targets := $(clean-targets) \
cscope gtags TAGS tags help% %docs check% coccicheck \
$(version_h) headers headers_% archheaders archscripts \
%asm-generic kernelversion %src-pkg dt_binding_check \
- outputmakefile
+ outputmakefile rustfmt rustfmtcheck
# Installation targets should not require compiler. Unfortunately, vdso_install
# is an exception where build artifacts may be updated. This must be fixed.
no-compiler-targets := $(no-dot-config-targets) install dtbs_install \
@@ -452,6 +459,12 @@ OBJDUMP = $(CROSS_COMPILE)objdump
READELF = $(CROSS_COMPILE)readelf
STRIP = $(CROSS_COMPILE)strip
endif
+RUSTC = rustc
+RUSTDOC = rustdoc
+RUSTFMT = rustfmt
+CLIPPY_DRIVER = clippy-driver
+BINDGEN = bindgen
+CARGO = cargo
PAHOLE = pahole
RESOLVE_BTFIDS = $(objtree)/tools/bpf/resolve_btfids/resolve_btfids
LEX = flex
@@ -475,9 +488,11 @@ CHECKFLAGS := -D__linux__ -Dlinux -D__STDC__ -Dunix -D__unix__ \
-Wbitwise -Wno-return-void -Wno-unknown-attribute $(CF)
NOSTDINC_FLAGS :=
CFLAGS_MODULE =
+RUSTFLAGS_MODULE =
AFLAGS_MODULE =
LDFLAGS_MODULE =
CFLAGS_KERNEL =
+RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL =
AFLAGS_KERNEL =
LDFLAGS_vmlinux =

@@ -506,15 +521,41 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS := -Wall -Wundef -Werror=strict-prototypes -Wno-trigraphs \
-Werror=return-type -Wno-format-security \
-std=gnu89
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS := -D__KERNEL__
+KBUILD_RUST_TARGET := $(srctree)/arch/$(SRCARCH)/rust/target.json
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS := --emit=dep-info,obj,metadata --edition=2018 \
+ -Cpanic=abort -Cembed-bitcode=n -Clto=n -Crpath=n \
+ -Cforce-unwind-tables=n -Ccodegen-units=1 \
+ -Zbinary_dep_depinfo=y -Zsymbol-mangling-version=v0 \
+ -Dunsafe_op_in_unsafe_fn -Drust_2018_idioms \
+ -Wmissing_docs
+KBUILD_CLIPPYFLAGS := -Dclippy::correctness -Dclippy::style \
+ -Dclippy::complexity -Dclippy::perf -Dclippy::float_arithmetic
KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL :=
KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL :=
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL :=
KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE := -DMODULE
KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE := -DMODULE
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_MODULE := --cfg MODULE
KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE :=
KBUILD_LDFLAGS :=
CLANG_FLAGS :=

+ifeq ($(KBUILD_CLIPPY),1)
+ RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET := CLIPPY
+ RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY = $(CLIPPY_DRIVER) $(KBUILD_CLIPPYFLAGS)
+else
+ RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET := RUSTC
+ RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY = $(RUSTC)
+endif
+
+ifdef RUST_LIB_SRC
+ export RUST_LIB_SRC
+endif
+
+export RUSTC_BOOTSTRAP := 1
+
export ARCH SRCARCH CONFIG_SHELL BASH HOSTCC KBUILD_HOSTCFLAGS CROSS_COMPILE LD CC
+export RUSTC RUSTDOC RUSTFMT RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY BINDGEN CARGO
export CPP AR NM STRIP OBJCOPY OBJDUMP READELF PAHOLE RESOLVE_BTFIDS LEX YACC AWK INSTALLKERNEL
export PERL PYTHON3 CHECK CHECKFLAGS MAKE UTS_MACHINE HOSTCXX
export KGZIP KBZIP2 KLZOP LZMA LZ4 XZ ZSTD
@@ -522,9 +563,10 @@ export KBUILD_HOSTCXXFLAGS KBUILD_HOSTLDFLAGS KBUILD_HOSTLDLIBS LDFLAGS_MODULE

export KBUILD_CPPFLAGS NOSTDINC_FLAGS LINUXINCLUDE OBJCOPYFLAGS KBUILD_LDFLAGS
export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE
+export KBUILD_RUST_TARGET KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL RUSTFLAGS_MODULE
export KBUILD_AFLAGS AFLAGS_KERNEL AFLAGS_MODULE
-export KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE
-export KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL
+export KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE
+export KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL

# Files to ignore in find ... statements

@@ -724,7 +766,7 @@ $(KCONFIG_CONFIG):
quiet_cmd_syncconfig = SYNC $@
cmd_syncconfig = $(MAKE) -f $(srctree)/Makefile syncconfig

-%/config/auto.conf %/config/auto.conf.cmd %/generated/autoconf.h: $(KCONFIG_CONFIG)
+%/config/auto.conf %/config/auto.conf.cmd %/generated/autoconf.h %/generated/rustc_cfg: $(KCONFIG_CONFIG)
+$(call cmd,syncconfig)
else # !may-sync-config
# External modules and some install targets need include/generated/autoconf.h
@@ -750,12 +792,43 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, format-truncation)
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, format-overflow)
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, address-of-packed-member)

+ifdef CONFIG_RUST_DEBUG_ASSERTIONS
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Cdebug-assertions=y
+else
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Cdebug-assertions=n
+endif
+
+ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OVERFLOW_CHECKS
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Coverflow-checks=y
+else
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Coverflow-checks=n
+endif
+
ifdef CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_PERFORMANCE
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -O2
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_OPT_LEVEL_MAP := 2
else ifdef CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_PERFORMANCE_O3
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -O3
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_OPT_LEVEL_MAP := 3
else ifdef CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -Os
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_OPT_LEVEL_MAP := z
+endif
+
+ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_SIMILAR_AS_CHOSEN_FOR_C
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=$(KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_OPT_LEVEL_MAP)
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_0
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=0
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_1
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=1
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_2
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=2
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_3
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=3
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_S
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=s
+else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_Z
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Copt-level=z
endif

# Tell gcc to never replace conditional load with a non-conditional one
@@ -805,6 +878,7 @@ KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, unused-but-set-variable)
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, unused-const-variable)
ifdef CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-optimize-sibling-calls
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += -Cforce-frame-pointers=y
else
# Some targets (ARM with Thumb2, for example), can't be built with frame
# pointers. For those, we don't have FUNCTION_TRACER automatically
@@ -842,6 +916,8 @@ ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_GCC
DEBUG_CFLAGS += $(call cc-ifversion, -lt, 0500, $(call cc-option, -fno-var-tracking-assignments))
endif

