lkml.org 
[lkml]   [2021]   [Dec]   [6]   [last100]   RSS Feed
Views: [wrap][no wrap]   [headers]  [forward] 
 
Messages in this thread
Patch in this message
/
From
Subject[PATCH 09/19] rust: add `kernel` crate
Date
From: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>

The `kernel` crate currently includes all the abstractions that wrap
kernel features written in C.

These abstractions call the C side of the kernel via the generated
bindings with the `bindgen` tool. Modules developed in Rust should
never call the bindings themselves.

In the future, as the abstractions grow in number, we may need
to split this crate into several, possibly following a similar
subdivision in subsystems as the kernel itself and/or moving
the code to the actual subsystems.

Co-developed-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Alex Gaynor <alex.gaynor@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Signed-off-by: Geoffrey Thomas <geofft@ldpreload.com>
Co-developed-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Signed-off-by: Finn Behrens <me@kloenk.de>
Co-developed-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Adam Bratschi-Kaye <ark.email@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
Co-developed-by: Sumera Priyadarsini <sylphrenadin@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Sumera Priyadarsini <sylphrenadin@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Sven Van Asbroeck <thesven73@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Signed-off-by: Gary Guo <gary@garyguo.net>
Co-developed-by: Boris-Chengbiao Zhou <bobo1239@web.de>
Signed-off-by: Boris-Chengbiao Zhou <bobo1239@web.de>
Co-developed-by: Boqun Feng <boqun.feng@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Boqun Feng <boqun.feng@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Fox Chen <foxhlchen@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Fox Chen <foxhlchen@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Dan Robertson <daniel.robertson@starlab.io>
Signed-off-by: Dan Robertson <daniel.robertson@starlab.io>
Co-developed-by: Viktor Garske <viktor@v-gar.de>
Signed-off-by: Viktor Garske <viktor@v-gar.de>
Co-developed-by: Dariusz Sosnowski <dsosnowski@dsosnowski.pl>
Signed-off-by: Dariusz Sosnowski <dsosnowski@dsosnowski.pl>
Co-developed-by: Léo Lanteri Thauvin <leseulartichaut@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Léo Lanteri Thauvin <leseulartichaut@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Niklas Mohrin <dev@niklasmohrin.de>
Signed-off-by: Niklas Mohrin <dev@niklasmohrin.de>
Co-developed-by: Gioh Kim <gurugio@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Gioh Kim <gurugio@gmail.com>
Co-developed-by: Milan Landaverde <milan@mdaverde.com>
Signed-off-by: Milan Landaverde <milan@mdaverde.com>
Co-developed-by: Morgan Bartlett <mjmouse9999@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Morgan Bartlett <mjmouse9999@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Wedson Almeida Filho <wedsonaf@google.com>
Co-developed-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Miguel Ojeda <ojeda@kernel.org>
---
include/linux/spinlock.h | 17 +-
kernel/printk/printk.c | 5 +-
rust/kernel/allocator.rs | 65 +++
rust/kernel/amba.rs | 276 +++++++++++
rust/kernel/bindings.rs | 47 ++
rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h | 30 ++
rust/kernel/buffer.rs | 52 ++
rust/kernel/build_assert.rs | 80 +++
rust/kernel/c_types.rs | 119 +++++
rust/kernel/chrdev.rs | 212 ++++++++
rust/kernel/cred.rs | 73 +++
rust/kernel/device.rs | 206 ++++++++
rust/kernel/driver.rs | 198 ++++++++
rust/kernel/error.rs | 542 +++++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/file.rs | 141 ++++++
rust/kernel/file_operations.rs | 723 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/gpio.rs | 475 ++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/io_buffer.rs | 153 ++++++
rust/kernel/io_mem.rs | 207 ++++++++
rust/kernel/iov_iter.rs | 81 ++++
rust/kernel/irq.rs | 408 ++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/lib.rs | 256 ++++++++++
rust/kernel/linked_list.rs | 247 ++++++++++
rust/kernel/miscdev.rs | 166 +++++++
rust/kernel/module_param.rs | 497 +++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/of.rs | 101 ++++
rust/kernel/pages.rs | 162 +++++++
rust/kernel/platdev.rs | 152 ++++++
rust/kernel/power.rs | 118 +++++
rust/kernel/prelude.rs | 33 ++
rust/kernel/print.rs | 441 +++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/random.rs | 50 ++
rust/kernel/raw_list.rs | 361 ++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/rbtree.rs | 562 +++++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/revocable.rs | 163 +++++++
rust/kernel/security.rs | 36 ++
rust/kernel/static_assert.rs | 39 ++
rust/kernel/std_vendor.rs | 150 ++++++
rust/kernel/str.rs | 375 +++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs | 500 +++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs | 137 ++++++
rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs | 181 +++++++
rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs | 112 +++++
rust/kernel/sync/mod.rs | 92 ++++
rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs | 111 +++++
rust/kernel/sync/revocable_mutex.rs | 184 +++++++
rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs | 201 ++++++++
rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs | 180 +++++++
rust/kernel/sysctl.rs | 197 ++++++++
rust/kernel/task.rs | 182 +++++++
rust/kernel/types.rs | 486 +++++++++++++++++++
rust/kernel/user_ptr.rs | 175 +++++++
52 files changed, 10750 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/allocator.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/amba.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/bindings.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/buffer.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/build_assert.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/c_types.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/chrdev.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/cred.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/device.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/driver.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/error.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/file.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/file_operations.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/gpio.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/io_buffer.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/io_mem.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/iov_iter.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/irq.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/lib.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/linked_list.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/miscdev.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/module_param.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/of.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/pages.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/platdev.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/power.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/prelude.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/print.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/random.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/raw_list.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/rbtree.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/revocable.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/security.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/static_assert.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/std_vendor.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/str.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/mod.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/revocable_mutex.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/sysctl.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/task.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/types.rs
create mode 100644 rust/kernel/user_ptr.rs

diff --git a/include/linux/spinlock.h b/include/linux/spinlock.h
index b4e5ca23f840..40e467cdee2d 100644
--- a/include/linux/spinlock.h
+++ b/include/linux/spinlock.h
@@ -326,12 +326,17 @@ static __always_inline raw_spinlock_t *spinlock_check(spinlock_t *lock)

#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK

-# define spin_lock_init(lock) \
-do { \
- static struct lock_class_key __key; \
- \
- __raw_spin_lock_init(spinlock_check(lock), \
- #lock, &__key, LD_WAIT_CONFIG); \
+static inline void __spin_lock_init(spinlock_t *lock, const char *name,
+ struct lock_class_key *key)
+{
+ __raw_spin_lock_init(spinlock_check(lock), name, key, LD_WAIT_CONFIG);
+}
+
+# define spin_lock_init(lock) \
+do { \
+ static struct lock_class_key __key; \
+ \
+ __spin_lock_init(lock, #lock, &__key); \
} while (0)

#else
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk.c b/kernel/printk/printk.c
index 57b132b658e1..cbc35d586afb 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk.c
@@ -392,7 +392,10 @@ static struct latched_seq clear_seq = {
/* the maximum size of a formatted record (i.e. with prefix added per line) */
#define CONSOLE_LOG_MAX 1024

-/* the maximum size allowed to be reserved for a record */
+/*
+ * The maximum size allowed to be reserved for a record.
+ * Keep in sync with rust/kernel/print.rs.
+ */
#define LOG_LINE_MAX (CONSOLE_LOG_MAX - PREFIX_MAX)

#define LOG_LEVEL(v) ((v) & 0x07)
diff --git a/rust/kernel/allocator.rs b/rust/kernel/allocator.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4c5d2fc6f206
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/allocator.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Allocator support.
+
+use core::alloc::{GlobalAlloc, Layout};
+use core::ptr;
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use crate::c_types;
+
+struct KernelAllocator;
+
+unsafe impl GlobalAlloc for KernelAllocator {
+ unsafe fn alloc(&self, layout: Layout) -> *mut u8 {
+ // `krealloc()` is used instead of `kmalloc()` because the latter is
+ // an inline function and cannot be bound to as a result.
+ unsafe { bindings::krealloc(ptr::null(), layout.size(), bindings::GFP_KERNEL) as *mut u8 }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn dealloc(&self, ptr: *mut u8, _layout: Layout) {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::kfree(ptr as *const c_types::c_void);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+#[global_allocator]
+static ALLOCATOR: KernelAllocator = KernelAllocator;
+
+// `rustc` only generates these for some crate types. Even then, we would need
+// to extract the object file that has them from the archive. For the moment,
+// let's generate them ourselves instead.
+//
+// Note that `#[no_mangle]` implies exported too, nowadays.
+#[no_mangle]
+fn __rust_alloc(size: usize, _align: usize) -> *mut u8 {
+ unsafe { bindings::krealloc(core::ptr::null(), size, bindings::GFP_KERNEL) as *mut u8 }
+}
+
+#[no_mangle]
+fn __rust_dealloc(ptr: *mut u8, _size: usize, _align: usize) {
+ unsafe { bindings::kfree(ptr as *const c_types::c_void) };
+}
+
+#[no_mangle]
+fn __rust_realloc(ptr: *mut u8, _old_size: usize, _align: usize, new_size: usize) -> *mut u8 {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::krealloc(
+ ptr as *const c_types::c_void,
+ new_size,
+ bindings::GFP_KERNEL,
+ ) as *mut u8
+ }
+}
+
+#[no_mangle]
+fn __rust_alloc_zeroed(size: usize, _align: usize) -> *mut u8 {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::krealloc(
+ core::ptr::null(),
+ size,
+ bindings::GFP_KERNEL | bindings::__GFP_ZERO,
+ ) as *mut u8
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/amba.rs b/rust/kernel/amba.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..689528502ca5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/amba.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,276 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Amba devices drivers.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/amba/bus.h`](../../../../include/linux/amba/bus.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types, device, driver, error::from_kernel_result, io_mem::Resource, power,
+ str::CStr, to_result, types::PointerWrapper, Error, Result,
+};
+use core::{marker::PhantomData, ops::Deref};
+
+/// A registration of an amba driver.
+pub type Registration<T> = driver::Registration<Adapter<T>>;
+
+/// Id of an Amba device.
+pub struct DeviceId<T = ()> {
+ /// Device id.
+ pub id: u32,
+
+ /// Mask that identifies which bits are valid in the device id.
+ pub mask: u32,
+
+ /// Context data to be associated with the device id. This is carried over to [`Driver::probe`]
+ /// so that drivers can encode any information they may need then.
+ pub data: T,
+}
+
+/// An amba driver.
+pub trait Driver
+where
+ <Self::Data as Deref>::Target: driver::DeviceRemoval,
+{
+ /// Data stored on device by driver.
+ type Data: PointerWrapper + Send + Sync + Deref;
+
+ /// The type that implements the power-management operations.
+ ///
+ /// The default is a type that implements no power-management operations. Drivers that do
+ /// implement them need to specify the type (commonly [`Self`]).
+ type PowerOps: power::Operations<Data = Self::Data> = power::NoOperations<Self::Data>;
+
+ /// The type holding information about each device id supported by the driver.
+ type IdInfo: 'static = ();
+
+ /// The table of device ids supported by the drivers.
+ const ID_TABLE: &'static [DeviceId<Self::IdInfo>];
+
+ /// Probes for the device with the given id.
+ fn probe(dev: &mut Device, id: &DeviceId<Self::IdInfo>) -> Result<Self::Data>;
+
+ /// Cleans any resources up that are associated with the device.
+ ///
+ /// This is called when the driver is detached from the device.
+ fn remove(_data: &Self::Data) {}
+}
+
+/// An adapter for the registration of Amba drivers.
+pub struct Adapter<T: Driver>(PhantomData<T>)
+where
+ <T::Data as Deref>::Target: driver::DeviceRemoval;
+
+impl<T: Driver> driver::DriverOps for Adapter<T>
+where
+ <T::Data as Deref>::Target: driver::DeviceRemoval,
+{
+ type RegType = bindings::amba_driver;
+ type RawIdType = bindings::amba_id;
+ type IdType = DeviceId<T::IdInfo>;
+ const ID_TABLE: &'static [Self::IdType] = T::ID_TABLE;
+
+ unsafe fn register(
+ reg: *mut bindings::amba_driver,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ id_table: *const bindings::amba_id,
+ ) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements of this function (defined in the trait defintion),
+ // `reg` is non-null and valid.
+ let amba = unsafe { &mut *reg };
+ amba.drv.name = name.as_char_ptr();
+ amba.id_table = id_table;
+ amba.probe = Some(probe_callback::<T>);
+ amba.remove = Some(remove_callback::<T>);
+ if cfg!(CONFIG_PM) {
+ // SAFETY: `probe_callback` sets the driver data after calling `T::Data::into_pointer`,
+ // and we guarantee that `T::Data` is the same as `T::PowerOps::Data` by a constraint
+ // in the type declaration.
+ amba.drv.pm = unsafe { power::OpsTable::<T::PowerOps>::build() };
+ }
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements of this function, `reg` is valid and fully
+ // initialised.
+ to_result(|| unsafe { bindings::amba_driver_register(reg) })
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unregister(reg: *mut bindings::amba_driver) {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements of this function (defined in the trait definition),
+ // `reg` was passed (and updated) by a previous successful call to `amba_driver_register`.
+ unsafe { bindings::amba_driver_unregister(reg) };
+ }
+
+ fn to_raw_id(index: usize, id: &Self::IdType) -> Self::RawIdType {
+ bindings::amba_id {
+ id: id.id,
+ mask: id.mask,
+ data: index as _,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn probe_callback<T: Driver>(
+ adev: *mut bindings::amba_device,
+ aid: *const bindings::amba_id,
+) -> c_types::c_int
+where
+ <T::Data as Deref>::Target: driver::DeviceRemoval,
+{
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `adev` is valid by the contract with the C code. `dev` is alive only for the
+ // duration of this call, so it is guaranteed to remain alive for the lifetime of `dev`.
+ let mut dev = unsafe { Device::from_ptr(adev) };
+ // SAFETY: `aid` is valid by the requirements the contract with the C code.
+ let index = unsafe { (*aid).data } as usize;
+ if index >= T::ID_TABLE.len() {
+ return Err(Error::ENXIO);
+ }
+ let data = T::probe(&mut dev, &T::ID_TABLE[index])?;
+ let ptr = T::Data::into_pointer(data);
+ // SAFETY: `adev` is valid for write by the contract with the C code.
+ unsafe { bindings::amba_set_drvdata(adev, ptr as _) };
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn remove_callback<T: Driver>(adev: *mut bindings::amba_device)
+where
+ <T::Data as Deref>::Target: driver::DeviceRemoval,
+{
+ // SAFETY: `adev` is valid by the contract with the C code.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::amba_get_drvdata(adev) };
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `amba_get_drvdata` was stored by a previous call to
+ // `amba_set_drvdata` in `probe_callback` above; the value comes from a call to
+ // `T::Data::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::from_pointer(ptr) };
+ T::remove(&data);
+ <<T::Data as Deref>::Target as driver::DeviceRemoval>::device_remove(data.deref());
+}
+
+/// An Amba device.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The field `ptr` is non-null and valid for the lifetime of the object.
