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Subject[PATCH] riscv: fix memmove and optimise memcpy when misalign
Date
04091d6 introduces an assembly version of memmove but
it does take misalignment into account (it checks if
length is a multiple of machine word size but pointers
need also be aligned). As a result it will generate
misaligned load/store for the majority of cases and causes
significant performance regression on hardware that traps
misaligned load/store and emulate them using firmware.

The current behaviour of memcpy is that it checks if both
src and dest pointers are co-aligned (aka congruent
modular SZ_REG). If aligned, it will copy data word-by-word
after first aligning pointers to word boundary. If src
and dst are not co-aligned, however, byte-wise copy will
be performed.

This patch fixes the memmove and optimises memcpy for
misaligned cases. It will first align destination pointer
to word-boundary regardless whether src and dest are
co-aligned or not. If they indeed are, then wordwise copy
is performed. If they are not co-aligned, then it will
load two adjacent words from src and use shifts to assemble
a full machine word. Some additional assembly level
micro-optimisation is also performed to ensure more
instructions can be compressed (e.g. prefer a0 to t6).

In my testing this speeds up memcpy 4~5x when src and dest
are not co-aligned (which is quite common in networking),
and speeds up memmove 1000+x by avoiding trapping to firmware.

Signed-off-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
---
arch/riscv/lib/memcpy.S | 223 ++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------
arch/riscv/lib/memmove.S | 176 ++++++++++++++++++++----------
2 files changed, 257 insertions(+), 142 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/riscv/lib/memcpy.S b/arch/riscv/lib/memcpy.S
index 51ab716253fa..00672c19ad9b 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/lib/memcpy.S
+++ b/arch/riscv/lib/memcpy.S
@@ -9,100 +9,151 @@
/* void *memcpy(void *, const void *, size_t) */
ENTRY(__memcpy)
WEAK(memcpy)
- move t6, a0 /* Preserve return value */
+ /* Save for return value */
+ mv t6, a0

- /* Defer to byte-oriented copy for small sizes */
- sltiu a3, a2, 128
- bnez a3, 4f
- /* Use word-oriented copy only if low-order bits match */
- andi a3, t6, SZREG-1
- andi a4, a1, SZREG-1
- bne a3, a4, 4f
+ /*
+ * Register allocation for code below:
+ * a0 - start of uncopied dst
+ * a1 - start of uncopied src
+ * t0 - end of uncopied dst
+ */
+ add t0, a0, a2

- beqz a3, 2f /* Skip if already aligned */
/*
- * Round to nearest double word-aligned address
- * greater than or equal to start address
+ * Use bytewise copy if too small.
+ *
+ * This threshold must be at least 2*SZREG to ensure at least one
+ * wordwise copy is performed. It is chosen to be 16 because it will
+ * save at least 7 iterations of bytewise copy, which pays off the
+ * fixed overhead.
*/
- andi a3, a1, ~(SZREG-1)
- addi a3, a3, SZREG
- /* Handle initial misalignment */
- sub a4, a3, a1
+ li a3, 16
+ bltu a2, a3, .Lbyte_copy_tail
+
+ /*
+ * Bytewise copy first to align a0 to word boundary.
+ */
+ addi a2, a0, SZREG-1
+ andi a2, a2, ~(SZREG-1)
+ beq a0, a2, 2f
1:
- lb a5, 0(a1)
- addi a1, a1, 1
- sb a5, 0(t6)
- addi t6, t6, 1
- bltu a1, a3, 1b
- sub a2, a2, a4 /* Update count */
+ lb a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a1, a1, 1
+ sb a5, 0(a0)
+ addi a0, a0, 1
+ bne a0, a2, 1b
+2:
+
+ /*
+ * Now a0 is word-aligned. If a1 is also word aligned, we could perform
+ * aligned word-wise copy. Otherwise we need to perform misaligned
+ * word-wise copy.
+ */
+ andi a3, a1, SZREG-1
+ bnez a3, .Lmisaligned_word_copy