+DEBUG_RUSTFLAGS :=
+
ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO

ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO_SPLIT
@@ -852,6 +928,11 @@ endif

ifneq ($(LLVM_IAS),1)
KBUILD_AFLAGS += -Wa,-gdwarf-2
+ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO_REDUCED
+DEBUG_RUSTFLAGS += -Cdebuginfo=1
+else
+DEBUG_RUSTFLAGS += -Cdebuginfo=2
+endif
endif

ifndef CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO_DWARF_TOOLCHAIN_DEFAULT
@@ -876,6 +957,9 @@ endif # CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(DEBUG_CFLAGS)
export DEBUG_CFLAGS

+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += $(DEBUG_RUSTFLAGS)
+export DEBUG_RUSTFLAGS
+
ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER
ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_USE_CC
CC_FLAGS_FTRACE += -mrecord-mcount
@@ -1031,10 +1115,11 @@ include $(addprefix $(srctree)/, $(include-y))
# Do not add $(call cc-option,...) below this line. When you build the kernel
# from the clean source tree, the GCC plugins do not exist at this point.

-# Add user supplied CPPFLAGS, AFLAGS and CFLAGS as the last assignments
+# Add user supplied CPPFLAGS, AFLAGS, CFLAGS and RUSTFLAGS as the last assignments
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += $(KCPPFLAGS)
KBUILD_AFLAGS += $(KAFLAGS)
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(KCFLAGS)
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += $(KRUSTFLAGS)

KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE += --build-id=sha1
LDFLAGS_vmlinux += --build-id=sha1
@@ -1138,6 +1223,10 @@ export MODULES_NSDEPS := $(extmod_prefix)modules.nsdeps
ifeq ($(KBUILD_EXTMOD),)
core-y += kernel/ certs/ mm/ fs/ ipc/ security/ crypto/ block/

+ifdef CONFIG_RUST
+core-y += rust/
+endif
+
vmlinux-dirs := $(patsubst %/,%,$(filter %/, \
$(core-y) $(core-m) $(drivers-y) $(drivers-m) \
$(libs-y) $(libs-m)))
@@ -1238,6 +1327,9 @@ archprepare: outputmakefile archheaders archscripts scripts include/config/kerne
prepare0: archprepare
$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=scripts/mod
$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=.
+ifdef CONFIG_RUST
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=rust
+endif

# All the preparing..
prepare: prepare0 prepare-objtool prepare-resolve_btfids
@@ -1511,7 +1603,7 @@ endif # CONFIG_MODULES
# Directories & files removed with 'make clean'
CLEAN_FILES += include/ksym vmlinux.symvers modules-only.symvers \
modules.builtin modules.builtin.modinfo modules.nsdeps \
- compile_commands.json .thinlto-cache
+ compile_commands.json .thinlto-cache rust/test rust/doc

# Directories & files removed with 'make mrproper'
MRPROPER_FILES += include/config include/generated \
@@ -1522,7 +1614,8 @@ MRPROPER_FILES += include/config include/generated \
certs/signing_key.pem certs/signing_key.x509 \
certs/x509.genkey \
vmlinux-gdb.py \
- *.spec
+ *.spec \
+ rust/*_generated.h rust/*_generated.rs rust/libmacros.so

# clean - Delete most, but leave enough to build external modules
#
@@ -1634,6 +1727,17 @@ help:
@echo ' kselftest-merge - Merge all the config dependencies of'
@echo ' kselftest to existing .config.'
@echo ''
+ @echo 'Rust targets:'
+ @echo ' rustfmt - Reformat all the Rust code in the kernel'
+ @echo ' rustfmtcheck - Checks if all the Rust code in the kernel'
+ @echo ' is formatted, printing a diff otherwise.'
+ @echo ' rustdoc - Generate Rust documentation'
+ @echo ' (requires kernel .config)'
+ @echo ' rusttest - Runs the Rust tests'
+ @echo ' (requires kernel .config; downloads external repos)'
+ @echo ' rust-analyzer - Generate rust-project.json rust-analyzer support file'
+ @echo ' (requires kernel .config)'
+ @echo ''
@$(if $(dtstree), \
echo 'Devicetree:'; \
echo '* dtbs - Build device tree blobs for enabled boards'; \
@@ -1705,6 +1809,46 @@ PHONY += $(DOC_TARGETS)
$(DOC_TARGETS):
$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=Documentation $@

