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Subject[PATCH 10/13] Documentation: Rust general information
Date
From: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>

Most of the documentation for Rust is written within the source code
itself, as it is idiomatic for Rust projects. This applies to both
the shared infrastructure at `rust/` as well as any other Rust module
(e.g. drivers) written across the kernel.

These documents are general information that do not fit particularly
well in the source code, like the quick start guide.

Co-developed-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Signed-off-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Co-developed-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Signed-off-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Co-developed-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
---
Documentation/doc-guide/kernel-doc.rst | 3 +
Documentation/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/rust/arch-support.rst | 29 ++++
Documentation/rust/coding.rst | 92 +++++++++++
Documentation/rust/docs.rst | 109 +++++++++++++
Documentation/rust/index.rst | 20 +++
Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst | 203 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
7 files changed, 457 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/rust/arch-support.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/rust/coding.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/rust/docs.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/rust/index.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/doc-guide/kernel-doc.rst b/Documentation/doc-guide/kernel-doc.rst
index 79aaa55d6bcf..c655fdb9c042 100644
--- a/Documentation/doc-guide/kernel-doc.rst
+++ b/Documentation/doc-guide/kernel-doc.rst
@@ -11,6 +11,9 @@ when it is embedded in source files.
reasons. The kernel source contains tens of thousands of kernel-doc
comments. Please stick to the style described here.

+.. note:: kernel-doc does not cover Rust code: please see
+ :ref:`Documentation/rust/docs.rst <rust_docs>` instead.
+
The kernel-doc structure is extracted from the comments, and proper
`Sphinx C Domain`_ function and type descriptions with anchors are
generated from them. The descriptions are filtered for special kernel-doc
diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
index 31f2adc8542d..3e7c43a48e68 100644
--- a/Documentation/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/index.rst
@@ -82,6 +82,7 @@ merged much easier.
maintainer/index
fault-injection/index
livepatch/index
+ rust/index


Kernel API documentation
diff --git a/Documentation/rust/arch-support.rst b/Documentation/rust/arch-support.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d72ab2f8fa46
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rust/arch-support.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+.. _rust_arch_support:
+
+Arch Support
+============
+
+Currently, the Rust compiler (``rustc``) uses LLVM for code generation,
+which limits the supported architectures we can target. In addition, support
+for building the kernel with LLVM/Clang varies (see :ref:`kbuild_llvm`),
+which ``bindgen`` relies on through ``libclang``.
+
+Below is a general summary of architectures that currently work. Level of
+support corresponds to ``S`` values in the ``MAINTAINERS`` file.
+
+.. list-table::
+ :widths: 10 10 10
+ :header-rows: 1
+
+ * - Architecture
+ - Level of support
+ - Constraints
+ * - ``arm64``
+ - Maintained
+ - None
+ * - ``powerpc``
+ - Maintained
+ - ``ppc64le`` only, ``RUST_OPT_LEVEL >= 2``
+ * - ``x86``
+ - Maintained
+ - ``x86_64`` only
diff --git a/Documentation/rust/coding.rst b/Documentation/rust/coding.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..46da5fb0974c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rust/coding.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+.. _rust_coding:
+
+Coding
+======
+
+This document describes how to write Rust code in the kernel.
+
+
+Coding style
+------------
+
+The code is automatically formatted using the ``rustfmt`` tool. This is very
+good news!
+
+- If you contribute from time to time to the kernel, you do not need to learn
+ and remember one more style guide. You will also need less patch roundtrips
+ to land a change.
+
+- If you are a reviewer or a maintainer, you will not need to spend time on
+ pointing out style issues anymore.
+
+.. note:: Conventions on comments and documentation are not checked by
+ ``rustfmt``. Thus we still need to take care of those: please see
+ :ref:`Documentation/rust/docs.rst <rust_docs>`.
+
+We use the tool's default settings. This means we are following the idiomatic
+Rust style. For instance, we use 4 spaces for indentation rather than tabs.
+
+Typically, you will want to instruct your editor/IDE to format while you type,
+when you save or at commit time. However, if for some reason you want
+to reformat the entire kernel Rust sources at some point, you may run::
+
+ make rustfmt
+
+To check if everything is formatted (printing a diff otherwise), e.g. if you
+have configured a CI for a tree as a maintainer, you may run::
+
+ make rustfmtcheck
+
+Like ``clang-format`` for the rest of the kernel, ``rustfmt`` works on
+individual files, and does not require a kernel configuration. Sometimes it may
+even work with broken code.