+pub struct Device {
+ ptr: *mut bindings::amba_device,
+ res: Option<Resource>,
+}
+
+impl Device {
+ /// Creates a new device from the given pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must be non-null and valid. It must remain valid for the lifetime of the returned
+ /// instance.
+ unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::amba_device) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that `ptr` is valid.
+ let dev = unsafe { &mut *ptr };
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements of the function ensure the lifetime invariant.
+ Self {
+ ptr,
+ res: Resource::new(dev.res.start, dev.res.end),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the io mem resource associated with the device, if there is one.
+ ///
+ /// Ownership of the resource is transferred to the caller, so subsequent calls to this
+ /// function will return [`None`].
+ pub fn take_resource(&mut self) -> Option<Resource> {
+ self.res.take()
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the index-th irq associated with the device, if one exists.
+ pub fn irq(&self, index: usize) -> Option<u32> {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, `self.ptr` is valid for read.
+ let dev = unsafe { &*self.ptr };
+ if index >= dev.irq.len() || dev.irq[index] == 0 {
+ None
+ } else {
+ Some(dev.irq[index])
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The device returned by `raw_device` is the raw Amba device.
+unsafe impl device::RawDevice for Device {
+ fn raw_device(&self) -> *mut bindings::device {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, we know that `self.ptr` is non-null and valid.
+ unsafe { &mut (*self.ptr).dev }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Declares a kernel module that exposes a single amba driver.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```ignore
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::{amba, declare_amba_id_table, module_amba_driver};
+/// #
+/// # struct State;
+/// # impl kernel::driver::DeviceRemoval for State {
+/// # fn device_remove(&self) {}
+/// # }
+/// struct MyDriver;
+/// impl amba::Driver for MyDriver {
+/// // [...]
+/// # type Data = kernel::sync::Ref<State>;
+/// # fn probe(dev: &mut amba::Device, id: &amba::DeviceId<Self::IdInfo>) -> Result<Self::Data> {
+/// # todo!()
+/// # }
+/// # declare_amba_id_table! [
+/// # { id: 0x00041061, mask: 0x000fffff, data: () },
+/// # ];
+/// }
+///
+/// module_amba_driver! {
+/// type: MyDriver,
+/// name: b"module_name",
+/// author: b"Author name",
+/// license: b"GPL v2",
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! module_amba_driver {
+ ($($f:tt)*) => {
+ $crate::module_driver!(<T>, $crate::amba::Adapter<T>, { $($f)* });
+ };
+}
+
+/// Declares the id table for amba devices.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::{amba, declare_amba_id_table};
+/// #
+/// # struct State;
+/// # impl kernel::driver::DeviceRemoval for State {
+/// # fn device_remove(&self) {}
+/// # }
+/// # struct Sample;
+/// # impl kernel::amba::Driver for Sample {
+/// # type Data = kernel::sync::Ref<State>;
+/// # fn probe(dev: &mut amba::Device, id: &amba::DeviceId<Self::IdInfo>) -> Result<Self::Data> {
+/// # todo!()
+/// # }
+/// declare_amba_id_table! [
+/// { id: 0x00041061, mask: 0x000fffff, data: () },
+/// ];
+/// # }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! declare_amba_id_table {
+ ($({$($entry:tt)*},)*) => {
+ const ID_TABLE: &'static [$crate::amba::DeviceId<Self::IdInfo>] = &[
+ $( $crate::amba::DeviceId { $($entry)* },)*
+ ];
+ };
+
+ // Cover case without a trailing comma.
+ ($(($($entry:tt)*)),*) => {
+ $crate::declare_amba_id_table!{ $({$($entry)*},)*}
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/bindings.rs b/rust/kernel/bindings.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..02678ca589c8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/bindings.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Bindings
+//!
+//! Imports the generated bindings by `bindgen`.
+
+// See https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-bindgen/issues/1651.
+#![cfg_attr(test, allow(deref_nullptr))]
+#![cfg_attr(test, allow(unaligned_references))]
+#![cfg_attr(test, allow(unsafe_op_in_unsafe_fn))]
+#![allow(
+ clippy::all,
+ non_camel_case_types,
+ non_upper_case_globals,
+ non_snake_case,
+ improper_ctypes,
+ unreachable_pub,
+ unsafe_op_in_unsafe_fn
+)]
+
+mod bindings_raw {
+ // Use glob import here to expose all helpers.
+ // Symbols defined within the module will take precedence to the glob import.
+ pub use super::bindings_helper::*;
+ use crate::c_types;
+ include!(concat!(env!("OBJTREE"), "/rust/bindings_generated.rs"));
+}
+
+// When both a directly exposed symbol and a helper exists for the same function,
+// the directly exposed symbol is preferred and the helper becomes dead code, so
+// ignore the warning here.
+#[allow(dead_code)]
+mod bindings_helper {
+ // Import the generated bindings for types.
+ use super::bindings_raw::*;
+ use crate::c_types;
+ include!(concat!(
+ env!("OBJTREE"),
+ "/rust/bindings_helpers_generated.rs"
+ ));
+}
+
+pub use bindings_raw::*;
+
+pub const GFP_KERNEL: gfp_t = BINDINGS_GFP_KERNEL;
+pub const __GFP_ZERO: gfp_t = BINDINGS___GFP_ZERO;
+pub const __GFP_HIGHMEM: gfp_t = ___GFP_HIGHMEM;
diff --git a/rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h b/rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..55c3f25a54eb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/bindings_helper.h
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+
+#include <linux/cdev.h>
+#include <linux/errname.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/sysctl.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/uio.h>
+#include <linux/version.h>
+#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
+#include <linux/poll.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <uapi/linux/android/binder.h>
+#include <linux/platform_device.h>
+#include <linux/of_platform.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>
+#include <asm/io.h>
+#include <linux/irq.h>
+#include <linux/interrupt.h>
+#include <linux/irqdomain.h>
+#include <linux/amba/bus.h>
+#include <linux/gpio/driver.h>
+
+// `bindgen` gets confused at certain things
+const gfp_t BINDINGS_GFP_KERNEL = GFP_KERNEL;
+const gfp_t BINDINGS___GFP_ZERO = __GFP_ZERO;
diff --git a/rust/kernel/buffer.rs b/rust/kernel/buffer.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..48f429065323
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/buffer.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Struct for writing to a pre-allocated buffer with the [`write!`] macro.
+
+use core::fmt;
+
+/// A pre-allocated buffer that implements [`core::fmt::Write`].
+///
+/// Consecutive writes will append to what has already been written.
+/// Writes that don't fit in the buffer will fail.
+pub struct Buffer<'a> {
+ slice: &'a mut [u8],
+ pos: usize,
+}
+
+impl<'a> Buffer<'a> {
+ /// Creates a new buffer from an existing array.
+ pub fn new(slice: &'a mut [u8]) -> Self {
+ Buffer { slice, pos: 0 }
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a new buffer from a raw pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must be valid for read and writes, have at least `len` bytes in
+ /// size, and remain valid and not be used by other threads for the lifetime
+ /// of the returned instance.
+ pub unsafe fn from_raw(ptr: *mut u8, len: usize) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function satisfy those of
+ // `from_raw_parts_mut`.
+ Self::new(unsafe { core::slice::from_raw_parts_mut(ptr, len) })
+ }
+
+ /// Number of bytes that have already been written to the buffer.
+ /// This will always be less than the length of the original array.
+ pub fn bytes_written(&self) -> usize {
+ self.pos
+ }
+}
+
+impl fmt::Write for Buffer<'_> {
+ fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) -> fmt::Result {
+ if s.len() > self.slice.len() - self.pos {
+ Err(fmt::Error)
+ } else {
+ self.slice[self.pos..self.pos + s.len()].copy_from_slice(s.as_bytes());
+ self.pos += s.len();
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/build_assert.rs b/rust/kernel/build_assert.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f726927185c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/build_assert.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,80 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Build-time assert.
+
+/// Fails the build if the code path calling `build_error!` can possibly be executed.
+///
+/// If the macro is executed in const context, `build_error!` will panic.
+/// If the compiler or optimizer cannot guarantee that `build_error!` can never
+/// be called, a build error will be triggered.
+///
+/// # Examples
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::build_error;
+/// #[inline]
+/// fn foo(a: usize) -> usize {
+/// a.checked_add(1).unwrap_or_else(|| build_error!("overflow"))
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! build_error {
+ () => {{
+ $crate::build_error("")
+ }};
+ ($msg:expr) => {{
+ $crate::build_error($msg)
+ }};
+}
+
+/// Asserts that a boolean expression is `true` at compile time.
+///
+/// If the condition is evaluated to `false` in const context, `build_assert!`
+/// will panic. If the compiler or optimizer cannot guarantee the condition will
+/// be evaluated to `true`, a build error will be triggered.
+///
+/// [`static_assert!`] should be preferred to `build_assert!` whenever possible.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// These examples show that different types of [`assert!`] will trigger errors
+/// at different stage of compilation. It is preferred to err as early as
+/// possible, so [`static_assert!`] should be used whenever possible.
+/// ```compile_fail
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// fn foo() {
+/// static_assert!(1 > 1); // Compile-time error
+/// build_assert!(1 > 1); // Build-time error
+/// assert!(1 > 1); // Run-time error
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// When the condition refers to generic parameters or parameters of an inline function,
+/// [`static_assert!`] cannot be used. Use `build_assert!` in this scenario.
+/// ```no_run
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// fn foo<const N: usize>() {
+/// // `static_assert!(N > 1);` is not allowed
+/// build_assert!(N > 1); // Build-time check
+/// assert!(N > 1); // Run-time check
+/// }
+///
+/// #[inline]
+/// fn bar(n: usize) {
+/// // `static_assert!(n > 1);` is not allowed
+/// build_assert!(n > 1); // Build-time check
+/// assert!(n > 1); // Run-time check
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! build_assert {
+ ($cond:expr $(,)?) => {{
+ if !$cond {
+ $crate::build_error(concat!("assertion failed: ", stringify!($cond)));
+ }
+ }};
+ ($cond:expr, $msg:expr) => {{
+ if !$cond {
+ $crate::build_error($msg);
+ }
+ }};
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/c_types.rs b/rust/kernel/c_types.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..07593a3ba8be
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/c_types.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,119 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! C types for the bindings.
+//!
+//! The bindings generated by `bindgen` use these types to map to the C ones.
+//!
+//! C's standard integer types may differ in width depending on
+//! the architecture, thus we need to conditionally compile those.
+
+#![allow(non_camel_case_types)]
+
+#[cfg(any(target_arch = "arm", target_arch = "x86", target_arch = "riscv32",))]
+mod c {
+ /// C `void` type.
+ pub type c_void = core::ffi::c_void;
+
+ /// C `char` type.
+ pub type c_char = i8;
+
+ /// C `signed char` type.
+ pub type c_schar = i8;
+
+ /// C `unsigned char` type.
+ pub type c_uchar = u8;
+
+ /// C `short` type.
+ pub type c_short = i16;
+
+ /// C `unsigned short` type.
+ pub type c_ushort = u16;
+
+ /// C `int` type.
+ pub type c_int = i32;
+
+ /// C `unsigned int` type.
+ pub type c_uint = u32;
+
+ /// C `long` type.
+ pub type c_long = i32;
+
+ /// C `unsigned long` type.
+ pub type c_ulong = u32;
+
+ /// C `long long` type.
+ pub type c_longlong = i64;
+
+ /// C `unsigned long long` type.
+ pub type c_ulonglong = u64;
+
+ /// C `ssize_t` type (typically defined in `<sys/types.h>` by POSIX).
+ ///
+ /// For some 32-bit architectures like this one, the kernel defines it as
+ /// `int`, i.e. it is an [`i32`].
+ pub type c_ssize_t = isize;
+
+ /// C `size_t` type (typically defined in `<stddef.h>`).
+ ///
+ /// For some 32-bit architectures like this one, the kernel defines it as
+ /// `unsigned int`, i.e. it is an [`u32`].
+ pub type c_size_t = usize;
+}
+
+#[cfg(any(
+ target_arch = "aarch64",
+ target_arch = "x86_64",
+ target_arch = "powerpc64",
+ target_arch = "riscv64",
+))]
+mod c {
+ /// C `void` type.
+ pub type c_void = core::ffi::c_void;
+
+ /// C `char` type.
+ pub type c_char = i8;
+
+ /// C `signed char` type.
+ pub type c_schar = i8;
+
+ /// C `unsigned char` type.
+ pub type c_uchar = u8;
+
+ /// C `short` type.
+ pub type c_short = i16;
+
+ /// C `unsigned short` type.
+ pub type c_ushort = u16;
+
+ /// C `int` type.
+ pub type c_int = i32;
+
+ /// C `unsigned int` type.
+ pub type c_uint = u32;
+
+ /// C `long` type.
+ pub type c_long = i64;
+
+ /// C `unsigned long` type.
+ pub type c_ulong = u64;
+
+ /// C `long long` type.
+ pub type c_longlong = i64;
+
+ /// C `unsigned long long` type.
+ pub type c_ulonglong = u64;
+
+ /// C `ssize_t` type (typically defined in `<sys/types.h>` by POSIX).
+ ///
+ /// For 64-bit architectures like this one, the kernel defines it as
+ /// `long`, i.e. it is an [`i64`].
+ pub type c_ssize_t = isize;
+
+ /// C `size_t` type (typically defined in `<stddef.h>`).
+ ///
+ /// For 64-bit architectures like this one, the kernel defines it as
+ /// `unsigned long`, i.e. it is an [`u64`].
+ pub type c_size_t = usize;
+}
+
+pub use c::*;
diff --git a/rust/kernel/chrdev.rs b/rust/kernel/chrdev.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..20e93ec05def
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/chrdev.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,212 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Character devices.
+//!
+//! Also called "char devices", `chrdev`, `cdev`.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/cdev.h`](../../../../include/linux/cdev.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/kernel-api.html#char-devices>
+
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::convert::TryInto;
+use core::marker::PhantomPinned;
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use crate::c_types;
+use crate::error::{Error, Result};
+use crate::file_operations;
+use crate::str::CStr;
+
+/// Character device.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// - [`self.0`] is valid and non-null.
+/// - [`(*self.0).ops`] is valid, non-null and has static lifetime.
+/// - [`(*self.0).owner`] is valid and, if non-null, has module lifetime.
+struct Cdev(*mut bindings::cdev);
+
+impl Cdev {
+ fn alloc(
+ fops: &'static bindings::file_operations,
+ module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ ) -> Result<Self> {
+ // SAFETY: FFI call.
+ let cdev = unsafe { bindings::cdev_alloc() };
+ if cdev.is_null() {
+ return Err(Error::ENOMEM);
+ }
+ // SAFETY: `cdev` is valid and non-null since `cdev_alloc()`
+ // returned a valid pointer which was null-checked.
+ unsafe {
+ (*cdev).ops = fops;
+ (*cdev).owner = module.0;
+ }
+ // INVARIANTS:
+ // - [`self.0`] is valid and non-null.