+
+# Rust targets
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+# Documentation target
+#
+# Using the singular to avoid running afoul of `no-dot-config-targets`.
+PHONY += rustdoc
+rustdoc: prepare0
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=rust $@
+
+# Testing target
+PHONY += rusttest
+rusttest: prepare0
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=rust $@
+
+# Formatting targets
+PHONY += rustfmt rustfmtcheck
+
+# We skip `rust/alloc` since we want to minimize the diff w.r.t. upstream.
+#
+# We match using absolute paths since `find` does not resolve them
+# when matching, which is a problem when e.g. `srctree` is `..`.
+# We `grep` afterwards in order to remove the directory entry itself.
+rustfmt:
+ $(Q)find $(abs_srctree) -type f -name '*.rs' \
+ -o -path $(abs_srctree)/rust/alloc -prune \
+ -o -path $(abs_objtree)/rust/test -prune \
+ | grep -Fv $(abs_srctree)/rust/alloc \
+ | grep -Fv $(abs_objtree)/rust/test \
+ | xargs $(RUSTFMT) $(rustfmt_flags)
+
+rustfmtcheck: rustfmt_flags = --check
+rustfmtcheck: rustfmt
+
+# IDE support targets
+PHONY += rust-analyzer
+rust-analyzer: prepare0
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=rust $@
+
# Misc
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@@ -1862,6 +2006,7 @@ clean: $(clean-dirs)
$(call cmd,rmfiles)
@find $(if $(KBUILD_EXTMOD), $(KBUILD_EXTMOD), .) $(RCS_FIND_IGNORE) \
\( -name '*.[aios]' -o -name '*.ko' -o -name '.*.cmd' \
+ -o -name '*.rmeta' \
-o -name '*.ko.*' \
-o -name '*.dtb' -o -name '*.dtbo' -o -name '*.dtb.S' -o -name '*.dt.yaml' \
-o -name '*.dwo' -o -name '*.lst' \
diff --git a/arch/arm/rust/target.json b/arch/arm/rust/target.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..37710eb727b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/rust/target.json
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+{
+ "arch": "arm",
+ "crt-static-respected": true,
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p:32:32-Fi8-i64:64-v128:64:128-a:0:32-n32-S64",
+ "dynamic-linking": true,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "executables": true,
+ "features": "+strict-align,+v6",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "has-elf-tls": true,
+ "has-rpath": true,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi",
+ "max-atomic-width": 64,
+ "os": "linux",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "target-family": "unix",
+ "target-mcount": "\u0001__gnu_mcount_nc",
+ "target-pointer-width": "32"
+}
diff --git a/arch/arm64/rust/target.json b/arch/arm64/rust/target.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..9ea86ed6c73
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm64/rust/target.json
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+{
+ "arch": "aarch64",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-i8:8:32-i16:16:32-i64:64-i128:128-n32:64-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "+strict-align,+neon,+fp-armv8",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "aarch64-unknown-none",
+ "max-atomic-width": 128,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m64"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "64",
+ "vendor": ""
+}
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/rust/target.json b/arch/powerpc/rust/target.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..1e53f830809
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/powerpc/rust/target.json
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+{
+ "arch": "powerpc64",
+ "code-mode": "kernel",
+ "cpu": "ppc64le",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-i64:64-n32:64",
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "-altivec,-vsx,-hard-float",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "powerpc64le-elf",
+ "max-atomic-width": 64,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m64"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "target-family": "unix",
+ "target-mcount": "_mcount",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "64"
+}
diff --git a/arch/riscv/Makefile b/arch/riscv/Makefile
index 99ecd8bcfd7..2a476eb5da5 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/Makefile
+++ b/arch/riscv/Makefile
@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@ riscv-march-$(CONFIG_FPU) := $(riscv-march-y)fd
riscv-march-$(CONFIG_RISCV_ISA_C) := $(riscv-march-y)c
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -march=$(subst fd,,$(riscv-march-y))
KBUILD_AFLAGS += -march=$(riscv-march-y)
+KBUILD_RUST_TARGET := $(srctree)/arch/riscv/rust/$(subst fd,,$(riscv-march-y)).json

KBUILD_CFLAGS += -mno-save-restore
KBUILD_CFLAGS += -DCONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET=$(CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET)
diff --git a/arch/riscv/rust/rv32ima.json b/arch/riscv/rust/rv32ima.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..8e9b46011e7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/riscv/rust/rv32ima.json
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+{
+ "arch": "riscv32",
+ "code-model": "medium",
+ "cpu": "generic-rv32",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p:32:32-i64:64-n32-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "+m,+a",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "riscv32",
+ "max-atomic-width": 32,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m32"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "32",
+ "vendor": ""
+}
diff --git a/arch/riscv/rust/rv32imac.json b/arch/riscv/rust/rv32imac.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..2b3a139da99
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/riscv/rust/rv32imac.json
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+{
+ "arch": "riscv32",
+ "code-model": "medium",
+ "cpu": "generic-rv32",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p:32:32-i64:64-n32-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "+m,+a,+c",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "riscv32",
+ "max-atomic-width": 32,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m32"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "32",
+ "vendor": ""
+}
diff --git a/arch/riscv/rust/rv64ima.json b/arch/riscv/rust/rv64ima.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..091da50069a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/riscv/rust/rv64ima.json
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+{
+ "arch": "riscv64",
+ "code-model": "medium",
+ "cpu": "generic-rv64",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p:64:64-i64:64-i128:128-n64-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "+m,+a",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "riscv64",
+ "max-atomic-width": 64,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m64"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "64",
+ "vendor": ""
+}
diff --git a/arch/riscv/rust/rv64imac.json b/arch/riscv/rust/rv64imac.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..aa5a8f4549f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/riscv/rust/rv64imac.json
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+{
+ "arch": "riscv64",
+ "code-model": "medium",
+ "cpu": "generic-rv64",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p:64:64-i64:64-i128:128-n64-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "+m,+a,+c",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "riscv64",
+ "max-atomic-width": 64,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m64"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "64",
+ "vendor": ""
+}
diff --git a/arch/x86/rust/target.json b/arch/x86/rust/target.json
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..76ac800d38e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/x86/rust/target.json
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+{
+ "arch": "x86_64",
+ "code-model": "kernel",
+ "cpu": "x86-64",
+ "data-layout": "e-m:e-p270:32:32-p271:32:32-p272:64:64-i64:64-f80:128-n8:16:32:64-S128",
+ "disable-redzone": true,
+ "eliminate-frame-pointer": false,
+ "emit-debug-gdb-scripts": false,
+ "env": "gnu",
+ "features": "-mmx,-sse,-sse2,-sse3,-ssse3,-sse4.1,-sse4.2,-3dnow,-3dnowa,-avx,-avx2,+soft-float",
+ "function-sections": false,
+ "is-builtin": true,
+ "linker-flavor": "gcc",
+ "linker-is-gnu": true,
+ "llvm-target": "x86_64-elf",
+ "max-atomic-width": 64,
+ "needs-plt": true,
+ "os": "none",
+ "panic-strategy": "abort",
+ "position-independent-executables": true,
+ "pre-link-args": {
+ "gcc": [
+ "-Wl,--as-needed",
+ "-Wl,-z,noexecstack",
+ "-m64"
+ ]
+ },
+ "relocation-model": "static",
+ "relro-level": "full",
+ "stack-probes": {
+ "kind": "none"
+ },
+ "target-c-int-width": "32",
+ "target-endian": "little",
+ "target-pointer-width": "64",
+ "vendor": "unknown"
+}
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index a61c92066c2..5318f209a3b 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -60,6 +60,15 @@ config LLD_VERSION
default $(ld-version) if LD_IS_LLD
default 0

+config HAS_RUST
+ depends on ARM64 || CPU_32v6 || CPU_32v6K || (PPC64 && CPU_LITTLE_ENDIAN) || X86_64 || RISCV
+ def_bool $(success,$(RUSTC) --version)
+
+config RUSTC_VERSION
+ depends on HAS_RUST
+ int
+ default $(shell,$(srctree)/scripts/rust-version.sh $(RUSTC))
+
config CC_CAN_LINK
bool
default $(success,$(srctree)/scripts/cc-can-link.sh $(CC) $(CLANG_FLAGS) $(m64-flag)) if 64BIT
@@ -2011,6 +2020,25 @@ config PROFILING
Say Y here to enable the extended profiling support mechanisms used
by profilers.