+
+
+Extra lints
+-----------
+
+While ``rustc`` is a very helpful compiler, some extra lints and analysis are
+available via ``clippy``, a Rust linter. To enable it, pass ``CLIPPY=1`` to
+the same invocation you use for compilation, e.g.::
+
+ make ARCH=... CROSS_COMPILE=... CC=... -j... CLIPPY=1
+
+At the moment, we do not enforce a "clippy-free" compilation, so you can treat
+the output the same way as the extra warning levels for C, e.g. like ``W=2``.
+Still, we use the default configuration, which is relatively conservative, so
+it is a good idea to read any output it may produce from time to time and fix
+the pointed out issues. The list of enabled lists will be likely tweaked over
+time, and extra levels may end up being introduced, e.g. ``CLIPPY=2``.
+
+
+Abstractions vs. bindings
+-------------------------
+
+We don't have abstractions for all the kernel internal APIs and concepts,
+but we would like to expand coverage as time goes on. Unless there is
+a good reason not to, always use the abstractions instead of calling
+the C bindings directly.
+
+If you are writing some code that requires a call to an internal kernel API
+or concept that isn't abstracted yet, consider providing an (ideally safe)
+abstraction for everyone to use.
+
+
+Conditional compilation
+-----------------------
+
+Rust code has access to conditional compilation based on the kernel
+configuration:
+
+.. code-block:: rust
+
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_X)] // `CONFIG_X` is enabled (`y` or `m`)
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_X="y")] // `CONFIG_X` is enabled as a built-in (`y`)
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_X="m")] // `CONFIG_X` is enabled as a module (`m`)
+ #[cfg(not(CONFIG_X))] // `CONFIG_X` is disabled
+
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+
+Please see :ref:`Documentation/rust/docs.rst <rust_docs>`.
diff --git a/Documentation/rust/docs.rst b/Documentation/rust/docs.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..58c5f98ccb35
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rust/docs.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+.. _rust_docs:
+
+Docs
+====
+
+Rust kernel code is not documented like C kernel code (i.e. via kernel-doc).
+Instead, we use the usual system for documenting Rust code: the ``rustdoc``
+tool, which uses Markdown (a *very* lightweight markup language).
+
+This document describes how to make the most out of the kernel documentation
+for Rust.
+
+
+Reading the docs
+----------------
+
+An advantage of using Markdown is that it attempts to make text look almost as
+you would have written it in plain text. This makes the documentation quite
+pleasant to read even in its source form.
+
+However, the generated HTML docs produced by ``rustdoc`` provide a *very* nice
+experience, including integrated instant search, clickable items (types,
+functions, constants, etc. -- including to all the standard Rust library ones
+that we use in the kernel, e.g. ``core``), categorization, links to the source
+code, etc.
+
+Like for the rest of the kernel documentation, pregenerated HTML docs for
+the libraries (crates) inside ``rust/`` that are used by the rest of the kernel
+are available at `kernel.org`_.
+
+// TODO: link when ready
+
+.. _kernel.org: http://kernel.org/
+
+Otherwise, you can generate them locally. This is quite fast (same order as
+compiling the code itself) and you do not need any special tools or environment.
+This has the added advantage that they will be tailored to your particular
+kernel configuration. To generate them, simply use the ``rustdoc`` target with
+the same invocation you use for compilation, e.g.::
+
+ make ARCH=... CROSS_COMPILE=... CC=... -j... rustdoc
+
+
+Writing the docs
+----------------
+
+If you already know Markdown, learning how to write Rust documentation will be
+a breeze. If not, understanding the basics is a matter of minutes reading other
+code. There are also many guides available out there, a particularly nice one
+is at `GitHub`_.
+
+.. _GitHub: https://guides.github.com/features/mastering-markdown/#syntax
+
+This is how a well-documented Rust function may look like (derived from the Rust
+standard library)::
+
+ /// Returns the contained [`Some`] value, consuming the `self` value,
+ /// without checking that the value is not [`None`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Calling this method on [`None`] is *[undefined behavior]*.