+ // - [`(*self.0).ops`] is valid, non-null and has static lifetime,
+ // because it was coerced from a reference with static lifetime.
+ // - [`(*self.0).owner`] is valid and, if non-null, has module lifetime,
+ // guaranteed by the [`ThisModule`] invariant.
+ Ok(Self(cdev))
+ }
+
+ fn add(&mut self, dev: bindings::dev_t, count: c_types::c_uint) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: according to the type invariants:
+ // - [`self.0`] can be safely passed to [`bindings::cdev_add`].
+ // - [`(*self.0).ops`] will live at least as long as [`self.0`].
+ // - [`(*self.0).owner`] will live at least as long as the
+ // module, which is an implicit requirement.
+ let rc = unsafe { bindings::cdev_add(self.0, dev, count) };
+ if rc != 0 {
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(rc));
+ }
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Cdev {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: [`self.0`] is valid and non-null by the type invariants.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::cdev_del(self.0);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+struct RegistrationInner<const N: usize> {
+ dev: bindings::dev_t,
+ used: usize,
+ cdevs: [Option<Cdev>; N],
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+}
+
+/// Character device registration.
+///
+/// May contain up to a fixed number (`N`) of devices. Must be pinned.
+pub struct Registration<const N: usize> {
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ minors_start: u16,
+ this_module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ inner: Option<RegistrationInner<N>>,
+}
+
+impl<const N: usize> Registration<{ N }> {
+ /// Creates a [`Registration`] object for a character device.
+ ///
+ /// This does *not* register the device: see [`Self::register()`].
+ ///
+ /// This associated function is intended to be used when you need to avoid
+ /// a memory allocation, e.g. when the [`Registration`] is a member of
+ /// a bigger structure inside your [`crate::KernelModule`] instance. If you
+ /// are going to pin the registration right away, call
+ /// [`Self::new_pinned()`] instead.
+ pub fn new(
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ minors_start: u16,
+ this_module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ ) -> Self {
+ Registration {
+ name,
+ minors_start,
+ this_module,
+ inner: None,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a pinned [`Registration`] object for a character device.
+ ///
+ /// This does *not* register the device: see [`Self::register()`].
+ pub fn new_pinned(
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ minors_start: u16,
+ this_module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ ) -> Result<Pin<Box<Self>>> {
+ Ok(Pin::from(Box::try_new(Self::new(
+ name,
+ minors_start,
+ this_module,
+ ))?))
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a character device.
+ ///
+ /// You may call this once per device type, up to `N` times.
+ pub fn register<T: file_operations::FileOpener<()>>(self: Pin<&mut Self>) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: We must ensure that we never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.get_unchecked_mut() };
+ if this.inner.is_none() {
+ let mut dev: bindings::dev_t = 0;
+ // SAFETY: Calling unsafe function. `this.name` has `'static`
+ // lifetime.
+ let res = unsafe {
+ bindings::alloc_chrdev_region(
+ &mut dev,
+ this.minors_start.into(),
+ N.try_into()?,
+ this.name.as_char_ptr(),
+ )
+ };
+ if res != 0 {
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(res));
+ }
+ const NONE: Option<Cdev> = None;
+ this.inner = Some(RegistrationInner {
+ dev,
+ used: 0,
+ cdevs: [NONE; N],
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ });
+ }
+
+ let mut inner = this.inner.as_mut().unwrap();
+ if inner.used == N {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: The adapter doesn't retrieve any state yet, so it's compatible with any
+ // registration.
+ let fops = unsafe { file_operations::FileOperationsVtable::<Self, T>::build() };
+ let mut cdev = Cdev::alloc(fops, this.this_module)?;
+ cdev.add(inner.dev + inner.used as bindings::dev_t, 1)?;
+ inner.cdevs[inner.used].replace(cdev);
+ inner.used += 1;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<const N: usize> file_operations::FileOpenAdapter for Registration<{ N }> {
+ type Arg = ();
+
+ unsafe fn convert(
+ _inode: *mut bindings::inode,
+ _file: *mut bindings::file,
+ ) -> *const Self::Arg {
+ // TODO: Update the SAFETY comment on the call to `FileOperationsVTable::build` above once
+ // this is updated to retrieve state.
+ &()
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Registration` does not expose any of its state across threads
+// (it is fine for multiple threads to have a shared reference to it).
+unsafe impl<const N: usize> Sync for Registration<{ N }> {}
+
+impl<const N: usize> Drop for Registration<{ N }> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ if let Some(inner) = self.inner.as_mut() {
+ // Replicate kernel C behaviour: drop [`Cdev`]s before calling
+ // [`bindings::unregister_chrdev_region`].
+ for i in 0..inner.used {
+ inner.cdevs[i].take();
+ }
+ // SAFETY: [`self.inner`] is Some, so [`inner.dev`] was previously
+ // created using [`bindings::alloc_chrdev_region`].
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::unregister_chrdev_region(inner.dev, N.try_into().unwrap());
+ }
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/cred.rs b/rust/kernel/cred.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1602aa6935ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/cred.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,73 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Credentials management.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/cred.h`](../../../../include/linux/cred.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/security/credentials.html>
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use core::{marker::PhantomData, mem::ManuallyDrop, ops::Deref};
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct cred`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `Credential::ptr` is non-null and valid. Its reference count is also non-zero.
+pub struct Credential {
+ pub(crate) ptr: *const bindings::cred,
+}
+
+impl Clone for Credential {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `self.ptr` has a non-zero reference count.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::get_cred(self.ptr) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: We incremented the reference count to account for the new `Credential` being
+ // created.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Credential {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `ptr` has a non-zero reference count.
+ unsafe { bindings::put_cred(self.ptr) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// A wrapper for [`Credential`] that doesn't automatically decrement the refcount when dropped.
+///
+/// We need the wrapper because [`ManuallyDrop`] alone would allow callers to call
+/// [`ManuallyDrop::into_inner`]. This would allow an unsafe sequence to be triggered without
+/// `unsafe` blocks because it would trigger an unbalanced call to `put_cred`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The wrapped [`Credential`] remains valid for the lifetime of the object.
+pub struct CredentialRef<'a> {
+ cred: ManuallyDrop<Credential>,
+ _p: PhantomData<&'a ()>,
+}
+
+impl CredentialRef<'_> {
+ /// Constructs a new [`struct cred`] wrapper that doesn't change its reference count.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the object.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *const bindings::cred) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ cred: ManuallyDrop::new(Credential { ptr }),
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Deref for CredentialRef<'_> {
+ type Target = Credential;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.cred.deref()
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/device.rs b/rust/kernel/device.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..417ad9d0ce78
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/device.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,206 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Generic devices that are part of the kernel's driver model.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/device.h`](../../../../include/linux/device.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings,
+ revocable::{Revocable, RevocableGuard},
+ str::CStr,
+ sync::{NeedsLockClass, RevocableMutex, RevocableMutexGuard, UniqueRef},
+ Result,
+};
+use core::{
+ ops::{Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+};
+
+/// A raw device.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// Implementers must ensure that the `*mut device` returned by [`RawDevice::raw_device`] is
+/// related to `self`, that is, actions on it will affect `self`. For example, if one calls
+/// `get_device`, then the refcount on the device represented by `self` will be incremented.
+///
+/// Additionally, implementers must ensure that the device is never renamed. Commit a5462516aa994
+/// has details on why `device_rename` should not be used.
+pub unsafe trait RawDevice {
+ /// Returns the raw `struct device` related to `self`.
+ fn raw_device(&self) -> *mut bindings::device;
+
+ /// Returns the name of the device.
+ fn name(&self) -> &CStr {
+ let ptr = self.raw_device();
+
+ // SAFETY: `ptr` is valid because `self` keeps it alive.
+ let name = unsafe { bindings::dev_name(ptr) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The name of the device remains valid while it is alive (because the device is
+ // never renamed, per the safety requirement of this trait). This is guaranteed to be the
+ // case because the reference to `self` outlives the one of the returned `CStr` (enforced
+ // by the compiler because of their lifetimes).
+ unsafe { CStr::from_char_ptr(name) }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A ref-counted device.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// `ptr` is valid, non-null, and has a non-zero reference count. One of the references is owned by
+/// `self`, and will be decremented when `self` is dropped.
+pub struct Device {
+ pub(crate) ptr: *mut bindings::device,
+}
+
+impl Device {
+ /// Creates a new device instance.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `ptr` is valid, non-null, and has a non-zero reference count.
+ pub unsafe fn new(ptr: *mut bindings::device) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requiments, ptr is valid and its refcounted will be incremented.
+ unsafe { bindings::get_device(ptr) };
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements satisfy all but one invariant, which is that `self`
+ // owns a reference. This is satisfied by the call to `get_device` above.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a new device instance from an existing [`RawDevice`] instance.
+ pub fn from_dev(dev: &dyn RawDevice) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The requirements are satisfied by the existence of `RawDevice` and its safety
+ // requirements.
+ unsafe { Self::new(dev.raw_device()) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Device {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, we know that `self` owns a reference, so it is safe to
+ // relinquish it now.
+ unsafe { bindings::put_device(self.ptr) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// Device data.
+///
+/// When a device is removed (for whatever reason, for example, because the device was unplugged or
+/// because the user decided to unbind the driver), the driver is given a chance to clean its state
+/// up, and all io resources should ideally not be used anymore.
+///
+/// However, the device data is reference-counted because other subsystems hold pointers to it. So
+/// some device state must be freed and not used anymore, while others must remain accessible.
+///
+/// This struct separates the device data into three categories:
+/// 1. Registrations: are destroyed when the device is removed, but before the io resources
+/// become inaccessible.
+/// 2. Io resources: are available until the device is removed.
+/// 3. General data: remain available as long as the ref count is nonzero.
+///
+/// This struct implements the `DeviceRemoval` trait so that it can clean resources up even if not
+/// explicitly called by the device drivers.
+pub struct Data<T, U, V> {
+ registrations: RevocableMutex<T>,
+ resources: Revocable<U>,
+ general: V,
+}
+
+/// Safely creates an new reference-counted instance of [`Data`].
+#[doc(hidden)]
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! new_device_data {
+ ($reg:expr, $res:expr, $gen:expr, $name:literal) => {{
+ static mut CLASS1: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ static mut CLASS2: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ let regs = $reg;
+ let res = $res;
+ let gen = $gen;
+ let name = $crate::c_str!($name);
+ // SAFETY: `CLASS1` and `CLASS2` are never used by Rust code directly; the C portion of the
+ // kernel may change it though.
+ unsafe {
+ $crate::device::Data::try_new(
+ regs,
+ res,
+ gen,
+ name,
+ CLASS1.as_mut_ptr(),
+ CLASS2.as_mut_ptr(),
+ )
+ }
+ }};
+}
+
+impl<T, U, V> Data<T, U, V> {
+ /// Creates a new instance of `Data`.
+ ///
+ /// It is recommended that the [`new_device_data`] macro be used as it automatically creates
+ /// the lock classes.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `key1` and `key2` must point to valid memory locations and remain valid until `self` is
+ /// dropped.
+ pub unsafe fn try_new(
+ registrations: T,
+ resources: U,
+ general: V,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ key2: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) -> Result<Pin<UniqueRef<Self>>> {
+ let mut ret = Pin::from(UniqueRef::try_new(Self {
+ // SAFETY: We call `RevocableMutex::init` below.
+ registrations: unsafe { RevocableMutex::new(registrations) },
+ resources: Revocable::new(resources),
+ general,
+ })?);
+
+ // SAFETY: `Data::registrations` is pinned when `Data` is.
+ let pinned = unsafe { ret.as_mut().map_unchecked_mut(|d| &mut d.registrations) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of this function satisfy those of `RevocableMutex::init`.
+ unsafe { pinned.init(name, key1, key2) };
+ Ok(ret)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the resources if they're still available.
+ pub fn resources(&self) -> Option<RevocableGuard<'_, U>> {
+ self.resources.try_access()
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the locked registrations if they're still available.
+ pub fn registrations(&self) -> Option<RevocableMutexGuard<'_, T>> {
+ self.registrations.try_lock()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, U, V> crate::driver::DeviceRemoval for Data<T, U, V> {
+ fn device_remove(&self) {
+ // We revoke the registrations first so that resources are still available to them during
+ // unregistration.
+ self.registrations.revoke();
+
+ // Release resources now. General data remains available.
+ self.resources.revoke();
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, U, V> Deref for Data<T, U, V> {
+ type Target = V;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &V {
+ &self.general
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, U, V> DerefMut for Data<T, U, V> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut V {
+ &mut self.general
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/driver.rs b/rust/kernel/driver.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d72ada58138c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/driver.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,198 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Generic support for drivers of different buses (e.g., PCI, Platform, Amba, etc.).
+//!
+//! Each bus/subsystem is expected to implement [`DriverOps`], which allows drivers to register
+//! using the [`Registration`] class.
+
+use crate::{str::CStr, Error, KernelModule, Result, ScopeGuard, ThisModule};
+use alloc::{boxed::Box, vec::Vec};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, mem::MaybeUninit, pin::Pin};
+
+/// A subsystem (e.g., PCI, Platform, Amba, etc.) that allows drivers to be written for it.
+pub trait DriverOps {
+ /// The type that holds information about the registration. This is typically a struct defined
+ /// by the C portion of the kernel.
+ type RegType: Default;
+
+ /// The type that holds identification data for the devices supported by the driver. In
+ /// addition to the information required by the bus, it may also store device-specific data
+ /// using Rust types.
+ type IdType: 'static;
+
+ /// The table of ids containing all supported devices.
+ const ID_TABLE: &'static [Self::IdType];
+
+ /// The raw type that holds identification data for the devices supported by the driver. This
+ /// is typically a struct defined by the C portion of the kernel.
+ ///
+ /// A zero-terminated array of this type is produced and passed to the C portion during
+ /// registration.
+ type RawIdType;
+
+ /// Registers a driver.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `reg` must point to valid, initialised, and writable memory. It may be modified by this
+ /// function to hold registration state.
+ ///
+ /// `id_table` must point to a valid for read zero-terminated array of ids.
+ ///
+ /// On success, `reg` and `id_table` must remain pinned and valid until the matching call to
+ /// [`DriverOps::unregister`].
+ unsafe fn register(
+ reg: *mut Self::RegType,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ id_table: *const Self::RawIdType,
+ ) -> Result;
+
+ /// Unregisters a driver previously registered with [`DriverOps::register`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `reg` must point to valid writable memory, initialised by a previous successful call to
+ /// [`DriverOps::register`].
+ unsafe fn unregister(reg: *mut Self::RegType);
+
+ /// Converts an id into a raw id.
+ ///
+ /// This is used when building a zero-terminated array from the Rust array.
+ fn to_raw_id(index: usize, id: &Self::IdType) -> Self::RawIdType;
+}
+
+/// The registration of a driver.
+pub struct Registration<T: DriverOps> {
+ is_registered: bool,
+ concrete_reg: UnsafeCell<T::RegType>,
+ id_table: Vec<MaybeUninit<T::RawIdType>>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Registration` has no fields or methods accessible via `&Registration`, so it is safe to
+// share references to it with multiple threads as nothing can be done.