+config RUST
+ bool "Rust support"
+ depends on HAS_RUST
+ depends on !COMPILE_TEST
+ depends on !MODVERSIONS
+ default n
+ help
+ Enables Rust support in the kernel.
+
+ This allows other Rust-related options, like drivers written in Rust,
+ to be selected.
+
+ It is also required to be able to load external kernel modules
+ written in Rust.
+
+ See Documentation/rust/ for more information.
+
+ If unsure, say N.
+
#
# Place an empty function call at each tracepoint site. Can be
# dynamically changed for a probe function.
diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
index 678c1396758..30b705709c2 100644
--- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
@@ -2602,6 +2602,150 @@ config HYPERV_TESTING

endmenu # "Kernel Testing and Coverage"

+menu "Rust hacking"
+
+config RUST_DEBUG_ASSERTIONS
+ bool "Debug assertions"
+ default n
+ depends on RUST
+ help
+ Enables rustc's `-Cdebug-assertions` codegen option.
+
+ This flag lets you turn `cfg(debug_assertions)` conditional
+ compilation on or off. This can be used to enable extra debugging
+ code in development but not in production. For example, it controls
+ the behavior of the standard library's `debug_assert!` macro.
+
+ Note that this will apply to all Rust code, including `core`.
+
+ If unsure, say N.
+
+config RUST_OVERFLOW_CHECKS
+ bool "Overflow checks"
+ default y
+ depends on RUST
+ help
+ Enables rustc's `-Coverflow-checks` codegen option.
+
+ This flag allows you to control the behavior of runtime integer
+ overflow. When overflow-checks are enabled, a panic will occur
+ on overflow.
+
+ Note that this will apply to all Rust code, including `core`.
+
+ If unsure, say Y.
+
+choice
+ prompt "Optimization level"
+ default RUST_OPT_LEVEL_SIMILAR_AS_CHOSEN_FOR_C
+ depends on RUST
+ help
+ Controls rustc's `-Copt-level` codegen option.
+
+ This flag controls the optimization level.
+
+ If unsure, say "Similar as chosen for C".
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_SIMILAR_AS_CHOSEN_FOR_C
+ bool "Similar as chosen for C"
+ help
+ This choice will pick a similar optimization level as chosen in
+ the "Compiler optimization level" for C:
+
+ -O2 is currently mapped to -Copt-level=2
+ -O3 is currently mapped to -Copt-level=3
+ -Os is currently mapped to -Copt-level=z
+
+ The mapping may change over time to follow the intended semantics
+ of the choice for C as sensibly as possible.
+
+ This is the default.
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_0
+ bool "No optimizations (-Copt-level=0)"
+ help
+ Not recommended for most purposes. It may come in handy for debugging
+ suspected optimizer bugs, unexpected undefined behavior, etc.
+
+ Note that this level will *not* enable debug assertions nor overflow
+ checks on its own (like it happens when interacting with rustc
+ directly). Use the corresponding configuration options to control
+ that instead, orthogonally.
+
+ Note this level may cause excessive stack usage, which can lead to stack
+ overflow and subsequent crashes.
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_1
+ bool "Basic optimizations (-Copt-level=1)"
+ help
+ Useful for debugging without getting too lost, but without
+ the overhead and boilerplate of no optimizations at all.
+
+ Note this level may cause excessive stack usage, which can lead to stack
+ overflow and subsequent crashes.
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_2
+ bool "Some optimizations (-Copt-level=2)"
+ help
+ The sensible choice in most cases.
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_3
+ bool "All optimizations (-Copt-level=3)"
+ help
+ Yet more performance (hopefully).
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_S
+ bool "Optimize for size (-Copt-level=s)"
+ help
+ Smaller kernel, ideally without too much performance loss.
+
+config RUST_OPT_LEVEL_Z
+ bool "Optimize for size, no loop vectorization (-Copt-level=z)"
+ help
+ Like the previous level, but also turn off loop vectorization.
+
+endchoice
+
+choice
+ prompt "Build-time assertions"
+ default RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_ALLOW if RUST_OPT_LEVEL_0
+ default RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_DENY if !RUST_OPT_LEVEL_0
+ depends on RUST
+ help
+ Controls how are `build_error!` and `build_assert!` handled during build.
+
+ If calls to them exist in the binary, it may indicate a violated invariant
+ or that the optimizer failed to verify the invariant during compilation.
+ You can choose to abort compilation or ignore them during build and let the
+ check be carried to runtime.
+
+ If optimizations are turned off, you cannot select "Deny".
+
+ If unsure, say "Deny".
+
+config RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_ALLOW
+ bool "Allow"
+ help
+ Unoptimized calls to `build_error!` will be converted to `panic!`
+ and checked at runtime.
+
+config RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_WARN
+ bool "Warn"
+ help
+ Unoptimized calls to `build_error!` will be converted to `panic!`
+ and checked at runtime, but warnings will be generated when building.
+
+config RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_DENY
+ bool "Deny"
+ depends on !RUST_OPT_LEVEL_0
+ help
+ Unoptimized calls to `build_error!` will abort compilation.
+
+endchoice
+
+
+endmenu # "Rust"
+
source "Documentation/Kconfig"