+ /* Unrolled wordwise copy */
+ addi t0, t0, -(16*SZREG-1)
+ bgeu a0, t0, 2f
+1:
+ REG_L a2, 0(a1)
+ REG_L a3, SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a4, 2*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a5, 3*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a6, 4*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a7, 5*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L t1, 6*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L t2, 7*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L t3, 8*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L t4, 9*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L t5, 10*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_S a2, 0(a0)
+ REG_S a3, SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a4, 2*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a5, 3*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a6, 4*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a7, 5*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S t1, 6*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S t2, 7*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S t3, 8*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S t4, 9*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S t5, 10*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_L a2, 11*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a3, 12*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a4, 13*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a5, 14*SZREG(a1)
+ REG_L a6, 15*SZREG(a1)
+ addi a1, a1, 16*SZREG
+ REG_S a2, 11*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a3, 12*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a4, 13*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a5, 14*SZREG(a0)
+ REG_S a6, 15*SZREG(a0)
+ addi a0, a0, 16*SZREG
+ bltu a0, t0, 1b
2:
- andi a4, a2, ~((16*SZREG)-1)
- beqz a4, 4f
- add a3, a1, a4
-3:
- REG_L a4, 0(a1)
- REG_L a5, SZREG(a1)
- REG_L a6, 2*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L a7, 3*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t0, 4*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t1, 5*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t2, 6*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t3, 7*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t4, 8*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t5, 9*SZREG(a1)
- REG_S a4, 0(t6)
- REG_S a5, SZREG(t6)
- REG_S a6, 2*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S a7, 3*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t0, 4*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t1, 5*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t2, 6*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t3, 7*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t4, 8*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t5, 9*SZREG(t6)
- REG_L a4, 10*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L a5, 11*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L a6, 12*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L a7, 13*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t0, 14*SZREG(a1)
- REG_L t1, 15*SZREG(a1)
- addi a1, a1, 16*SZREG
- REG_S a4, 10*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S a5, 11*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S a6, 12*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S a7, 13*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t0, 14*SZREG(t6)
- REG_S t1, 15*SZREG(t6)
- addi t6, t6, 16*SZREG
- bltu a1, a3, 3b
- andi a2, a2, (16*SZREG)-1 /* Update count */
-
-4:
- /* Handle trailing misalignment */
- beqz a2, 6f
- add a3, a1, a2
-
- /* Use word-oriented copy if co-aligned to word boundary */
- or a5, a1, t6
- or a5, a5, a3
- andi a5, a5, 3
- bnez a5, 5f
-7:
- lw a4, 0(a1)
- addi a1, a1, 4
- sw a4, 0(t6)
- addi t6, t6, 4
- bltu a1, a3, 7b
+ /* Post-loop increment by 16*SZREG-1 and pre-loop decrement by SZREG-1 */
+ addi t0, t0, 15*SZREG

- ret
+ /* Wordwise copy */
+ bgeu a0, t0, 2f
+1:
+ REG_L a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a1, a1, SZREG
+ REG_S a5, 0(a0)
+ addi a0, a0, SZREG
+ bltu a0, t0, 1b
+2:
+ addi t0, t0, SZREG-1

-5:
- lb a4, 0(a1)
- addi a1, a1, 1
- sb a4, 0(t6)
- addi t6, t6, 1
- bltu a1, a3, 5b
-6:
+.Lbyte_copy_tail:
+ /*
+ * Bytewise copy anything left.
+ */
+ beq a0, t0, 2f
+1:
+ lb a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a1, a1, 1
+ sb a5, 0(a0)
+ addi a0, a0, 1
+ bne a0, t0, 1b
+2:
+
+ mv a0, t6
ret
+
+.Lmisaligned_word_copy:
+ /*
+ * Misaligned word-wise copy.
+ * For misaligned copy we still perform word-wise copy, but we need to
+ * use the value fetched from the previous iteration and do some shifts.
+ * This is safe because we wouldn't access more words than necessary.
+ */
+
+ /* Calculate shifts */
+ slli t3, a3, 3
+ sub t4, x0, t3 /* negate is okay as shift will only look at LSBs */
+
+ /* Load the initial value and align a1 */
+ andi a1, a1, ~(SZREG-1)
+ REG_L a5, 0(a1)
+
+ addi t0, t0, -(SZREG-1)
+ /* At least one iteration will be executed here, no check */
+1:
+ srl a4, a5, t3
+ REG_L a5, SZREG(a1)
+ addi a1, a1, SZREG
+ sll a2, a5, t4
+ or a2, a2, a4
+ REG_S a2, 0(a0)
+ addi a0, a0, SZREG
+ bltu a0, t0, 1b
+
+ /* Update pointers to correct value */
+ addi t0, t0, SZREG-1
+ add a1, a1, a3
+
+ j .Lbyte_copy_tail
END(__memcpy)
diff --git a/arch/riscv/lib/memmove.S b/arch/riscv/lib/memmove.S
index 07d1d2152ba5..fbe6701dbe4a 100644
--- a/arch/riscv/lib/memmove.S
+++ b/arch/riscv/lib/memmove.S
@@ -5,60 +5,124 @@