+unsafe impl<T: DriverOps> Sync for Registration<T> {}
+
+impl<T: DriverOps> Registration<T> {
+ /// Creates a new instance of the registration object.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ is_registered: false,
+ concrete_reg: UnsafeCell::new(T::RegType::default()),
+ id_table: Vec::new(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Allocates a pinned registration object and registers it.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a pinned heap-allocated representation of the registration.
+ pub fn new_pinned(name: &'static CStr) -> Result<Pin<Box<Self>>> {
+ let mut reg = Pin::from(Box::try_new(Self::new())?);
+ reg.as_mut().register(name)?;
+ Ok(reg)
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a driver with its subsystem.
+ ///
+ /// It must be pinned because the memory block that represents the registration is potentially
+ /// self-referential.
+ pub fn register(self: Pin<&mut Self>, name: &'static CStr) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: We never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.get_unchecked_mut() };
+ if this.is_registered {
+ // Already registered.
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ if this.id_table.is_empty() {
+ this.build_table()?;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `concrete_reg` was initialised via its default constructor. `id_table` was just
+ // initialised above with a zero terminating entry. Both are only freed after `Self::drop`
+ // is called, which first calls `T::unregister`.
+ unsafe {
+ T::register(
+ this.concrete_reg.get(),
+ name,
+ &this.id_table[0] as *const _ as *const _,
+ )
+ }?;
+
+ this.is_registered = true;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Builds the zero-terminated raw-type array of supported devices.
+ ///
+ /// This is not ideal because the table is built at runtime. Once Rust fully supports const
+ /// generics, we can build the table at compile time.
+ fn build_table(&mut self) -> Result {
+ // Clear the table on failure, to indicate that the table isn't initialised.
+ let mut table = ScopeGuard::new_with_data(&mut self.id_table, |t| t.clear());
+
+ table.try_reserve_exact(T::ID_TABLE.len() + 1)?;
+ for (i, id) in T::ID_TABLE.iter().enumerate() {
+ table.try_push(MaybeUninit::new(T::to_raw_id(i, id)))?;
+ }
+ table.try_push(MaybeUninit::zeroed())?;
+ table.dismiss();
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: DriverOps> Default for Registration<T> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: DriverOps> Drop for Registration<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ if self.is_registered {
+ // SAFETY: This path only runs if a previous call to `T::register` completed
+ // successfully.
+ unsafe { T::unregister(self.concrete_reg.get()) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Custom code within device removal.
+pub trait DeviceRemoval {
+ /// Cleans resources up when the device is removed.
+ ///
+ /// This is called when a device is removed and offers implementers the chance to run some code
+ /// that cleans state up.
+ fn device_remove(&self);
+}
+
+/// A kernel module that only registers the given driver on init.
+///
+/// This is a helper struct to make it easier to define single-functionality modules, in this case,
+/// modules that offer a single driver.
+pub struct Module<T: DriverOps> {
+ _driver: Pin<Box<Registration<T>>>,
+}
+
+impl<T: DriverOps> KernelModule for Module<T> {
+ fn init(name: &'static CStr, _module: &'static ThisModule) -> Result<Self> {
+ Ok(Self {
+ _driver: Registration::new_pinned(name)?,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+/// Declares a kernel module that exposes a single driver.
+///
+/// It is meant to be used as a helper by other subsystems so they can more easily expose their own
+/// macros.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! module_driver {
+ (<$gen_type:ident>, $driver_ops:ty, { type: $type:ty, $($f:tt)* }) => {
+ type Ops<$gen_type> = $driver_ops;
+ type ModuleType = $crate::driver::Module<Ops<$type>>;
+ $crate::prelude::module! {
+ type: ModuleType,
+ $($f)*
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/error.rs b/rust/kernel/error.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..93fa35c4df21
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/error.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,542 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Kernel errors.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/uapi/asm-generic/errno-base.h`](../../../include/uapi/asm-generic/errno-base.h)
+
+use crate::str::CStr;
+use crate::{bindings, c_types};
+use alloc::{
+ alloc::{AllocError, LayoutError},
+ collections::TryReserveError,
+};
+use core::convert::From;
+use core::fmt;
+use core::num::TryFromIntError;
+use core::str::{self, Utf8Error};
+
+macro_rules! declare_err {
+ ($err:tt) => {
+ pub const $err: Self = Error(-(bindings::$err as i32));
+ };
+ ($err:tt, $($doc:expr),+) => {
+ $(
+ #[doc = $doc]
+ )*
+ pub const $err: Self = Error(-(bindings::$err as i32));
+ };
+}
+
+/// Generic integer kernel error.
+///
+/// The kernel defines a set of integer generic error codes based on C and
+/// POSIX ones. These codes may have a more specific meaning in some contexts.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The value is a valid `errno` (i.e. `>= -MAX_ERRNO && < 0`).
+#[derive(Clone, Copy, PartialEq, Eq)]
+pub struct Error(c_types::c_int);
+
+impl Error {
+ declare_err!(EPERM, "Operation not permitted.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOENT, "No such file or directory.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESRCH, "No such process.");
+
+ declare_err!(EINTR, "Interrupted system call.");
+
+ declare_err!(EIO, "I/O error.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENXIO, "No such device or address.");
+
+ declare_err!(E2BIG, "Argument list too long.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOEXEC, "Exec format error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADF, "Bad file number.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECHILD, "Exec format error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EAGAIN, "Try again.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOMEM, "Out of memory.");
+
+ declare_err!(EACCES, "Permission denied.");
+
+ declare_err!(EFAULT, "Bad address.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTBLK, "Block device required.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBUSY, "Device or resource busy.");
+
+ declare_err!(EEXIST, "File exists.");
+
+ declare_err!(EXDEV, "Cross-device link.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENODEV, "No such device.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTDIR, "Not a directory.");
+
+ declare_err!(EISDIR, "Is a directory.");
+
+ declare_err!(EINVAL, "Invalid argument.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENFILE, "File table overflow.");
+
+ declare_err!(EMFILE, "Too many open files.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTTY, "Not a typewriter.");
+
+ declare_err!(ETXTBSY, "Text file busy.");
+
+ declare_err!(EFBIG, "File too large.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOSPC, "No space left on device.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESPIPE, "Illegal seek.");
+
+ declare_err!(EROFS, "Read-only file system.");
+
+ declare_err!(EMLINK, "Too many links.");
+
+ declare_err!(EPIPE, "Broken pipe.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDOM, "Math argument out of domain of func.");
+
+ declare_err!(ERANGE, "Math result not representable.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDEADLK, "Resource deadlock would occur");
+
+ declare_err!(ENAMETOOLONG, "File name too long");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOLCK, "No record locks available");
+
+ declare_err!(
+ ENOSYS,
+ "Invalid system call number.",
+ "",
+ "This error code is special: arch syscall entry code will return",
+ "[`Self::ENOSYS`] if users try to call a syscall that doesn't exist.",
+ "To keep failures of syscalls that really do exist distinguishable from",
+ "failures due to attempts to use a nonexistent syscall, syscall",
+ "implementations should refrain from returning [`Self::ENOSYS`]."
+ );
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTEMPTY, "Directory not empty.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELOOP, "Too many symbolic links encountered.");
+
+ declare_err!(EWOULDBLOCK, "Operation would block.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOMSG, "No message of desired type.");
+
+ declare_err!(EIDRM, "Identifier removed.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECHRNG, "Channel number out of range.");
+
+ declare_err!(EL2NSYNC, "Level 2 not synchronized.");
+
+ declare_err!(EL3HLT, "Level 3 halted.");
+
+ declare_err!(EL3RST, "Level 3 reset.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELNRNG, "Link number out of range.");
+
+ declare_err!(EUNATCH, "Protocol driver not attached.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOCSI, "No CSI structure available.");
+
+ declare_err!(EL2HLT, "Level 2 halted.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADE, "Invalid exchange.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADR, "Invalid request descriptor.");
+
+ declare_err!(EXFULL, "Exchange full.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOANO, "No anode.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADRQC, "Invalid request code.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADSLT, "Invalid slot.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDEADLOCK, "Resource deadlock would occur.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBFONT, "Bad font file format.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOSTR, "Device not a stream.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENODATA, "No data available.");
+
+ declare_err!(ETIME, "Timer expired.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOSR, "Out of streams resources.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENONET, "Machine is not on the network.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOPKG, "Package not installed.");
+
+ declare_err!(EREMOTE, "Object is remote.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOLINK, "Link has been severed.");
+
+ declare_err!(EADV, "Advertise error.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESRMNT, "Srmount error.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECOMM, "Communication error on send.");
+
+ declare_err!(EPROTO, "Protocol error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EMULTIHOP, "Multihop attempted.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDOTDOT, "RFS specific error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADMSG, "Not a data message.");
+
+ declare_err!(EOVERFLOW, "Value too large for defined data type.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTUNIQ, "Name not unique on network.");
+
+ declare_err!(EBADFD, "File descriptor in bad state.");
+
+ declare_err!(EREMCHG, "Remote address changed.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELIBACC, "Can not access a needed shared library.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELIBBAD, "Accessing a corrupted shared library.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELIBSCN, ".lib section in a.out corrupted.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELIBMAX, "Attempting to link in too many shared libraries.");
+
+ declare_err!(ELIBEXEC, "Cannot exec a shared library directly.");
+
+ declare_err!(EILSEQ, "Illegal byte sequence.");
+
+ declare_err!(ERESTART, "Interrupted system call should be restarted.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESTRPIPE, "Streams pipe error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EUSERS, "Too many users.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTSOCK, "Socket operation on non-socket.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDESTADDRREQ, "Destination address required.");
+
+ declare_err!(EMSGSIZE, "Message too long.");
+
+ declare_err!(EPROTOTYPE, "Protocol wrong type for socket.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOPROTOOPT, "Protocol not available.");
+
+ declare_err!(EPROTONOSUPPORT, "Protocol not supported.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESOCKTNOSUPPORT, "Socket type not supported.");
+
+ declare_err!(EOPNOTSUPP, "Operation not supported on transport endpoint.");
+
+ declare_err!(EPFNOSUPPORT, "Protocol family not supported.");
+
+ declare_err!(EAFNOSUPPORT, "Address family not supported by protocol.");
+
+ declare_err!(EADDRINUSE, "Address already in use.");
+
+ declare_err!(EADDRNOTAVAIL, "Cannot assign requested address.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENETDOWN, "Network is down.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENETUNREACH, "Network is unreachable.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENETRESET, "Network dropped connection because of reset.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECONNABORTED, "Software caused connection abort.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECONNRESET, "Connection reset by peer.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOBUFS, "No buffer space available.");
+
+ declare_err!(EISCONN, "Transport endpoint is already connected.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTCONN, "Transport endpoint is not connected.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESHUTDOWN, "Cannot send after transport endpoint shutdown.");
+
+ declare_err!(ETOOMANYREFS, "Too many references: cannot splice.");
+
+ declare_err!(ETIMEDOUT, "Connection timed out.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECONNREFUSED, "Connection refused.");
+
+ declare_err!(EHOSTDOWN, "Host is down.");
+
+ declare_err!(EHOSTUNREACH, "No route to host.");
+
+ declare_err!(EALREADY, "Operation already in progress.");
+
+ declare_err!(EINPROGRESS, "Operation now in progress.");
+
+ declare_err!(ESTALE, "Stale file handle.");
+
+ declare_err!(EUCLEAN, "Structure needs cleaning.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTNAM, "Not a XENIX named type file.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENAVAIL, "No XENIX semaphores available.");
+
+ declare_err!(EISNAM, "Is a named type file.");
+
+ declare_err!(EREMOTEIO, "Remote I/O error.");
+
+ declare_err!(EDQUOT, "Quota exceeded.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOMEDIUM, "No medium found.");
+
+ declare_err!(EMEDIUMTYPE, "Wrong medium type.");
+
+ declare_err!(ECANCELED, "Operation Canceled.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOKEY, "Required key not available.");
+
+ declare_err!(EKEYEXPIRED, "Key has expired.");
+
+ declare_err!(EKEYREVOKED, "Key has been revoked.");
+
+ declare_err!(EKEYREJECTED, "Key was rejected by service.");
+
+ declare_err!(EOWNERDEAD, "Owner died.", "", "For robust mutexes.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTRECOVERABLE, "State not recoverable.");
+
+ declare_err!(ERFKILL, "Operation not possible due to RF-kill.");
+
+ declare_err!(EHWPOISON, "Memory page has hardware error.");
+
+ declare_err!(ERESTARTSYS, "Restart the system call.");
+
+ declare_err!(ENOTSUPP, "Operation is not supported.");
+
+ /// Creates an [`Error`] from a kernel error code.
+ ///
+ /// It is a bug to pass an out-of-range `errno`. `EINVAL` would
+ /// be returned in such a case.
+ pub(crate) fn from_kernel_errno(errno: c_types::c_int) -> Error {
+ if errno < -(bindings::MAX_ERRNO as i32) || errno >= 0 {
+ // TODO: make it a `WARN_ONCE` once available.
+ crate::pr_warn!(
+ "attempted to create `Error` with out of range `errno`: {}",
+ errno
+ );
+ return Error::EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ // INVARIANT: the check above ensures the type invariant
+ // will hold.
+ Error(errno)
+ }
+
+ /// Creates an [`Error`] from a kernel error code.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `errno` must be within error code range (i.e. `>= -MAX_ERRNO && < 0`).
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_kernel_errno_unchecked(errno: c_types::c_int) -> Error {
+ // INVARIANT: the contract ensures the type invariant
+ // will hold.
+ Error(errno)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the kernel error code.
+ pub fn to_kernel_errno(self) -> c_types::c_int {
+ self.0
+ }
+}
+
+impl fmt::Debug for Error {
+ fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
+ // SAFETY: FFI call.
+ let name = unsafe { bindings::errname(-self.0) };
+
+ if name.is_null() {
+ // Print out number if no name can be found.
+ return f.debug_tuple("Error").field(&-self.0).finish();
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `'static` string from C, and is not NULL.
+ let cstr = unsafe { CStr::from_char_ptr(name) };
+ // SAFETY: These strings are ASCII-only.
+ let str = unsafe { str::from_utf8_unchecked(cstr) };
+ f.debug_tuple(str).finish()
+ }
+}
+
+impl From<TryFromIntError> for Error {
+ fn from(_: TryFromIntError) -> Error {
+ Error::EINVAL
+ }
+}
+
+impl From<Utf8Error> for Error {
+ fn from(_: Utf8Error) -> Error {
+ Error::EINVAL
+ }
+}
+
+impl From<TryReserveError> for Error {
+ fn from(_: TryReserveError) -> Error {
+ Error::ENOMEM
+ }
+}
+
+impl From<LayoutError> for Error {
+ fn from(_: LayoutError) -> Error {
+ Error::ENOMEM
+ }
+}
+
+impl From<core::fmt::Error> for Error {
+ fn from(_: core::fmt::Error) -> Error {
+ Error::EINVAL
+ }
+}
+
+/// A [`Result`] with an [`Error`] error type.