endmenu # Kernel hacking
diff --git a/rust/.gitignore b/rust/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..c6186b71e1c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,6 @@
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+bindings_generated.rs
+exports_*_generated.h
+doc/
+test/
diff --git a/rust/Makefile b/rust/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..233b8f36548
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,316 @@
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+obj-$(CONFIG_RUST) += core.o compiler_builtins.o helpers.o
+extra-$(CONFIG_RUST) += exports_core_generated.h
+
+extra-$(CONFIG_RUST) += libmacros.so
+
+extra-$(CONFIG_RUST) += bindings_generated.rs
+obj-$(CONFIG_RUST) += alloc.o kernel.o
+extra-$(CONFIG_RUST) += exports_alloc_generated.h exports_kernel_generated.h
+
+ifdef CONFIG_RUST_BUILD_ASSERT_DENY
+extra-$(CONFIG_RUST) += build_error.o
+else
+obj-$(CONFIG_RUST) += build_error.o
+endif
+
+obj-$(CONFIG_RUST) += exports.o
+
+ifeq ($(quiet),silent_)
+cargo_quiet=-q
+rust_test_quiet=-q
+rustdoc_test_quiet=--test-args -q
+else ifeq ($(quiet),quiet_)
+rust_test_quiet=-q
+rustdoc_test_quiet=--test-args -q
+else
+cargo_quiet=--verbose
+endif
+
+quiet_cmd_rustdoc = RUSTDOC $(if $(rustdoc_host),H, ) $<
+ cmd_rustdoc = \
+ RUST_BINDINGS_FILE=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs) \
+ $(RUSTDOC) $(if $(rustdoc_host),,$(rust_cross_flags)) \
+ $(filter-out -Cpanic=abort, $(filter-out --emit=%, $(rust_flags))) \
+ $(rustc_target_flags) -L $(objtree)/rust \
+ --output $(objtree)/rust/doc --crate-name $(subst rustdoc-,,$@) \
+ @$(objtree)/include/generated/rustc_cfg $<
+
+# This is a temporary fix for the CSS, visible on `type`s (`Result`).
+# It is already fixed in nightly.
+RUSTDOC_FIX_BEFORE := .impl,.method,.type:not(.container-rustdoc),.associatedconstant,.associatedtype
+RUSTDOC_FIX_AFTER := .impl,.impl-items .method,.methods .method,.impl-items \
+ .type,.methods .type,.impl-items .associatedconstant,.methods \
+ .associatedconstant,.impl-items .associatedtype,.methods .associatedtype
+
+rustdoc: rustdoc-core rustdoc-macros rustdoc-compiler_builtins rustdoc-alloc rustdoc-kernel
+ $(Q)cp $(srctree)/Documentation/rust/assets/* $(objtree)/rust/doc
+ $(Q)sed -i "s/$(RUSTDOC_FIX_BEFORE)/$(RUSTDOC_FIX_AFTER)/" \
+ $(objtree)/rust/doc/rustdoc.css
+
+rustdoc-macros: private rustdoc_host = yes
+rustdoc-macros: private rustc_target_flags = --crate-type proc-macro \
+ --extern proc_macro
+rustdoc-macros: $(srctree)/rust/macros/lib.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc)
+
+rustdoc-compiler_builtins: $(srctree)/rust/compiler_builtins.rs rustdoc-core FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc)
+
+# We need to allow `broken_intra_doc_links` because some
+# `no_global_oom_handling` functions refer to non-`no_global_oom_handling`
+# functions. Ideally `rustdoc` would have a way to distinguish broken links
+# due to things that are "configured out" vs. entirely non-existing ones.
+rustdoc-alloc: private rustc_target_flags = --cfg no_global_oom_handling \
+ -Abroken_intra_doc_links
+rustdoc-alloc: $(srctree)/rust/alloc/lib.rs rustdoc-core \
+ rustdoc-compiler_builtins FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc)
+
+rustdoc-kernel: private rustc_target_flags = --extern alloc \
+ --extern build_error \
+ --extern macros=$(objtree)/rust/libmacros.so
+rustdoc-kernel: $(srctree)/rust/kernel/lib.rs rustdoc-core \
+ rustdoc-macros rustdoc-compiler_builtins rustdoc-alloc \
+ $(objtree)/rust/libmacros.so $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc)
+
+quiet_cmd_rustc_test_library = RUSTC TL $<
+ cmd_rustc_test_library = \
+ RUST_BINDINGS_FILE=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs) \
+ $(RUSTC) $(filter-out --sysroot=%, $(filter-out -Cpanic=abort, $(filter-out --emit=%, $(rust_flags)))) \
+ $(rustc_target_flags) --crate-type $(if $(rustc_test_library_proc),proc-macro,rlib) \
+ --out-dir $(objtree)/rust/test/ --cfg testlib \
+ --sysroot $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot \
+ -L $(objtree)/rust/test/ --crate-name $(subst rusttest-,,$(subst rusttestlib-,,$@)) $<
+
+rusttestlib-build_error: $(srctree)/rust/build_error.rs rusttest-prepare FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustc_test_library)
+
+rusttestlib-macros: private rustc_target_flags = --extern proc_macro
+rusttestlib-macros: private rustc_test_library_proc = yes
+rusttestlib-macros: $(srctree)/rust/macros/lib.rs rusttest-prepare FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustc_test_library)
+
+quiet_cmd_rustdoc_test = RUSTDOC T $<
+ cmd_rustdoc_test = \
+ RUST_BINDINGS_FILE=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs) \
+ $(RUSTDOC) --test $(filter-out --sysroot=%, $(filter-out -Cpanic=abort, $(filter-out --emit=%, $(rust_flags)))) \
+ $(rustc_target_flags) $(rustdoc_test_target_flags) \
+ --sysroot $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot $(rustdoc_test_quiet) \
+ -L $(objtree)/rust/test \
+ --output $(objtree)/rust/doc --crate-name $(subst rusttest-,,$@) \
+ @$(objtree)/include/generated/rustc_cfg $<
+
+# We cannot use `-Zpanic-abort-tests` because some tests are dynamic,
+# so for the moment we skip `-Cpanic=abort`.
+quiet_cmd_rustc_test = RUSTC T $<
+ cmd_rustc_test = \
+ RUST_BINDINGS_FILE=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs) \
+ $(RUSTC) --test $(filter-out --sysroot=%, $(filter-out -Cpanic=abort, $(filter-out --emit=%, $(rust_flags)))) \
+ $(rustc_target_flags) --out-dir $(objtree)/rust/test \
+ --sysroot $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot \
+ -L $(objtree)/rust/test/ --crate-name $(subst rusttest-,,$@) $<; \
+ $(objtree)/rust/test/$(subst rusttest-,,$@) $(rust_test_quiet) \
+ $(rustc_test_run_flags)
+
+rusttest: rusttest-macros rusttest-kernel
+
+# This prepares a custom sysroot with our custom `alloc` instead of
+# the standard one.
+#
+# This requires several hacks:
+# - Unlike `core` and `alloc`, `std` depends on more than a dozen crates,
+# including third-party crates that need to be downloaded, plus custom
+# `build.rs` steps. Thus hardcoding things here is not maintainable.
+# - `cargo` knows how to build the standard library, but it is an unstable
+# feature so far (`-Zbuild-std`).
+# - `cargo` only considers the use case of building the standard library
+# to use it in a given package. Thus we need to create a dummy package
+# and pick the generated libraries from there.
+# - Since we only keep a subset of upstream `alloc` in-tree, we need
+# to recreate it on the fly by putting our sources on top.
+# - The usual ways of modifying the dependency graph in `cargo` do not seem
+# to apply for the `-Zbuild-std` steps, thus we have to mislead it
+# by modifying the sources in the sysroot.
+# - To avoid messing with the user's Rust installation, we create a clone
+# of the sysroot. However, `cargo` ignores `RUSTFLAGS` in the `-Zbuild-std`
+# steps, thus we use a wrapper binary passed via `RUSTC` to pass the flag.
+#
+# In the future, we hope to avoid the whole ordeal by either:
+# - Making the `test` crate not depend on `std` (either improving upstream
+# or having our own custom crate).
+# - Making the tests run in kernel space (requires the previous point).
+# - Making `std` and friends be more like a "normal" crate, so that
+# `-Zbuild-std` and related hacks are not needed.
+quiet_cmd_rustsysroot = RUSTSYSROOT
+ cmd_rustsysroot = \
+ rm -rf $(objtree)/rust/test; \
+ mkdir -p $(objtree)/rust/test; \
+ cp -a $(rustc_sysroot) $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot; \
+ cp -r $(srctree)/rust/alloc/* \
+ $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot/lib/rustlib/src/rust/library/alloc/src; \
+ echo '\#!/bin/sh' > $(objtree)/rust/test/rustc_sysroot; \
+ echo "$(RUSTC) --sysroot=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot) \"\$$@\"" \
+ >> $(objtree)/rust/test/rustc_sysroot; \
+ chmod u+x $(objtree)/rust/test/rustc_sysroot; \
+ $(CARGO) -q new $(objtree)/rust/test/dummy; \
+ RUSTC=$(objtree)/rust/test/rustc_sysroot $(CARGO) $(cargo_quiet) \
+ test -Zbuild-std --target $(rustc_host_target) \
+ --manifest-path $(objtree)/rust/test/dummy/Cargo.toml; \
+ rm $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot/lib/rustlib/$(rustc_host_target)/lib/*; \
+ cp $(objtree)/rust/test/dummy/target/$(rustc_host_target)/debug/deps/* \
+ $(objtree)/rust/test/sysroot/lib/rustlib/$(rustc_host_target)/lib