+ ///
+ /// [undefined behavior]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/behavior-considered-undefined.html
+ ///
+ /// # Examples
+ ///
+ /// ```
+ /// let x = Some("air");
+ /// assert_eq!(unsafe { x.unwrap_unchecked() }, "air");
+ /// ```
+ pub unsafe fn unwrap_unchecked(self) -> T {
+ match self {
+ Some(val) => val,
+
+ // SAFETY: the safety contract must be upheld by the caller.
+ None => unsafe { hint::unreachable_unchecked() },
+ }
+ }
+
+This example showcases a few ``rustdoc`` features and some common conventions
+(that we also follow in the kernel):
+
+* The first paragraph must be a single sentence briefly describing what
+ the documented item does. Further explanations must go in extra paragraphs.
+
+* ``unsafe`` functions must document the preconditions needed for a call to be
+ safe under a ``Safety`` section.
+
+* While not shown here, if a function may panic, the conditions under which
+ that happens must be described under a ``Panics`` section.
+
+* If providing examples of usage would help readers, they must be written in
+ a section called ``Examples``.
+
+* Rust items (functions, types, constants...) will be automatically linked
+ (``rustdoc`` will find out the URL for you).
+
+* Following the Rust standard library conventions, any ``unsafe`` block must be
+ preceded by a ``SAFETY`` comment describing why the code inside is sound.
+
+ While sometimes the reason might look trivial and therefore unneeded, writing
+ these comments is not just a good way of documenting what has been taken into
+ account, but also that there are no *extra* implicit constraints.
+
+To learn more about how to write documentation for Rust and extra features,
+please take a look at the ``rustdoc`` `book`_.
+
+.. _book: https://doc.rust-lang.org/rustdoc/how-to-write-documentation.html
diff --git a/Documentation/rust/index.rst b/Documentation/rust/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..257cf2b200b8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rust/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Rust
+====
+
+Documentation related to Rust within the kernel. If you are starting out,
+read the :ref:`Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst <rust_quick_start>` guide.
+
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 1
+
+ quick-start
+ coding
+ docs
+ arch-support
+
+.. only:: subproject and html
+
+ Indices
+ =======
+
+ * :ref:`genindex`
diff --git a/Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst b/Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..42367e4365c3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rust/quick-start.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,203 @@
+.. _rust_quick_start:
+
+Quick Start
+===========
+
+This document describes how to get started with kernel development in Rust.
+If you have worked previously with Rust, this will only take a moment.
+
+Please note that, at the moment, a very restricted subset of architectures
+is supported, see :doc:`/rust/arch-support`.
+
+
+Requirements: Building
+----------------------
+
+This section explains how to fetch the tools needed for building.
+
+Some of these requirements might be available from your Linux distribution
+under names like ``rustc``, ``rust-src``, ``rust-bindgen``, etc. However,
+at the time of writing, they are likely to not be recent enough.
+
+
+rustc
+*****
+
+A recent *nightly* Rust toolchain (with, at least, ``rustc``) is required,
+e.g. ``nightly-2021-02-20``. Our goal is to use a stable toolchain as soon
+as possible, but for the moment we depend on a handful of nightly features.
+
+If you are using ``rustup``, run::
+
+ rustup default nightly-2021-02-20
+
+Please avoid the very latest nightlies (>= nightly-2021-03-05) until
+https://github.com/Rust-for-Linux/linux/issues/135 is resolved.
+
+Otherwise, fetch a standalone installer or install ``rustup`` from:
+
+ https://www.rust-lang.org
+
+
+Rust standard library source
+****************************
+
+The Rust standard library source is required because the build system will
+cross-compile ``core`` and ``alloc``.
+
+If you are using ``rustup``, run::
+
+ rustup component add rust-src
+
+Otherwise, if you used a standalone installer, you can clone the Rust
+repository into the installation folder of your nightly toolchain::
+
+ git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/rust-lang/rust $(rustc --print sysroot)/lib/rustlib/src/rust
+
+
+libclang
+********
+
+``libclang`` (part of LLVM) is used by ``bindgen`` to understand the C code
+in the kernel, which means you will need a recent LLVM installed; like when
+you compile the kernel with ``CC=clang`` or ``LLVM=1``.
+
+Your Linux distribution is likely to have a suitable one available, so it is
+best if you check that first.