+///
+/// To be used as the return type for functions that may fail.
+///
+/// # Error codes in C and Rust
+///
+/// In C, it is common that functions indicate success or failure through
+/// their return value; modifying or returning extra data through non-`const`
+/// pointer parameters. In particular, in the kernel, functions that may fail
+/// typically return an `int` that represents a generic error code. We model
+/// those as [`Error`].
+///
+/// In Rust, it is idiomatic to model functions that may fail as returning
+/// a [`Result`]. Since in the kernel many functions return an error code,
+/// [`Result`] is a type alias for a [`core::result::Result`] that uses
+/// [`Error`] as its error type.
+///
+/// Note that even if a function does not return anything when it succeeds,
+/// it should still be modeled as returning a `Result` rather than
+/// just an [`Error`].
+pub type Result<T = ()> = core::result::Result<T, Error>;
+
+impl From<AllocError> for Error {
+ fn from(_: AllocError) -> Error {
+ Error::ENOMEM
+ }
+}
+
+// # Invariant: `-bindings::MAX_ERRNO` fits in an `i16`.
+crate::static_assert!(bindings::MAX_ERRNO <= -(i16::MIN as i32) as u32);
+
+pub(crate) fn from_kernel_result_helper<T>(r: Result<T>) -> T
+where
+ T: From<i16>,
+{
+ match r {
+ Ok(v) => v,
+ // NO-OVERFLOW: negative `errno`s are no smaller than `-bindings::MAX_ERRNO`,
+ // `-bindings::MAX_ERRNO` fits in an `i16` as per invariant above,
+ // therefore a negative `errno` always fits in an `i16` and will not overflow.
+ Err(e) => T::from(e.to_kernel_errno() as i16),
+ }
+}
+
+/// Transforms a [`crate::error::Result<T>`] to a kernel C integer result.
+///
+/// This is useful when calling Rust functions that return [`crate::error::Result<T>`]
+/// from inside `extern "C"` functions that need to return an integer
+/// error result.
+///
+/// `T` should be convertible to an `i16` via `From<i16>`.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```ignore
+/// # use kernel::from_kernel_result;
+/// # use kernel::c_types;
+/// # use kernel::bindings;
+/// unsafe extern "C" fn probe_callback(
+/// pdev: *mut bindings::platform_device,
+/// ) -> c_types::c_int {
+/// from_kernel_result! {
+/// let ptr = devm_alloc(pdev)?;
+/// bindings::platform_set_drvdata(pdev, ptr);
+/// Ok(0)
+/// }
+/// }
+/// ```
+macro_rules! from_kernel_result {
+ ($($tt:tt)*) => {{
+ $crate::error::from_kernel_result_helper((|| {
+ $($tt)*
+ })())
+ }};
+}
+
+pub(crate) use from_kernel_result;
+
+/// Transform a kernel "error pointer" to a normal pointer.
+///
+/// Some kernel C API functions return an "error pointer" which optionally
+/// embeds an `errno`. Callers are supposed to check the returned pointer
+/// for errors. This function performs the check and converts the "error pointer"
+/// to a normal pointer in an idiomatic fashion.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```ignore
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::from_kernel_err_ptr;
+/// # use kernel::c_types;
+/// # use kernel::bindings;
+/// fn devm_platform_ioremap_resource(
+/// pdev: &mut PlatformDevice,
+/// index: u32,
+/// ) -> Result<*mut c_types::c_void> {
+/// // SAFETY: FFI call.
+/// unsafe {
+/// from_kernel_err_ptr(bindings::devm_platform_ioremap_resource(
+/// pdev.to_ptr(),
+/// index,
+/// ))
+/// }
+/// }
+/// ```
+// TODO: remove `dead_code` marker once an in-kernel client is available.
+#[allow(dead_code)]
+pub(crate) fn from_kernel_err_ptr<T>(ptr: *mut T) -> Result<*mut T> {
+ // CAST: casting a pointer to `*const c_types::c_void` is always valid.
+ let const_ptr: *const c_types::c_void = ptr.cast();
+ // SAFETY: the FFI function does not deref the pointer.
+ if unsafe { bindings::IS_ERR(const_ptr) } {
+ // SAFETY: the FFI function does not deref the pointer.
+ let err = unsafe { bindings::PTR_ERR(const_ptr) };
+ // CAST: if `IS_ERR()` returns `true`,
+ // then `PTR_ERR()` is guaranteed to return a
+ // negative value greater-or-equal to `-bindings::MAX_ERRNO`,
+ // which always fits in an `i16`, as per the invariant above.
+ // And an `i16` always fits in an `i32`. So casting `err` to
+ // an `i32` can never overflow, and is always valid.
+ //
+ // SAFETY: `IS_ERR()` ensures `err` is a
+ // negative value greater-or-equal to `-bindings::MAX_ERRNO`
+ return Err(unsafe { Error::from_kernel_errno_unchecked(err as i32) });
+ }
+ Ok(ptr)
+}
+
+/// Calls a kernel function that returns an integer error code on failure and converts the result
+/// to a [`Result`].
+pub fn to_result(func: impl FnOnce() -> c_types::c_int) -> Result {
+ let err = func();
+ if err < 0 {
+ Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(err))
+ } else {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/file.rs b/rust/kernel/file.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d2c0eefc9f68
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/file.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Files and file descriptors.
+//!
+//! C headers: [`include/linux/fs.h`](../../../../include/linux/fs.h) and
+//! [`include/linux/file.h`](../../../../include/linux/file.h)
+
+use crate::{bindings, cred::CredentialRef, error::Error, Result};
+use core::{mem::ManuallyDrop, ops::Deref};
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct file`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `File::ptr` is non-null and valid. Its reference count is also non-zero.
+pub struct File {
+ pub(crate) ptr: *mut bindings::file,
+}
+
+impl File {
+ /// Constructs a new [`struct file`] wrapper from a file descriptor.
+ ///
+ /// The file descriptor belongs to the current process.
+ pub fn from_fd(fd: u32) -> Result<Self> {
+ // SAFETY: FFI call, there are no requirements on `fd`.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::fget(fd) };
+ if ptr.is_null() {
+ return Err(Error::EBADF);
+ }
+
+ // INVARIANTS: We checked that `ptr` is non-null, so it is valid. `fget` increments the ref
+ // count before returning.
+ Ok(Self { ptr })
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the current seek/cursor/pointer position (`struct file::f_pos`).
+ pub fn pos(&self) -> u64 {
+ // SAFETY: `File::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants.
+ unsafe { (*self.ptr).f_pos as u64 }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns whether the file is in blocking mode.
+ pub fn is_blocking(&self) -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: `File::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants.
+ unsafe { (*self.ptr).f_flags & bindings::O_NONBLOCK == 0 }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the credentials of the task that originally opened the file.
+ pub fn cred(&self) -> CredentialRef<'_> {
+ // SAFETY: `File::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants.
+ let ptr = unsafe { (*self.ptr).f_cred };
+ // SAFETY: The lifetimes of `self` and `CredentialRef` are tied, so it is guaranteed that
+ // the credential pointer remains valid (because the file is still alive, and it doesn't
+ // change over the lifetime of a file).
+ unsafe { CredentialRef::from_ptr(ptr) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for File {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `File::ptr` has a non-zero reference count.
+ unsafe { bindings::fput(self.ptr) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// A wrapper for [`File`] that doesn't automatically decrement the refcount when dropped.
+///
+/// We need the wrapper because [`ManuallyDrop`] alone would allow callers to call
+/// [`ManuallyDrop::into_inner`]. This would allow an unsafe sequence to be triggered without
+/// `unsafe` blocks because it would trigger an unbalanced call to `fput`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The wrapped [`File`] remains valid for the lifetime of the object.
+pub(crate) struct FileRef(ManuallyDrop<File>);
+
+impl FileRef {
+ /// Constructs a new [`struct file`] wrapper that doesn't change its reference count.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the object.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::file) -> Self {
+ Self(ManuallyDrop::new(File { ptr }))
+ }
+}
+
+impl Deref for FileRef {
+ type Target = File;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.0.deref()
+ }
+}
+
+/// A file descriptor reservation.
+///
+/// This allows the creation of a file descriptor in two steps: first, we reserve a slot for it,
+/// then we commit or drop the reservation. The first step may fail (e.g., the current process ran
+/// out of available slots), but commit and drop never fail (and are mutually exclusive).
+pub struct FileDescriptorReservation {
+ fd: u32,
+}
+
+impl FileDescriptorReservation {
+ /// Creates a new file descriptor reservation.
+ pub fn new(flags: u32) -> Result<Self> {
+ // SAFETY: FFI call, there are no safety requirements on `flags`.
+ let fd = unsafe { bindings::get_unused_fd_flags(flags) };
+ if fd < 0 {
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(fd));
+ }
+ Ok(Self { fd: fd as _ })
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the file descriptor number that was reserved.
+ pub fn reserved_fd(&self) -> u32 {
+ self.fd
+ }
+
+ /// Commits the reservation.
+ ///
+ /// The previously reserved file descriptor is bound to `file`.
+ pub fn commit(self, file: File) {
+ // SAFETY: `self.fd` was previously returned by `get_unused_fd_flags`, and `file.ptr` is
+ // guaranteed to have an owned ref count by its type invariants.
+ unsafe { bindings::fd_install(self.fd, file.ptr) };
+
+ // `fd_install` consumes both the file descriptor and the file reference, so we cannot run
+ // the destructors.
+ core::mem::forget(self);
+ core::mem::forget(file);
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for FileDescriptorReservation {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: `self.fd` was returned by a previous call to `get_unused_fd_flags`.
+ unsafe { bindings::put_unused_fd(self.fd) };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/file_operations.rs b/rust/kernel/file_operations.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3d96a32a3764
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/file_operations.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,723 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! File operations.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/fs.h`](../../../../include/linux/fs.h)
+
+use core::convert::{TryFrom, TryInto};
+use core::{marker, mem, ptr};
+
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types,
+ error::{from_kernel_result, Error, Result},
+ file::{File, FileRef},
+ io_buffer::{IoBufferReader, IoBufferWriter},
+ iov_iter::IovIter,
+ sync::CondVar,
+ types::PointerWrapper,
+ user_ptr::{UserSlicePtr, UserSlicePtrReader, UserSlicePtrWriter},
+};
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct poll_table_struct`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `PollTable::ptr` is null or valid.
+pub struct PollTable {
+ ptr: *mut bindings::poll_table_struct,
+}
+
+impl PollTable {
+ /// Constructors a new `struct poll_table_struct` wrapper.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be either null or a valid pointer for the lifetime of the object.
+ unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::poll_table_struct) -> Self {
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+
+ /// Associates the given file and condition variable to this poll table. It means notifying the
+ /// condition variable will notify the poll table as well; additionally, the association
+ /// between the condition variable and the file will automatically be undone by the kernel when
+ /// the file is destructed. To unilaterally remove the association before then, one can call
+ /// [`CondVar::free_waiters`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// If the condition variable is destroyed before the file, then [`CondVar::free_waiters`] must
+ /// be called to ensure that all waiters are flushed out.
+ pub unsafe fn register_wait<'a>(&self, file: &'a File, cv: &'a CondVar) {
+ if self.ptr.is_null() {
+ return;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `PollTable::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants and the null
+ // check above.
+ let table = unsafe { &*self.ptr };
+ if let Some(proc) = table._qproc {
+ // SAFETY: All pointers are known to be valid.
+ unsafe { proc(file.ptr as _, cv.wait_list.get(), self.ptr) }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Equivalent to [`std::io::SeekFrom`].
+///
+/// [`std::io::SeekFrom`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/io/enum.SeekFrom.html
+pub enum SeekFrom {
+ /// Equivalent to C's `SEEK_SET`.
+ Start(u64),
+
+ /// Equivalent to C's `SEEK_END`.
+ End(i64),
+
+ /// Equivalent to C's `SEEK_CUR`.
+ Current(i64),
+}
+
+/// Called by the VFS when an inode should be opened.
+///
+/// Calls `T::open` on the returned value of `A::convert`.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// The returned value of `A::convert` must be a valid non-null pointer and
+/// `T:open` must return a valid non-null pointer on an `Ok` result.
+unsafe extern "C" fn open_callback<A: FileOpenAdapter, T: FileOpener<A::Arg>>(
+ inode: *mut bindings::inode,
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `A::convert` must return a valid non-null pointer that
+ // should point to data in the inode or file that lives longer
+ // than the following use of `T::open`.
+ let arg = unsafe { A::convert(inode, file) };
+ // SAFETY: The C contract guarantees that `file` is valid. Additionally,
+ // `fileref` never outlives this function, so it is guaranteed to be
+ // valid.
+ let fileref = unsafe { FileRef::from_ptr(file) };
+ // SAFETY: `arg` was previously returned by `A::convert` and must
+ // be a valid non-null pointer.
+ let ptr = T::open(unsafe { &*arg }, &fileref)?.into_pointer();
+ // SAFETY: The C contract guarantees that `private_data` is available
+ // for implementers of the file operations (no other C code accesses
+ // it), so we know that there are no concurrent threads/CPUs accessing
+ // it (it's not visible to any other Rust code).
+ unsafe { (*file).private_data = ptr as *mut c_types::c_void };
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn read_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ buf: *mut c_types::c_char,
+ len: c_types::c_size_t,
+ offset: *mut bindings::loff_t,
+) -> c_types::c_ssize_t {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let mut data = unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(buf as *mut c_types::c_void, len).writer() };
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ // No `FMODE_UNSIGNED_OFFSET` support, so `offset` must be in [0, 2^63).
+ // See discussion in https://github.com/fishinabarrel/linux-kernel-module-rust/pull/113
+ let read = T::read(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut data, unsafe { *offset }.try_into()?)?;
+ unsafe { (*offset) += bindings::loff_t::try_from(read).unwrap() };
+ Ok(read as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn read_iter_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ iocb: *mut bindings::kiocb,
+ raw_iter: *mut bindings::iov_iter,
+) -> isize {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let mut iter = unsafe { IovIter::from_ptr(raw_iter) };
+ let file = unsafe { (*iocb).ki_filp };
+ let offset = unsafe { (*iocb).ki_pos };
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let read = T::read(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut iter, offset.try_into()?)?;
+ unsafe { (*iocb).ki_pos += bindings::loff_t::try_from(read).unwrap() };
+ Ok(read as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn write_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ buf: *const c_types::c_char,
+ len: c_types::c_size_t,
+ offset: *mut bindings::loff_t,
+) -> c_types::c_ssize_t {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let mut data = unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(buf as *mut c_types::c_void, len).reader() };
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ // No `FMODE_UNSIGNED_OFFSET` support, so `offset` must be in [0, 2^63).