+
+rusttest-prepare: FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustsysroot)
+
+rusttest-macros: private rustc_target_flags = --extern proc_macro
+rusttest-macros: private rustdoc_test_target_flags = --crate-type proc-macro
+rusttest-macros: $(srctree)/rust/macros/lib.rs rusttest-prepare FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustc_test)
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc_test)
+
+rusttest-kernel: private rustc_target_flags = --extern alloc \
+ --extern build_error --extern macros
+rusttest-kernel: private rustc_test_run_flags = \
+ --skip bindgen_test_layout_
+rusttest-kernel: $(srctree)/rust/kernel/lib.rs rusttest-prepare \
+ rusttestlib-build_error rusttestlib-macros FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustc_test)
+ $(call if_changed,rustc_test_library)
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc_test)
+
+ifdef CONFIG_CC_IS_CLANG
+bindgen_c_flags = $(c_flags)
+else
+# bindgen relies on libclang to parse C. Ideally, bindgen would support a GCC
+# plugin backend and/or the Clang driver would be perfectly compatible with GCC.
+#
+# For the moment, here we are tweaking the flags on the fly. Some config
+# options may not work (e.g. `GCC_PLUGIN_RANDSTRUCT` if we end up using one
+# of those structs). We might want to redo how Clang flags are kept track of
+# in the general `Makefile` even for GCC builds, similar to what we did with
+# `TENTATIVE_CLANG_FLAGS`.
+bindgen_skip_c_flags := -mno-fp-ret-in-387 -mpreferred-stack-boundary=% \
+ -mskip-rax-setup -mgeneral-regs-only -msign-return-address=% \
+ -mindirect-branch=thunk-extern -mindirect-branch-register -mrecord-mcount \
+ -mabi=lp64 -mstack-protector-guard% -fconserve-stack -falign-jumps=% \
+ -falign-loops=% -fno-ipa-cp-clone -fno-partial-inlining \
+ -fno-reorder-blocks -fno-allow-store-data-races -fasan-shadow-offset=% \
+ -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-format-truncation -Wno-format-overflow \
+ -Wno-stringop-truncation -Wno-unused-but-set-variable \
+ -Wno-stringop-overflow -Wno-restrict -Wno-maybe-uninitialized \
+ -Werror=designated-init -Wno-zero-length-bounds \
+ --param=% --param asan-%
+
+# PowerPC
+bindgen_skip_c_flags += -mtraceback=no -mno-pointers-to-nested-functions \
+ -mno-string -mno-strict-align
+
+bindgen_extra_c_flags = $(TENTATIVE_CLANG_FLAGS) -Wno-address-of-packed-member
+bindgen_c_flags = $(filter-out $(bindgen_skip_c_flags), $(c_flags)) \
+ $(bindgen_extra_c_flags)
+endif
+
+# To avoid several recompilations in PowerPC, which inserts `-D_TASK_CPU`
+bindgen_c_flags_final = $(filter-out -D_TASK_CPU=%, $(bindgen_c_flags))
+
+quiet_cmd_bindgen = BINDGEN $@
+ cmd_bindgen = \
+ $(BINDGEN) $< $(shell grep -v '^\#\|^$$' $(srctree)/rust/bindgen_parameters) \
+ --use-core --with-derive-default --ctypes-prefix c_types \
+ --no-debug '.*' \
+ --size_t-is-usize -o $@ -- $(bindgen_c_flags_final) -DMODULE
+
+$(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs: $(srctree)/rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h \
+ $(srctree)/rust/bindgen_parameters FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,bindgen)
+
+quiet_cmd_exports = EXPORTS $@
+ cmd_exports = \
+ $(NM) -p --defined-only $< \
+ | grep -E ' (T|R|D) ' | cut -d ' ' -f 3 \
+ | xargs -Isymbol \
+ echo 'EXPORT_SYMBOL_RUST_GPL(symbol);' > $@
+
+$(objtree)/rust/exports_core_generated.h: $(objtree)/rust/core.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,exports)
+
+$(objtree)/rust/exports_alloc_generated.h: $(objtree)/rust/alloc.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,exports)
+
+$(objtree)/rust/exports_kernel_generated.h: $(objtree)/rust/kernel.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,exports)
+
+# `-Cpanic=unwind -Cforce-unwind-tables=y` overrides `rust_flags` in order to
+# avoid the https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/82320 rustc crash.
+quiet_cmd_rustc_procmacro = $(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET) P $@
+ cmd_rustc_procmacro = \
+ $(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY) $(rust_flags) \
+ --emit=dep-info,link --extern proc_macro \
+ -Cpanic=unwind -Cforce-unwind-tables=y \
+ --crate-type proc-macro --out-dir $(objtree)/rust/ \
+ --crate-name $(patsubst lib%.so,%,$(notdir $@)) $<; \
+ mv $(objtree)/rust/$(patsubst lib%.so,%,$(notdir $@)).d $(depfile); \
+ sed -i '/^\#/d' $(depfile)
+
+# Procedural macros can only be used with the `rustc` that compiled it.
+# Therefore, to get `libmacros.so` automatically recompiled when the compiler
+# version changes, we add `core.o` as a dependency (even if it is not needed).
+$(objtree)/rust/libmacros.so: $(srctree)/rust/macros/lib.rs \
+ $(objtree)/rust/core.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_procmacro)
+
+quiet_cmd_rustc_library = $(if $(skip_clippy),RUSTC,$(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET)) L $@
+ cmd_rustc_library = \
+ RUST_BINDINGS_FILE=$(abspath $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs) \
+ $(if $(skip_clippy),$(RUSTC),$(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY)) \
+ $(rust_flags) $(rust_cross_flags) $(rustc_target_flags) \
+ --crate-type rlib --out-dir $(objtree)/rust/ -L $(objtree)/rust/ \
+ --crate-name $(patsubst %.o,%,$(notdir $@)) $<; \
+ mv $(objtree)/rust/$(patsubst %.o,%,$(notdir $@)).d $(depfile); \
+ sed -i '/^\#/d' $(depfile) \
+ $(if $(rustc_objcopy),;$(OBJCOPY) $(rustc_objcopy) $@)
+
+# `$(rust_flags)` is passed in case the user added `--sysroot`.
+rustc_sysroot = $(shell $(RUSTC) $(rust_flags) --print sysroot)
+rustc_host_target = $(shell $(RUSTC) --version --verbose | grep -F 'host: ' | cut -d' ' -f2)
+RUST_LIB_SRC ?= $(rustc_sysroot)/lib/rustlib/src/rust/library
+
+rust-analyzer:
+ $(Q)$(srctree)/scripts/generate_rust_analyzer.py $(srctree) $(objtree) $(RUST_LIB_SRC) $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs > $(objtree)/rust-project.json
+
+$(objtree)/rust/compiler_builtins.o: private rustc_objcopy = -w -W '__*'
+$(objtree)/rust/compiler_builtins.o: $(srctree)/rust/compiler_builtins.rs \
+ $(objtree)/rust/core.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_library)
+
+$(objtree)/rust/alloc.o: private skip_clippy = 1
+$(objtree)/rust/alloc.o: private rustc_target_flags = --cfg no_global_oom_handling
+$(objtree)/rust/alloc.o: $(srctree)/rust/alloc/lib.rs \
+ $(objtree)/rust/compiler_builtins.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_library)
+
+$(objtree)/rust/build_error.o: $(srctree)/rust/build_error.rs \
+ $(objtree)/rust/compiler_builtins.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_library)
+
+# ICE on `--extern macros`: https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/56935
+$(objtree)/rust/kernel.o: private rustc_target_flags = --extern alloc \
+ --extern build_error \
+ --extern macros=$(objtree)/rust/libmacros.so
+$(objtree)/rust/kernel.o: $(srctree)/rust/kernel/lib.rs $(objtree)/rust/alloc.o \
+ $(objtree)/rust/build_error.o \
+ $(objtree)/rust/libmacros.so $(objtree)/rust/bindings_generated.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_library)
+
+# Targets that need to expand twice
+.SECONDEXPANSION:
+$(objtree)/rust/core.o: private skip_clippy = 1
+$(objtree)/rust/core.o: $$(RUST_LIB_SRC)/core/src/lib.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_library)
+
+rustdoc-core: $$(RUST_LIB_SRC)/core/src/lib.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,rustdoc)
diff --git a/rust/bindgen_parameters b/rust/bindgen_parameters
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..c2cc4a88234
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/bindgen_parameters
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+--opaque-type xregs_state
+--opaque-type desc_struct
+--opaque-type arch_lbr_state
+--opaque-type local_apic
+
+# If SMP is disabled, `arch_spinlock_t` is defined as a ZST which triggers a Rust
+# warning. We don't need to peek into it anyway.
+--opaque-type spinlock
+
+# `seccomp`'s comment gets understood as a doctest
+--no-doc-comments
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.build b/scripts/Makefile.build
index 949f723efe5..bb22acf8415 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.build
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.build
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ EXTRA_CPPFLAGS :=
EXTRA_LDFLAGS :=
asflags-y :=
ccflags-y :=
+rustflags-y :=
cppflags-y :=
ldflags-y :=