+
+There are also some binaries for several systems and architectures uploaded at:
+
+ https://releases.llvm.org/download.html
+
+For Debian-based distributions, you can also fetch them from:
+
+ https://apt.llvm.org
+
+Otherwise, building LLVM takes quite a while, but it is not a complex process:
+
+ https://llvm.org/docs/GettingStarted.html#getting-the-source-code-and-building-llvm
+
+
+bindgen
+*******
+
+The bindings to the C side of the kernel are generated at build time using
+the ``bindgen`` tool. A recent version should work, e.g. ``0.56.0``.
+
+Install it via (this will build the tool from source)::
+
+ cargo install --locked --version 0.56.0 bindgen
+
+
+Requirements: Developing
+------------------------
+
+This section explains how to fetch the tools needed for developing. That is,
+if you only want to build the kernel, you do not need them.
+
+
+rustfmt
+*******
+
+The ``rustfmt`` tool is used to automatically format all the Rust kernel code,
+including the generated C bindings (for details, please see
+:ref:`Documentation/rust/coding.rst <rust_coding>`).
+
+If you are using ``rustup``, its ``default`` profile already installs the tool,
+so you should be good to go. If you are using another profile, you can install
+the component manually::
+
+ rustup component add rustfmt
+
+The standalone installers also come with ``rustfmt``.
+
+
+clippy
+******
+
+``clippy`` is a Rust linter. Installing it allows you to get extra warnings
+for Rust code passing ``CLIPPY=1`` to ``make`` (for details, please see
+:ref:`Documentation/rust/coding.rst <rust_coding>`).
+
+If you are using ``rustup``, its ``default`` profile already installs the tool,
+so you should be good to go. If you are using another profile, you can install
+the component manually::
+
+ rustup component add clippy
+
+The standalone installers also come with ``clippy``.
+
+
+rustdoc
+*******
+
+If you install the ``rustdoc`` tool, then you will be able to generate pretty
+HTML documentation for Rust code, including for the libraries (crates) inside
+``rust/`` that are used by the rest of the kernel (for details, please see
+:ref:`Documentation/rust/docs.rst <rust_docs>`).
+
+If you are using ``rustup``, its ``default`` profile already installs the tool,
+so you should be good to go. If you are using another profile, you can install
+the component manually::
+
+ rustup component add rustdoc
+
+The standalone installers also come with ``rustdoc``.
+
+
+Configuration
+-------------
+
+``Rust support`` (``CONFIG_RUST``) needs to be enabled in the ``General setup``
+menu. The option is only shown if the build system can locate ``rustc``.
+In turn, this will make visible the rest of options that depend on Rust.
+
+Afterwards, go to::
+
+ Kernel hacking
+ -> Sample kernel code
+ -> Rust samples
+
+And enable some sample modules either as built-in or as loadable.
+
+
+Building
+--------
+
+Building a kernel with Clang or a complete LLVM toolchain is the best supported
+setup at the moment. That is::
+
+ make ARCH=... CROSS_COMPILE=... CC=clang -j...
+
+or::
+
+ make ARCH=... CROSS_COMPILE=... LLVM=1 -j...
+
+Using GCC also works for some configurations, but it is *very* experimental at
+the moment.
+
+
+Hacking
+-------
+
+If you want to dive deeper, take a look at the source code of the samples
+at ``samples/rust/``, the Rust support code under ``rust/`` and
+the ``Rust hacking`` menu under ``Kernel hacking``.
+
+If you use GDB/Binutils and Rust symbols aren't getting demangled, the reason
+is your toolchain doesn't support Rust's new v0 mangling scheme yet. There are
+a few ways out:
+
+ - If you don't mind building your own tools, we provide the following fork
+ with the support cherry-picked from GCC on top of very recent releases:
+
+ https://github.com/Rust-for-Linux/binutils-gdb/releases/tag/gdb-10.1-release-rust
+ https://github.com/Rust-for-Linux/binutils-gdb/releases/tag/binutils-2_35_1-rust
+
+ - If you only need GDB and can enable ``CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO``, do so:
+ some versions of GDB (e.g. vanilla GDB 10.1) are able to use
+ the pre-demangled names embedded in the debug info.
+
+ - If you don't need loadable module support, you may compile without
+ the ``-Zsymbol-mangling-version=v0`` flag. However, we don't maintain
+ support for that, so avoid it unless you are in a hurry.
--
2.17.1
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