+ // See discussion in https://github.com/fishinabarrel/linux-kernel-module-rust/pull/113
+ let written = T::write(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut data, unsafe { *offset }.try_into()?)?;
+ unsafe { (*offset) += bindings::loff_t::try_from(written).unwrap() };
+ Ok(written as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn write_iter_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ iocb: *mut bindings::kiocb,
+ raw_iter: *mut bindings::iov_iter,
+) -> isize {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let mut iter = unsafe { IovIter::from_ptr(raw_iter) };
+ let file = unsafe { (*iocb).ki_filp };
+ let offset = unsafe { (*iocb).ki_pos };
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let written = T::write(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut iter, offset.try_into()?)?;
+ unsafe { (*iocb).ki_pos += bindings::loff_t::try_from(written).unwrap() };
+ Ok(written as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn release_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ _inode: *mut bindings::inode,
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ let ptr = mem::replace(unsafe { &mut (*file).private_data }, ptr::null_mut());
+ T::release(unsafe { T::Wrapper::from_pointer(ptr as _) }, unsafe {
+ &FileRef::from_ptr(file)
+ });
+ 0
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn llseek_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ offset: bindings::loff_t,
+ whence: c_types::c_int,
+) -> bindings::loff_t {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let off = match whence as u32 {
+ bindings::SEEK_SET => SeekFrom::Start(offset.try_into()?),
+ bindings::SEEK_CUR => SeekFrom::Current(offset),
+ bindings::SEEK_END => SeekFrom::End(offset),
+ _ => return Err(Error::EINVAL),
+ };
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let off = T::seek(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, off)?;
+ Ok(off as bindings::loff_t)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn unlocked_ioctl_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ cmd: c_types::c_uint,
+ arg: c_types::c_ulong,
+) -> c_types::c_long {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let mut cmd = IoctlCommand::new(cmd as _, arg as _);
+ let ret = T::ioctl(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut cmd)?;
+ Ok(ret as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn compat_ioctl_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ cmd: c_types::c_uint,
+ arg: c_types::c_ulong,
+) -> c_types::c_long {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let mut cmd = IoctlCommand::new(cmd as _, arg as _);
+ let ret = T::compat_ioctl(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, &mut cmd)?;
+ Ok(ret as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn mmap_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ vma: *mut bindings::vm_area_struct,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ T::mmap(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, unsafe { &mut *vma })?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn fsync_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ start: bindings::loff_t,
+ end: bindings::loff_t,
+ datasync: c_types::c_int,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ let start = start.try_into()?;
+ let end = end.try_into()?;
+ let datasync = datasync != 0;
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to
+ // `file` have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ let res = T::fsync(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, start, end, datasync)?;
+ Ok(res.try_into().unwrap())
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn poll_callback<T: FileOperations>(
+ file: *mut bindings::file,
+ wait: *mut bindings::poll_table_struct,
+) -> bindings::__poll_t {
+ // SAFETY: `private_data` was initialised by `open_callback` with a value returned by
+ // `T::Wrapper::into_pointer`. `T::Wrapper::from_pointer` is only called by the `release`
+ // callback, which the C API guarantees that will be called only when all references to `file`
+ // have been released, so we know it can't be called while this function is running.
+ let f = unsafe { T::Wrapper::borrow((*file).private_data) };
+ match T::poll(f, unsafe { &FileRef::from_ptr(file) }, unsafe {
+ &PollTable::from_ptr(wait)
+ }) {
+ Ok(v) => v,
+ Err(_) => bindings::POLLERR,
+ }
+}
+
+pub(crate) struct FileOperationsVtable<A, T>(marker::PhantomData<A>, marker::PhantomData<T>);
+
+impl<A: FileOpenAdapter, T: FileOpener<A::Arg>> FileOperationsVtable<A, T> {
+ const VTABLE: bindings::file_operations = bindings::file_operations {
+ open: Some(open_callback::<A, T>),
+ release: Some(release_callback::<T>),
+ read: if T::TO_USE.read {
+ Some(read_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ write: if T::TO_USE.write {
+ Some(write_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ llseek: if T::TO_USE.seek {
+ Some(llseek_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+
+ check_flags: None,
+ compat_ioctl: if T::TO_USE.compat_ioctl {
+ Some(compat_ioctl_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ copy_file_range: None,
+ fallocate: None,
+ fadvise: None,
+ fasync: None,
+ flock: None,
+ flush: None,
+ fsync: if T::TO_USE.fsync {
+ Some(fsync_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ get_unmapped_area: None,
+ iterate: None,
+ iterate_shared: None,
+ iopoll: None,
+ lock: None,
+ mmap: if T::TO_USE.mmap {
+ Some(mmap_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ mmap_supported_flags: 0,
+ owner: ptr::null_mut(),
+ poll: if T::TO_USE.poll {
+ Some(poll_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ read_iter: if T::TO_USE.read_iter {
+ Some(read_iter_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ remap_file_range: None,
+ sendpage: None,
+ setlease: None,
+ show_fdinfo: None,
+ splice_read: None,
+ splice_write: None,
+ unlocked_ioctl: if T::TO_USE.ioctl {
+ Some(unlocked_ioctl_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ write_iter: if T::TO_USE.write_iter {
+ Some(write_iter_callback::<T>)
+ } else {
+ None
+ },
+ };
+
+ /// Builds an instance of [`struct file_operations`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that the adapter is compatible with the way the device is registered.
+ pub(crate) const unsafe fn build() -> &'static bindings::file_operations {
+ &Self::VTABLE
+ }
+}
+
+/// Represents which fields of [`struct file_operations`] should be populated with pointers.
+pub struct ToUse {
+ /// The `read` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub read: bool,
+
+ /// The `read_iter` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub read_iter: bool,
+
+ /// The `write` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub write: bool,
+
+ /// The `write_iter` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub write_iter: bool,
+
+ /// The `llseek` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub seek: bool,
+
+ /// The `unlocked_ioctl` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub ioctl: bool,
+
+ /// The `compat_ioctl` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub compat_ioctl: bool,
+
+ /// The `fsync` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub fsync: bool,
+
+ /// The `mmap` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub mmap: bool,
+
+ /// The `poll` field of [`struct file_operations`].
+ pub poll: bool,
+}
+
+/// A constant version where all values are to set to `false`, that is, all supported fields will
+/// be set to null pointers.
+pub const USE_NONE: ToUse = ToUse {
+ read: false,
+ read_iter: false,
+ write: false,
+ write_iter: false,
+ seek: false,
+ ioctl: false,
+ compat_ioctl: false,
+ fsync: false,
+ mmap: false,
+ poll: false,
+};
+
+/// Defines the [`FileOperations::TO_USE`] field based on a list of fields to be populated.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! declare_file_operations {
+ () => {
+ const TO_USE: $crate::file_operations::ToUse = $crate::file_operations::USE_NONE;
+ };
+ ($($i:ident),+) => {
+ const TO_USE: kernel::file_operations::ToUse =
+ $crate::file_operations::ToUse {
+ $($i: true),+ ,
+ ..$crate::file_operations::USE_NONE
+ };
+ };
+}
+
+/// Allows the handling of ioctls defined with the `_IO`, `_IOR`, `_IOW`, and `_IOWR` macros.
+///
+/// For each macro, there is a handler function that takes the appropriate types as arguments.
+pub trait IoctlHandler: Sync {
+ /// The type of the first argument to each associated function.
+ type Target<'a>;
+
+ /// Handles ioctls defined with the `_IO` macro, that is, with no buffer as argument.
+ fn pure(_this: Self::Target<'_>, _file: &File, _cmd: u32, _arg: usize) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Handles ioctls defined with the `_IOR` macro, that is, with an output buffer provided as
+ /// argument.
+ fn read(
+ _this: Self::Target<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _cmd: u32,
+ _writer: &mut UserSlicePtrWriter,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Handles ioctls defined with the `_IOW` macro, that is, with an input buffer provided as
+ /// argument.
+ fn write(
+ _this: Self::Target<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _cmd: u32,
+ _reader: &mut UserSlicePtrReader,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Handles ioctls defined with the `_IOWR` macro, that is, with a buffer for both input and
+ /// output provided as argument.
+ fn read_write(
+ _this: Self::Target<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _cmd: u32,
+ _data: UserSlicePtr,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+}
+
+/// Represents an ioctl command.
+///
+/// It can use the components of an ioctl command to dispatch ioctls using
+/// [`IoctlCommand::dispatch`].
+pub struct IoctlCommand {
+ cmd: u32,
+ arg: usize,
+ user_slice: Option<UserSlicePtr>,
+}
+
+impl IoctlCommand {
+ /// Constructs a new [`IoctlCommand`].
+ fn new(cmd: u32, arg: usize) -> Self {
+ let size = (cmd >> bindings::_IOC_SIZESHIFT) & bindings::_IOC_SIZEMASK;
+
+ // SAFETY: We only create one instance of the user slice per ioctl call, so TOCTOU issues
+ // are not possible.
+ let user_slice = Some(unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(arg as _, size as _) });
+ Self {
+ cmd,
+ arg,
+ user_slice,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Dispatches the given ioctl to the appropriate handler based on the value of the command. It
+ /// also creates a [`UserSlicePtr`], [`UserSlicePtrReader`], or [`UserSlicePtrWriter`]
+ /// depending on the direction of the buffer of the command.
+ ///
+ /// It is meant to be used in implementations of [`FileOperations::ioctl`] and
+ /// [`FileOperations::compat_ioctl`].
+ pub fn dispatch<T: IoctlHandler>(
+ &mut self,
+ handler: T::Target<'_>,
+ file: &File,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ let dir = (self.cmd >> bindings::_IOC_DIRSHIFT) & bindings::_IOC_DIRMASK;
+ if dir == bindings::_IOC_NONE {
+ return T::pure(handler, file, self.cmd, self.arg);
+ }
+
+ let data = self.user_slice.take().ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ const READ_WRITE: u32 = bindings::_IOC_READ | bindings::_IOC_WRITE;
+ match dir {
+ bindings::_IOC_WRITE => T::write(handler, file, self.cmd, &mut data.reader()),
+ bindings::_IOC_READ => T::read(handler, file, self.cmd, &mut data.writer()),
+ READ_WRITE => T::read_write(handler, file, self.cmd, data),
+ _ => Err(Error::EINVAL),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the raw 32-bit value of the command and the ptr-sized argument.
+ pub fn raw(&self) -> (u32, usize) {
+ (self.cmd, self.arg)
+ }
+}
+
+/// Trait for extracting file open arguments from kernel data structures.
+///
+/// This is meant to be implemented by registration managers.
+pub trait FileOpenAdapter {
+ /// The type of argument this adapter extracts.
+ type Arg;
+
+ /// Converts untyped data stored in [`struct inode`] and [`struct file`] (when [`struct
+ /// file_operations::open`] is called) into the given type. For example, for `miscdev`
+ /// devices, a pointer to the registered [`struct miscdev`] is stored in [`struct
+ /// file::private_data`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// This function must be called only when [`struct file_operations::open`] is being called for
+ /// a file that was registered by the implementer. The returned pointer must be valid and
+ /// not-null.
+ unsafe fn convert(_inode: *mut bindings::inode, _file: *mut bindings::file)
+ -> *const Self::Arg;
+}
+
+/// Trait for implementers of kernel files.
+///
+/// In addition to the methods in [`FileOperations`], implementers must also provide
+/// [`FileOpener::open`] with a customised argument. This allows a single implementation of
+/// [`FileOperations`] to be used for different types of registrations, for example, `miscdev` and
+/// `chrdev`.
+pub trait FileOpener<T: ?Sized>: FileOperations {
+ /// Creates a new instance of this file.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `open` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn open(context: &T, file: &File) -> Result<Self::Wrapper>;
+}
+
+impl<T: FileOperations<Wrapper = Box<T>> + Default> FileOpener<()> for T {
+ fn open(_: &(), _file: &File) -> Result<Self::Wrapper> {
+ Ok(Box::try_new(T::default())?)
+ }
+}
+
+/// Corresponds to the kernel's `struct file_operations`.
+///
+/// You implement this trait whenever you would create a `struct file_operations`.
+///
+/// File descriptors may be used from multiple threads/processes concurrently, so your type must be
+/// [`Sync`]. It must also be [`Send`] because [`FileOperations::release`] will be called from the
+/// thread that decrements that associated file's refcount to zero.
+pub trait FileOperations: Send + Sync + Sized + 'static {
+ /// The methods to use to populate [`struct file_operations`].
+ const TO_USE: ToUse;
+
+ /// The pointer type that will be used to hold ourselves.
+ type Wrapper: PointerWrapper = Box<Self>;
+
+ /// Cleans up after the last reference to the file goes away.
+ ///
+ /// Note that the object is moved, so it will be freed automatically unless the implementation
+ /// moves it elsewhere.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `release` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn release(_obj: Self::Wrapper, _file: &File) {}
+
+ /// Reads data from this file to the caller's buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `read` and `read_iter` function pointers in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn read(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _data: &mut impl IoBufferWriter,
+ _offset: u64,
+ ) -> Result<usize> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Writes data from the caller's buffer to this file.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `write` and `write_iter` function pointers in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn write(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _data: &mut impl IoBufferReader,
+ _offset: u64,
+ ) -> Result<usize> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Changes the position of the file.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `llseek` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn seek(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _offset: SeekFrom,
+ ) -> Result<u64> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Performs IO control operations that are specific to the file.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `unlocked_ioctl` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn ioctl(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _cmd: &mut IoctlCommand,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::ENOTTY)
+ }
+
+ /// Performs 32-bit IO control operations on that are specific to the file on 64-bit kernels.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `compat_ioctl` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn compat_ioctl(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _cmd: &mut IoctlCommand,
+ ) -> Result<i32> {
+ Err(Error::ENOTTY)
+ }
+
+ /// Syncs pending changes to this file.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `fsync` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn fsync(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _start: u64,
+ _end: u64,
+ _datasync: bool,
+ ) -> Result<u32> {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Maps areas of the caller's virtual memory with device/file memory.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `mmap` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ /// TODO: wrap `vm_area_struct` so that we don't have to expose it.
+ fn mmap(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _vma: &mut bindings::vm_area_struct,
+ ) -> Result {
+ Err(Error::EINVAL)
+ }
+
+ /// Checks the state of the file and optionally registers for notification when the state
+ /// changes.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the `poll` function pointer in `struct file_operations`.
+ fn poll(
+ _this: <Self::Wrapper as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _file: &File,
+ _table: &PollTable,
+ ) -> Result<u32> {
+ Ok(bindings::POLLIN | bindings::POLLOUT | bindings::POLLRDNORM | bindings::POLLWRNORM)
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/gpio.rs b/rust/kernel/gpio.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cd11fcfa9836
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/gpio.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,475 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Support for gpio device drivers.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/gpio/driver.h`](../../../../include/linux/gpio/driver.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types, device, error::from_kernel_result, types::PointerWrapper, Error, Result,
+};
+use core::{
+ cell::UnsafeCell,
+ marker::{PhantomData, PhantomPinned},
+ pin::Pin,
+};
+
+#[cfg(CONFIG_GPIOLIB_IRQCHIP)]
+pub use irqchip::{ChipWithIrqChip, RegistrationWithIrqChip};
+
+/// The direction of a gpio line.