@@ -288,6 +289,27 @@ quiet_cmd_cc_lst_c = MKLST $@
$(obj)/%.lst: $(src)/%.c FORCE
$(call if_changed_dep,cc_lst_c)

+# Compile Rust sources (.rs)
+# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+# Need to use absolute path here and have symbolic links resolved;
+# otherwise rustdoc and rustc compute different hashes for the target.
+rust_cross_flags := --target=$(realpath $(KBUILD_RUST_TARGET))
+
+quiet_cmd_rustc_o_rs = $(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY_QUIET) $(quiet_modtag) $@
+ cmd_rustc_o_rs = \
+ RUST_MODFILE=$(modfile) \
+ $(RUSTC_OR_CLIPPY) $(rust_flags) $(rust_cross_flags) \
+ -Zallow-features=allocator_api,bench_black_box,concat_idents,global_asm,try_reserve \
+ --extern alloc --extern kernel \
+ --crate-type rlib --out-dir $(obj) -L $(objtree)/rust/ \
+ --crate-name $(patsubst %.o,%,$(notdir $@)) $<; \
+ mv $(obj)/$(subst .o,,$(notdir $@)).d $(depfile); \
+ sed -i '/^\#/d' $(depfile)
+
+$(obj)/%.o: $(src)/%.rs FORCE
+ $(call if_changed_dep,rustc_o_rs)
+
# Compile assembler sources (.S)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
index 10950559b22..cee5af32c65 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@ ldflags-y += $(EXTRA_LDFLAGS)
# flags that take effect in current and sub directories
KBUILD_AFLAGS += $(subdir-asflags-y)
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(subdir-ccflags-y)
+KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS += $(subdir-rustflags-y)