ENTRY(__memmove)
WEAK(memmove)
- move t0, a0
- move t1, a1
-
- beq a0, a1, exit_memcpy
- beqz a2, exit_memcpy
- srli t2, a2, 0x2
-
- slt t3, a0, a1
- beqz t3, do_reverse
-
- andi a2, a2, 0x3
- li t4, 1
- beqz t2, byte_copy
-
-word_copy:
- lw t3, 0(a1)
- addi t2, t2, -1
- addi a1, a1, 4
- sw t3, 0(a0)
- addi a0, a0, 4
- bnez t2, word_copy
- beqz a2, exit_memcpy
- j byte_copy
-
-do_reverse:
- add a0, a0, a2
- add a1, a1, a2
- andi a2, a2, 0x3
- li t4, -1
- beqz t2, reverse_byte_copy
-
-reverse_word_copy:
- addi a1, a1, -4
- addi t2, t2, -1
- lw t3, 0(a1)
- addi a0, a0, -4
- sw t3, 0(a0)
- bnez t2, reverse_word_copy
- beqz a2, exit_memcpy
-
-reverse_byte_copy:
- addi a0, a0, -1
- addi a1, a1, -1
-
-byte_copy:
- lb t3, 0(a1)
- addi a2, a2, -1
- sb t3, 0(a0)
- add a1, a1, t4
- add a0, a0, t4
- bnez a2, byte_copy
-
-exit_memcpy:
- move a0, t0
- move a1, t1
- ret
+ /*
+ * Here we determine if forward copy is possible. Forward copy is
+ * preferred to backward copy as it is more cache friendly.
+ *
+ * If a0 >= a1, t0 gives their distance, if t0 >= a2 then we can
+ * copy forward.
+ * If a0 < a1, we can always copy forward. This will make t0 negative,
+ * so a *unsigned* comparison will always have t0 >= a2.
+ *
+ * For forward copy we just delegate the task to memcpy.
+ */
+ sub t0, a0, a1
+ bltu t0, a2, 1f
+ tail __memcpy
+1:
+
+ /*
+ * Register allocation for code below:
+ * a0 - end of uncopied dst
+ * a1 - end of uncopied src
+ * t0 - start of uncopied dst
+ */
+ mv t0, a0
+ add a0, a0, a2
+ add a1, a1, a2
+
+ /*
+ * Use bytewise copy if too small.
+ *
+ * This threshold must be at least 2*SZREG to ensure at least one
+ * wordwise copy is performed. It is chosen to be 16 because it will
+ * save at least 7 iterations of bytewise copy, which pays off the
+ * fixed overhead.
+ */
+ li a3, 16
+ bltu a2, a3, .Lbyte_copy_tail
+
+ /*
+ * Bytewise copy first to align t0 to word boundary.
+ */
+ andi a2, a0, ~(SZREG-1)
+ beq a0, a2, 2f
+1:
+ addi a1, a1, -1
+ lb a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a0, a0, -1
+ sb a5, 0(a0)
+ bne a0, a2, 1b
+2:
+
+ /*
+ * Now a0 is word-aligned. If a1 is also word aligned, we could perform
+ * aligned word-wise copy. Otherwise we need to perform misaligned
+ * word-wise copy.
+ */
+ andi a3, a1, SZREG-1
+ bnez a3, .Lmisaligned_word_copy
+
+ /* Wordwise copy */
+ addi t0, t0, SZREG-1
+ bleu a0, t0, 2f
+1:
+ addi a1, a1, -SZREG
+ REG_L a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a0, a0, -SZREG
+ REG_S a5, 0(a0)
+ bgtu a0, t0, 1b
+2:
+ addi t0, t0, -(SZREG-1)
+
+.Lbyte_copy_tail:
+ /*
+ * Bytewise copy anything left.
+ */
+ beq a0, t0, 2f
+1:
+ addi a1, a1, -1
+ lb a5, 0(a1)
+ addi a0, a0, -1
+ sb a5, 0(a0)
+ bne a0, t0, 1b
+2:
+
+ mv a0, t0
+ ret
+
+.Lmisaligned_word_copy:
+ /*
+ * Misaligned word-wise copy.
+ * For misaligned copy we still perform word-wise copy, but we need to
+ * use the value fetched from the previous iteration and do some shifts.
+ * This is safe because we wouldn't access more words than necessary.
+ */
+
+ /* Calculate shifts */
+ slli t3, a3, 3
+ sub t4, x0, t3 /* negate is okay as shift will only look at LSBs */
+
+ /* Load the initial value and align a1 */
+ andi a1, a1, ~(SZREG-1)
+ REG_L a5, 0(a1)
+
+ addi t0, t0, SZREG-1
+ /* At least one iteration will be executed here, no check */
+1:
+ sll a4, a5, t4
+ addi a1, a1, -SZREG
+ REG_L a5, 0(a1)
+ srl a2, a5, t3
+ or a2, a2, a4
+ addi a0, a0, -SZREG
+ REG_S a2, 0(a0)
+ bgtu a0, t0, 1b
+
+ /* Update pointers to correct value */
+ addi t0, t0, -(SZREG-1)
+ add a1, a1, a3
+
+ j .Lbyte_copy_tail
+
END(__memmove)
--
2.20.1
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