+pub enum LineDirection {
+ /// Direction is input.
+ In = bindings::GPIO_LINE_DIRECTION_IN as _,
+
+ /// Direction is output.
+ Out = bindings::GPIO_LINE_DIRECTION_OUT as _,
+}
+
+/// A gpio chip.
+pub trait Chip {
+ /// Context data associated with the gpio chip.
+ ///
+ /// It determines the type of the context data passed to each of the methods of the trait.
+ type Data: PointerWrapper + Sync + Send;
+
+ /// The methods to use to populate [`struct gpio_chip`]. This is typically populated with
+ /// [`declare_gpio_chip_operations`].
+ const TO_USE: ToUse;
+
+ /// Returns the direction of the given gpio line.
+ fn get_direction(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _offset: u32,
+ ) -> Result<LineDirection> {
+ Err(Error::ENOTSUPP)
+ }
+
+ /// Configures the direction as input of the given gpio line.
+ fn direction_input(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _offset: u32,
+ ) -> Result {
+ Err(Error::EIO)
+ }
+
+ /// Configures the direction as output of the given gpio line.
+ ///
+ /// The value that will be initially output is also specified.
+ fn direction_output(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _offset: u32,
+ _value: bool,
+ ) -> Result {
+ Err(Error::ENOTSUPP)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the current value of the given gpio line.
+ fn get(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, _offset: u32) -> Result<bool> {
+ Err(Error::EIO)
+ }
+
+ /// Sets the value of the given gpio line.
+ fn set(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, _offset: u32, _value: bool) {}
+}
+
+/// Represents which fields of [`struct gpio_chip`] should be populated with pointers.
+///
+/// This is typically populated with the [`declare_gpio_chip_operations`] macro.
+pub struct ToUse {
+ /// The `get_direction` field of [`struct gpio_chip`].
+ pub get_direction: bool,
+
+ /// The `direction_input` field of [`struct gpio_chip`].
+ pub direction_input: bool,
+
+ /// The `direction_output` field of [`struct gpio_chip`].
+ pub direction_output: bool,
+
+ /// The `get` field of [`struct gpio_chip`].
+ pub get: bool,
+
+ /// The `set` field of [`struct gpio_chip`].
+ pub set: bool,
+}
+
+/// A constant version where all values are set to `false`, that is, all supported fields will be
+/// set to null pointers.
+pub const USE_NONE: ToUse = ToUse {
+ get_direction: false,
+ direction_input: false,
+ direction_output: false,
+ get: false,
+ set: false,
+};
+
+/// Defines the [`Chip::TO_USE`] field based on a list of fields to be populated.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! declare_gpio_chip_operations {
+ () => {
+ const TO_USE: $crate::gpio::ToUse = $crate::gpio::USE_NONE;
+ };
+ ($($i:ident),+) => {
+ #[allow(clippy::needless_update)]
+ const TO_USE: $crate::gpio::ToUse =
+ $crate::gpio::ToUse {
+ $($i: true),+ ,
+ ..$crate::gpio::USE_NONE
+ };
+ };
+}
+
+/// A registration of a gpio chip.
+pub struct Registration<T: Chip> {
+ gc: UnsafeCell<bindings::gpio_chip>,
+ parent: Option<device::Device>,
+ _p: PhantomData<T>,
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+}
+
+impl<T: Chip> Registration<T> {
+ /// Creates a new [`Registration`] but does not register it yet.
+ ///
+ /// It is allowed to move.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ parent: None,
+ gc: UnsafeCell::new(bindings::gpio_chip::default()),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a gpio chip with the rest of the kernel.
+ pub fn register(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ gpio_count: u16,
+ base: Option<i32>,
+ parent: &dyn device::RawDevice,
+ data: T::Data,
+ ) -> Result {
+ if self.parent.is_some() {
+ // Already registered.
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: We never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.get_unchecked_mut() };
+ {
+ let gc = this.gc.get_mut();
+
+ // Set up the callbacks.
+ gc.request = Some(bindings::gpiochip_generic_request);
+ gc.free = Some(bindings::gpiochip_generic_free);
+ if T::TO_USE.get_direction {
+ gc.get_direction = Some(get_direction_callback::<T>);
+ }
+ if T::TO_USE.direction_input {
+ gc.direction_input = Some(direction_input_callback::<T>);
+ }
+ if T::TO_USE.direction_output {
+ gc.direction_output = Some(direction_output_callback::<T>);
+ }
+ if T::TO_USE.get {
+ gc.get = Some(get_callback::<T>);
+ }
+ if T::TO_USE.set {
+ gc.set = Some(set_callback::<T>);
+ }
+
+ // When a base is not explicitly given, use -1 for one to be picked.
+ if let Some(b) = base {
+ gc.base = b;
+ } else {
+ gc.base = -1;
+ }
+
+ gc.ngpio = gpio_count;
+ gc.parent = parent.raw_device();
+ gc.label = parent.name().as_char_ptr();
+
+ // TODO: Define `gc.owner` as well.
+ }
+
+ let data_pointer = <T::Data as PointerWrapper>::into_pointer(data);
+ // SAFETY: `gc` was initilised above, so it is valid.
+ let ret = unsafe {
+ bindings::gpiochip_add_data_with_key(
+ this.gc.get(),
+ data_pointer as _,
+ core::ptr::null_mut(),
+ core::ptr::null_mut(),
+ )
+ };
+ if ret < 0 {
+ // SAFETY: `data_pointer` was returned by `into_pointer` above.
+ unsafe { T::Data::from_pointer(data_pointer) };
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(ret));
+ }
+
+ this.parent = Some(device::Device::from_dev(parent));
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Registration` doesn't offer any methods or access to fields when shared between threads
+// or CPUs, so it is safe to share it.
+unsafe impl<T: Chip> Sync for Registration<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: Registration with and unregistration from the gpio subsystem can happen from any thread.
+// Additionally, `T::Data` (which is dropped during unregistration) is `Send`, so it is ok to move
+// `Registration` to different threads.
+unsafe impl<T: Chip> Send for Registration<T> {}
+
+impl<T: Chip> Default for Registration<T> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: Chip> Drop for Registration<T> {
+ /// Removes the registration from the kernel if it has completed successfully before.
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ if self.parent.is_some() {
+ // Get a pointer to the data stored in chip before destroying it.
+ // SAFETY: `gc` was during registration, which is guaranteed to have succeeded (because
+ // `parent` is `Some(_)`, so it remains valid.
+ let data_pointer = unsafe { bindings::gpiochip_get_data(self.gc.get()) };
+
+ // SAFETY: By the same argument above, `gc` is still valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::gpiochip_remove(self.gc.get()) };
+
+ // Free data as well.
+ // SAFETY: `data_pointer` was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ unsafe { <T::Data as PointerWrapper>::from_pointer(data_pointer) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn get_direction_callback<T: Chip>(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ offset: c_types::c_uint,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The value stored as chip data was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+ Ok(T::get_direction(data, offset)? as i32)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn direction_input_callback<T: Chip>(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ offset: c_types::c_uint,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The value stored as chip data was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+ T::direction_input(data, offset)?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn direction_output_callback<T: Chip>(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ offset: c_types::c_uint,
+ value: c_types::c_int,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The value stored as chip data was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+ T::direction_output(data, offset, value != 0)?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn get_callback<T: Chip>(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ offset: c_types::c_uint,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The value stored as chip data was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+ let v = T::get(data, offset)?;
+ Ok(v as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn set_callback<T: Chip>(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ offset: c_types::c_uint,
+ value: c_types::c_int,
+) {
+ // SAFETY: The value stored as chip data was returned by `into_pointer` during registration.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+ T::set(data, offset, value != 0);
+}
+
+#[cfg(CONFIG_GPIOLIB_IRQCHIP)]
+mod irqchip {
+ use super::*;
+ use crate::irq;
+
+ /// A gpio chip that includes an irq chip.
+ pub trait ChipWithIrqChip: Chip {
+ /// Implements the irq flow for the gpio chip.
+ fn handle_irq_flow(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _desc: &irq::Descriptor,
+ _domain: &irq::Domain,
+ );
+ }
+
+ /// A registration of a gpio chip that includes an irq chip.
+ pub struct RegistrationWithIrqChip<T: ChipWithIrqChip> {
+ reg: Registration<T>,
+ irq_chip: UnsafeCell<bindings::irq_chip>,
+ parent_irq: u32,
+ }
+
+ impl<T: ChipWithIrqChip> RegistrationWithIrqChip<T> {
+ /// Creates a new [`RegistrationWithIrqChip`] but does not register it yet.
+ ///
+ /// It is allowed to move.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ reg: Registration::new(),
+ irq_chip: UnsafeCell::new(bindings::irq_chip::default()),
+ parent_irq: 0,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a gpio chip and its irq chip with the rest of the kernel.
+ pub fn register<U: irq::Chip<Data = T::Data>>(
+ mut self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ gpio_count: u16,
+ base: Option<i32>,
+ parent: &dyn device::RawDevice,
+ data: T::Data,
+ parent_irq: u32,
+ ) -> Result {
+ if self.reg.parent.is_some() {
+ // Already registered.
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: We never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.as_mut().get_unchecked_mut() };
+
+ // Initialise the irq_chip.
+ {
+ let irq_chip = this.irq_chip.get_mut();
+ irq_chip.name = parent.name().as_char_ptr();
+
+ // SAFETY: The gpio subsystem configures a pointer to `gpio_chip` as the irq chip
+ // data, so we use `IrqChipAdapter` to convert to the `T::Data`, which is the same
+ // as `irq::Chip::Data` per the bound above.
+ unsafe { irq::init_chip::<IrqChipAdapter<U>>(irq_chip) };
+ }
+
+ // Initialise gc irq state.
+ {
+ let girq = &mut this.reg.gc.get_mut().irq;
+ girq.chip = this.irq_chip.get();
+ // SAFETY: By leaving `parent_handler_data` set to `null`, the gpio subsystem
+ // initialises it to a pointer to the gpio chip, which is what `FlowHandler<T>`
+ // expects.
+ girq.parent_handler = unsafe { irq::new_flow_handler::<FlowHandler<T>>() };
+ girq.num_parents = 1;
+ girq.parents = &mut this.parent_irq;
+ this.parent_irq = parent_irq;
+ girq.default_type = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_NONE;
+ girq.handler = Some(bindings::handle_bad_irq);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `reg` is pinned when `self` is.
+ let pinned = unsafe { self.map_unchecked_mut(|r| &mut r.reg) };
+ pinned.register(gpio_count, base, parent, data)
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: ChipWithIrqChip> Default for RegistrationWithIrqChip<T> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `RegistrationWithIrqChip` doesn't offer any methods or access to fields when shared
+ // between threads or CPUs, so it is safe to share it.
+ unsafe impl<T: ChipWithIrqChip> Sync for RegistrationWithIrqChip<T> {}
+
+ // SAFETY: Registration with and unregistration from the gpio subsystem (including irq chips for
+ // them) can happen from any thread. Additionally, `T::Data` (which is dropped during
+ // unregistration) is `Send`, so it is ok to move `Registration` to different threads.
+ unsafe impl<T: ChipWithIrqChip> Send for RegistrationWithIrqChip<T> where T::Data: Send {}
+
+ struct FlowHandler<T: ChipWithIrqChip>(PhantomData<T>);
+
+ impl<T: ChipWithIrqChip> irq::FlowHandler for FlowHandler<T> {
+ type Data = *mut bindings::gpio_chip;
+
+ fn handle_irq_flow(gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip, desc: &irq::Descriptor) {
+ // SAFETY: `FlowHandler` is only used in gpio chips, and it is removed when the gpio is
+ // unregistered, so we know that `gc` must still be valid. We also know that the value
+ // stored as gpio data was returned by `T::Data::into_pointer` again because
+ // `FlowHandler` is a private structure only used in this way.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: `gc` is valid (see comment above), so we can dereference it.
+ let domain = unsafe { irq::Domain::from_ptr((*gc).irq.domain) };
+
+ T::handle_irq_flow(data, desc, &domain);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Adapter from an irq chip with `gpio_chip` pointer as context to one where the gpio chip
+ /// data is passed as context.
+ struct IrqChipAdapter<T: irq::Chip>(PhantomData<T>);
+
+ impl<T: irq::Chip> irq::Chip for IrqChipAdapter<T> {
+ type Data = *mut bindings::gpio_chip;
+ const TO_USE: irq::ToUse = T::TO_USE;
+
+ fn ack(gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip, irq_data: &irq::IrqData) {
+ // SAFETY: `IrqChipAdapter` is a private struct, only used when the data stored in the
+ // gpio chip is known to come from `T::Data`, and only valid while the gpio chip is
+ // registered, so `gc` is valid.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc as _)) };
+ T::ack(data, irq_data);
+ }
+
+ fn mask(gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip, irq_data: &irq::IrqData) {
+ // SAFETY: `IrqChipAdapter` is a private struct, only used when the data stored in the
+ // gpio chip is known to come from `T::Data`, and only valid while the gpio chip is
+ // registered, so `gc` is valid.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc as _)) };
+ T::mask(data, irq_data);
+ }
+
+ fn unmask(gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip, irq_data: &irq::IrqData) {
+ // SAFETY: `IrqChipAdapter` is a private struct, only used when the data stored in the
+ // gpio chip is known to come from `T::Data`, and only valid while the gpio chip is
+ // registered, so `gc` is valid.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc as _)) };
+ T::unmask(data, irq_data);
+ }
+
+ fn set_type(
+ gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip,
+ irq_data: &mut irq::LockedIrqData,
+ flow_type: u32,
+ ) -> Result<irq::ExtraResult> {
+ // SAFETY: `IrqChipAdapter` is a private struct, only used when the data stored in the
+ // gpio chip is known to come from `T::Data`, and only valid while the gpio chip is
+ // registered, so `gc` is valid.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc as _)) };
+ T::set_type(data, irq_data, flow_type)
+ }
+
+ fn set_wake(gc: *mut bindings::gpio_chip, irq_data: &irq::IrqData, on: bool) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: `IrqChipAdapter` is a private struct, only used when the data stored in the
+ // gpio chip is known to come from `T::Data`, and only valid while the gpio chip is
+ // registered, so `gc` is valid.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::gpiochip_get_data(gc as _)) };
+ T::set_wake(data, irq_data, on)
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/io_buffer.rs b/rust/kernel/io_buffer.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ccecc4763aca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/io_buffer.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,153 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Buffers used in IO.
+
+use crate::Result;
+use alloc::vec::Vec;
+use core::mem::{size_of, MaybeUninit};
+
+/// Represents a buffer to be read from during IO.
+pub trait IoBufferReader {
+ /// Returns the number of bytes left to be read from the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Note that even reading less than this number of bytes may fail.
+ fn len(&self) -> usize;
+
+ /// Returns `true` if no data is available in the io buffer.
+ fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
+ self.len() == 0
+ }
+
+ /// Reads raw data from the io buffer into a raw kernel buffer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The output buffer must be valid.