# Figure out what we need to build from the various variables
# ===========================================================================
@@ -133,6 +134,10 @@ _c_flags = $(filter-out $(CFLAGS_REMOVE_$(target-stem).o), \
$(filter-out $(ccflags-remove-y), \
$(KBUILD_CPPFLAGS) $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) $(ccflags-y)) \
$(CFLAGS_$(target-stem).o))
+_rust_flags = $(filter-out $(RUSTFLAGS_REMOVE_$(target-stem).o), \
+ $(filter-out $(rustflags-remove-y), \
+ $(KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS) $(rustflags-y)) \
+ $(RUSTFLAGS_$(target-stem).o))
_a_flags = $(filter-out $(AFLAGS_REMOVE_$(target-stem).o), \
$(filter-out $(asflags-remove-y), \
$(KBUILD_CPPFLAGS) $(KBUILD_AFLAGS) $(asflags-y)) \
@@ -202,6 +207,11 @@ modkern_cflags = \
$(KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE) $(CFLAGS_MODULE), \
$(KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL) $(CFLAGS_KERNEL) $(modfile_flags))

+modkern_rustflags = \
+ $(if $(part-of-module), \
+ $(KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_MODULE) $(RUSTFLAGS_MODULE), \
+ $(KBUILD_RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL) $(RUSTFLAGS_KERNEL))
+
modkern_aflags = $(if $(part-of-module), \
$(KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE) $(AFLAGS_MODULE), \
$(KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL) $(AFLAGS_KERNEL))
@@ -211,6 +221,8 @@ c_flags = -Wp,-MMD,$(depfile) $(NOSTDINC_FLAGS) $(LINUXINCLUDE) \
$(_c_flags) $(modkern_cflags) \
$(basename_flags) $(modname_flags)

+rust_flags = $(_rust_flags) $(modkern_rustflags) @$(objtree)/include/generated/rustc_cfg
+
a_flags = -Wp,-MMD,$(depfile) $(NOSTDINC_FLAGS) $(LINUXINCLUDE) \
$(_a_flags) $(modkern_aflags)

diff --git a/scripts/kconfig/confdata.c b/scripts/kconfig/confdata.c
index cf72680cd76..d9fc638dfa8 100644
--- a/scripts/kconfig/confdata.c
+++ b/scripts/kconfig/confdata.c
@@ -651,6 +651,56 @@ static struct conf_printer kconfig_printer_cb =
.print_comment = kconfig_print_comment,
};

+/*
+ * rustc cfg printer
+ *
+ * This printer is used when generating the resulting rustc configuration
+ * after kconfig invocation and `defconfig` files.
+ */
+static void rustc_cfg_print_symbol(FILE *fp, struct symbol *sym, const char *value, void *arg)
+{
+ const char *str;
+
+ switch (sym->type) {
+ case S_INT:
+ case S_HEX:
+ case S_BOOLEAN:
+ case S_TRISTATE:
+ str = sym_escape_string_value(value);
+
+ /*
+ * We don't care about disabled ones, i.e. no need for
+ * what otherwise are "comments" in other printers.
+ */
+ if (*value == 'n')
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * To have similar functionality to the C macro `IS_ENABLED()`
+ * we provide an empty `--cfg CONFIG_X` here in both `y`
+ * and `m` cases.
+ *
+ * Then, the common `fprintf()` below will also give us
+ * a `--cfg CONFIG_X="y"` or `--cfg CONFIG_X="m"`, which can
+ * be used as the equivalent of `IS_BUILTIN()`/`IS_MODULE()`.
+ */
+ if (*value == 'y' || *value == 'm')
+ fprintf(fp, "--cfg=%s%s\n", CONFIG_, sym->name);
+
+ break;
+ default:
+ str = value;
+ break;
+ }
+
+ fprintf(fp, "--cfg=%s%s=%s\n", CONFIG_, sym->name, str);
+}
+
+static struct conf_printer rustc_cfg_printer_cb =
+{
+ .print_symbol = rustc_cfg_print_symbol,
+};
+
/*
* Header printer
*
@@ -1058,7 +1108,7 @@ int conf_write_autoconf(int overwrite)
struct symbol *sym;
const char *name;
const char *autoconf_name = conf_get_autoconfig_name();
- FILE *out, *out_h;
+ FILE *out, *out_h, *out_rustc_cfg;
int i;

if (!overwrite && is_present(autoconf_name))
@@ -1079,6 +1129,13 @@ int conf_write_autoconf(int overwrite)
return 1;
}

+ out_rustc_cfg = fopen(".tmp_rustc_cfg", "w");
+ if (!out_rustc_cfg) {
+ fclose(out);
+ fclose(out_h);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
conf_write_heading(out, &kconfig_printer_cb, NULL);
conf_write_heading(out_h, &header_printer_cb, NULL);

@@ -1090,9 +1147,11 @@ int conf_write_autoconf(int overwrite)
/* write symbols to auto.conf and autoconf.h */
conf_write_symbol(out, sym, &kconfig_printer_cb, (void *)1);
conf_write_symbol(out_h, sym, &header_printer_cb, NULL);
+ conf_write_symbol(out_rustc_cfg, sym, &rustc_cfg_printer_cb, NULL);
}
fclose(out);
fclose(out_h);
+ fclose(out_rustc_cfg);

name = getenv("KCONFIG_AUTOHEADER");
if (!name)
@@ -1111,6 +1170,12 @@ int conf_write_autoconf(int overwrite)
if (rename(".tmpconfig", autoconf_name))
return 1;

+ name = "include/generated/rustc_cfg";
+ if (make_parent_dir(name))
+ return 1;
+ if (rename(".tmp_rustc_cfg", name))
+ return 1;
+
return 0;
}

diff --git a/scripts/rust-version.sh b/scripts/rust-version.sh
new file mode 100755
index 00000000000..67b6d31688e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/scripts/rust-version.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+#
+# rust-version rust-command
+#
+# Print the compiler version of `rust-command' in a 5 or 6-digit form
+# such as `14502' for rustc-1.45.2 etc.
+#
+# Returns 0 if not found (so that Kconfig does not complain)
+compiler="$*"
+
+if [ ${#compiler} -eq 0 ]; then
+ echo "Error: No compiler specified." >&2
+ printf "Usage:\n\t$0 <rust-command>\n" >&2
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+if ! command -v $compiler >/dev/null 2>&1; then
+ echo 0
+ exit 0
+fi
+
+VERSION=$($compiler --version | cut -f2 -d' ')
+
+# Cut suffix if any (e.g. `-dev`)
+VERSION=$(echo $VERSION | cut -f1 -d'-')
+
+MAJOR=$(echo $VERSION | cut -f1 -d'.')
+MINOR=$(echo $VERSION | cut -f2 -d'.')
+PATCHLEVEL=$(echo $VERSION | cut -f3 -d'.')
+printf "%d%02d%02d\\n" $MAJOR $MINOR $PATCHLEVEL
--
2.32.0
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