+ unsafe fn read_raw(&mut self, out: *mut u8, len: usize) -> Result;
+
+ /// Reads all data remaining in the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `EFAULT` if the address does not currently point to mapped, readable memory.
+ fn read_all(&mut self) -> Result<Vec<u8>> {
+ let mut data = Vec::<u8>::new();
+ data.try_resize(self.len(), 0)?;
+
+ // SAFETY: The output buffer is valid as we just allocated it.
+ unsafe { self.read_raw(data.as_mut_ptr(), data.len())? };
+ Ok(data)
+ }
+
+ /// Reads a byte slice from the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `EFAULT` if the byte slice is bigger than the remaining size of the user slice or
+ /// if the address does not currently point to mapped, readable memory.
+ fn read_slice(&mut self, data: &mut [u8]) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: The output buffer is valid as it's coming from a live reference.
+ unsafe { self.read_raw(data.as_mut_ptr(), data.len()) }
+ }
+
+ /// Reads the contents of a plain old data (POD) type from the io buffer.
+ fn read<T: ReadableFromBytes>(&mut self) -> Result<T> {
+ let mut out = MaybeUninit::<T>::uninit();
+ // SAFETY: The buffer is valid as it was just allocated.
+ unsafe { self.read_raw(out.as_mut_ptr() as _, size_of::<T>()) }?;
+ // SAFETY: We just initialised the data.
+ Ok(unsafe { out.assume_init() })
+ }
+}
+
+/// Represents a buffer to be written to during IO.
+pub trait IoBufferWriter {
+ /// Returns the number of bytes left to be written into the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Note that even writing less than this number of bytes may fail.
+ fn len(&self) -> usize;
+
+ /// Returns `true` if the io buffer cannot hold any additional data.
+ fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
+ self.len() == 0
+ }
+
+ /// Writes zeroes to the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Differently from the other write functions, `clear` will zero as much as it can and update
+ /// the writer internal state to reflect this. It will, however, return an error if it cannot
+ /// clear `len` bytes.
+ ///
+ /// For example, if a caller requests that 100 bytes be cleared but a segfault happens after
+ /// 20 bytes, then EFAULT is returned and the writer is advanced by 20 bytes.
+ fn clear(&mut self, len: usize) -> Result;
+
+ /// Writes a byte slice into the io buffer.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `EFAULT` if the byte slice is bigger than the remaining size of the io buffer or if
+ /// the address does not currently point to mapped, writable memory.
+ fn write_slice(&mut self, data: &[u8]) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: The input buffer is valid as it's coming from a live reference.
+ unsafe { self.write_raw(data.as_ptr(), data.len()) }
+ }
+
+ /// Writes raw data to the io buffer from a raw kernel buffer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The input buffer must be valid.
+ unsafe fn write_raw(&mut self, data: *const u8, len: usize) -> Result;
+
+ /// Writes the contents of the given data into the io buffer.
+ fn write<T: WritableToBytes>(&mut self, data: &T) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: The input buffer is valid as it's coming from a live
+ // reference to a type that implements `WritableToBytes`.
+ unsafe { self.write_raw(data as *const T as _, size_of::<T>()) }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Specifies that a type is safely readable from byte slices.
+///
+/// Not all types can be safely read from byte slices; examples from
+/// <https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/behavior-considered-undefined.html> include `bool`
+/// that must be either `0` or `1`, and `char` that cannot be a surrogate or above `char::MAX`.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// Implementers must ensure that the type is made up only of types that can be safely read from
+/// arbitrary byte sequences (e.g., `u32`, `u64`, etc.).
+pub unsafe trait ReadableFromBytes {}
+
+// SAFETY: All bit patterns are acceptable values of the types below.
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for u8 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for u16 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for u32 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for u64 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for usize {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for i8 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for i16 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for i32 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for i64 {}
+unsafe impl ReadableFromBytes for isize {}
+
+/// Specifies that a type is safely writable to byte slices.
+///
+/// This means that we don't read undefined values (which leads to UB) in preparation for writing
+/// to the byte slice. It also ensures that no potentially sensitive information is leaked into the
+/// byte slices.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// A type must not include padding bytes and must be fully initialised to safely implement
+/// [`WritableToBytes`] (i.e., it doesn't contain [`MaybeUninit`] fields). A composition of
+/// writable types in a structure is not necessarily writable because it may result in padding
+/// bytes.
+pub unsafe trait WritableToBytes {}
+
+// SAFETY: Initialised instances of the following types have no uninitialised portions.
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for u8 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for u16 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for u32 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for u64 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for usize {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for i8 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for i16 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for i32 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for i64 {}
+unsafe impl WritableToBytes for isize {}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/io_mem.rs b/rust/kernel/io_mem.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c6d2ea4abc2c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/io_mem.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,207 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Memory-mapped IO.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/asm-generic/io.h`](../../../../include/asm-generic/io.h)
+
+#![allow(dead_code)]
+
+use crate::{bindings, Error, Result};
+use core::convert::TryInto;
+
+/// Represents a memory resource.
+pub struct Resource {
+ offset: bindings::resource_size_t,
+ size: bindings::resource_size_t,
+}
+
+impl Resource {
+ pub(crate) fn new(
+ start: bindings::resource_size_t,
+ end: bindings::resource_size_t,
+ ) -> Option<Self> {
+ if start == 0 {
+ return None;
+ }
+ Some(Self {
+ offset: start,
+ size: end.checked_sub(start)?.checked_add(1)?,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+/// Represents a memory block of at least `SIZE` bytes.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// `ptr` is a non-null and valid address of at least `SIZE` bytes and returned by an `ioremap`
+/// variant. `ptr` is also 8-byte aligned.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::io_mem::{IoMem, Resource};
+///
+/// fn test(res: Resource) -> Result {
+/// // Create an io mem block of at least 100 bytes.
+/// // SAFETY: No DMA operations are initiated through `mem`.
+/// let mem = unsafe { IoMem::<100>::try_new(res) }?;
+///
+/// // Read one byte from offset 10.
+/// let v = mem.readb(10);
+///
+/// // Write value to offset 20.
+/// mem.writeb(v, 20);
+///
+/// Ok(())
+/// }
+///
+/// ```
+pub struct IoMem<const SIZE: usize> {
+ ptr: usize,
+}
+
+macro_rules! define_read {
+ ($(#[$attr:meta])* $name:ident, $try_name:ident, $type_name:ty) => {
+ /// Reads IO data from the given offset known, at compile time.
+ ///
+ /// If the offset is not known at compile time, the build will fail.
+ $(#[$attr])*
+ pub fn $name(&self, offset: usize) -> $type_name {
+ Self::check_offset::<$type_name>(offset);
+ let ptr = self.ptr.wrapping_add(offset);
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `ptr` is a valid pointer. The check above
+ // guarantees that the code won't build if `offset` makes the read go out of bounds
+ // (including the type size).
+ unsafe { bindings::$name(ptr as _) }
+ }
+
+ /// Reads IO data from the given offset.
+ ///
+ /// It fails if/when the offset (plus the type size) is out of bounds.
+ $(#[$attr])*
+ pub fn $try_name(&self, offset: usize) -> Result<$type_name> {
+ if !Self::offset_ok::<$type_name>(offset) {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+ let ptr = self.ptr.wrapping_add(offset);
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `ptr` is a valid pointer. The check above
+ // returns an error if `offset` would make the read go out of bounds (including the
+ // type size).
+ Ok(unsafe { bindings::$name(ptr as _) })
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+macro_rules! define_write {
+ ($(#[$attr:meta])* $name:ident, $try_name:ident, $type_name:ty) => {
+ /// Writes IO data to the given offset, known at compile time.
+ ///
+ /// If the offset is not known at compile time, the build will fail.
+ $(#[$attr])*
+ pub fn $name(&self, value: $type_name, offset: usize) {
+ Self::check_offset::<$type_name>(offset);
+ let ptr = self.ptr.wrapping_add(offset);
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `ptr` is a valid pointer. The check above
+ // guarantees that the code won't link if `offset` makes the write go out of bounds
+ // (including the type size).
+ unsafe { bindings::$name(value, ptr as _) }
+ }
+
+ /// Writes IO data to the given offset.
+ ///
+ /// It fails if/when the offset (plus the type size) is out of bounds.
+ $(#[$attr])*
+ pub fn $try_name(&self, value: $type_name, offset: usize) -> Result {
+ if !Self::offset_ok::<$type_name>(offset) {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+ let ptr = self.ptr.wrapping_add(offset);
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `ptr` is a valid pointer. The check above
+ // returns an error if `offset` would make the write go out of bounds (including the
+ // type size).
+ unsafe { bindings::$name(value, ptr as _) };
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+impl<const SIZE: usize> IoMem<SIZE> {
+ /// Tries to create a new instance of a memory block.
+ ///
+ /// The resource described by `res` is mapped into the CPU's address space so that it can be
+ /// accessed directly. It is also consumed by this function so that it can't be mapped again
+ /// to a different address.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that either (a) the resulting interface cannot be used to initiate DMA
+ /// operations, or (b) that DMA operations initiated via the returned interface use DMA handles
+ /// allocated through the `dma` module.
+ pub unsafe fn try_new(res: Resource) -> Result<Self> {
+ // Check that the resource has at least `SIZE` bytes in it.
+ if res.size < SIZE.try_into()? {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // To be able to check pointers at compile time based only on offsets, we need to guarantee
+ // that the base pointer is minimally aligned. So we conservatively expect at least 8 bytes.
+ if res.offset % 8 != 0 {
+ crate::pr_err!("Physical address is not 64-bit aligned: {:x}", res.offset);
+ return Err(Error::EDOM);
+ }
+
+ // Try to map the resource.
+ // SAFETY: Just mapping the memory range.
+ let addr = unsafe { bindings::ioremap(res.offset, res.size as _) };
+ if addr.is_null() {
+ Err(Error::ENOMEM)
+ } else {
+ // INVARIANT: `addr` is non-null and was returned by `ioremap`, so it is valid. It is
+ // also 8-byte aligned because we checked it above.
+ Ok(Self { ptr: addr as usize })
+ }
+ }
+
+ const fn offset_ok<T>(offset: usize) -> bool {
+ let type_size = core::mem::size_of::<T>();
+ if let Some(end) = offset.checked_add(type_size) {
+ end <= SIZE && offset % type_size == 0
+ } else {
+ false
+ }
+ }
+
+ const fn check_offset<T>(offset: usize) {
+ crate::build_assert!(Self::offset_ok::<T>(offset), "IoMem offset overflow");
+ }
+
+ define_read!(readb, try_readb, u8);
+ define_read!(readw, try_readw, u16);
+ define_read!(readl, try_readl, u32);
+ define_read!(
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_64BIT)]
+ readq,
+ try_readq,
+ u64
+ );
+
+ define_write!(writeb, try_writeb, u8);
+ define_write!(writew, try_writew, u16);
+ define_write!(writel, try_writel, u32);
+ define_write!(
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_64BIT)]
+ writeq,
+ try_writeq,
+ u64
+ );
+}
+
+impl<const SIZE: usize> Drop for IoMem<SIZE> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, `self.ptr` is a value returned by a previous successful
+ // call to `ioremap`.
+ unsafe { bindings::iounmap(self.ptr as _) };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/iov_iter.rs b/rust/kernel/iov_iter.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..fe738c529b84
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/iov_iter.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! IO vector iterators.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/uio.h`](../../../../include/linux/uio.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings,
+ error::Error,
+ io_buffer::{IoBufferReader, IoBufferWriter},
+ Result,
+};
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct iov_iter`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `IovIter::ptr` is non-null and valid.
+pub struct IovIter {
+ ptr: *mut bindings::iov_iter,
+}
+
+impl IovIter {
+ fn common_len(&self) -> usize {
+ // SAFETY: `IovIter::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants.
+ unsafe { (*self.ptr).count }
+ }
+
+ /// Constructs a new [`struct iov_iter`] wrapper.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the object.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::iov_iter) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANTS: the safety contract ensures the type invariant will hold.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+}
+
+impl IoBufferWriter for IovIter {
+ fn len(&self) -> usize {
+ self.common_len()
+ }
+
+ fn clear(&mut self, mut len: usize) -> Result {
+ while len > 0 {
+ // SAFETY: `IovIter::ptr` is guaranteed to be valid by the type invariants.
+ let written = unsafe { bindings::iov_iter_zero(len, self.ptr) };
+ if written == 0 {
+ return Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ }
+
+ len -= written;
+ }
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn write_raw(&mut self, data: *const u8, len: usize) -> Result {
+ let res = unsafe { bindings::copy_to_iter(data as _, len, self.ptr) };
+ if res != len {
+ Err(Error::EFAULT)
+ } else {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl IoBufferReader for IovIter {
+ fn len(&self) -> usize {
+ self.common_len()
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn read_raw(&mut self, out: *mut u8, len: usize) -> Result {
+ let res = unsafe { bindings::copy_from_iter(out as _, len, self.ptr) };
+ if res != len {
+ Err(Error::EFAULT)
+ } else {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/irq.rs b/rust/kernel/irq.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..256bbf8b1ea3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/irq.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,408 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Interrupts and interrupt chips.
+//!
+//! See <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/core-api/genericirq.rst>.
+//!
+//! C headers: [`include/linux/irq.h`](../../../../include/linux/irq.h) and
+//! [`include/linux/interrupt.h`](../../../../include/linux/interrupt.h).
+
+#![allow(dead_code)]
+
+use crate::{bindings, c_types, error::from_kernel_result, types::PointerWrapper, Error, Result};
+use core::ops::Deref;
+
+type IrqHwNumber = bindings::irq_hw_number_t;
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct irq_data`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `IrqData::ptr` is non-null and valid.
+pub struct IrqData {
+ ptr: *mut bindings::irq_data,
+}
+
+impl IrqData {
+ /// Creates a new `IrqData` instance from a raw pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `ptr` is non-null and valid when the function is called, and that
+ /// it remains valid for the lifetime of the return [`IrqData`] instance.
+ unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::irq_data) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANTS: By the safety requirements, the instance we're creating satisfies the type
+ // invariants.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the hardware irq number.
+ pub fn hwirq(&self) -> IrqHwNumber {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, it's ok to dereference `ptr`.
+ unsafe { (*self.ptr).hwirq }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct irq_data` when it is locked.
+///
+/// Being locked allows additional operations to be performed on the data.
+pub struct LockedIrqData(IrqData);
+
+impl LockedIrqData {
+ /// Sets the high-level irq flow handler to the builtin one for level-triggered irqs.
+ pub fn set_level_handler(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants of `self.0`, we know `self.0.ptr` is valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::irq_set_handler_locked(self.0.ptr, Some(bindings::handle_level_irq)) };
+ }
+
+ /// Sets the high-level irq flow handler to the builtin one for edge-triggered irqs.
+ pub fn set_edge_handler(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants of `self.0`, we know `self.0.ptr` is valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::irq_set_handler_locked(self.0.ptr, Some(bindings::handle_edge_irq)) };
+ }
+
+ /// Sets the high-level irq flow handler to the builtin one for bad irqs.
+ pub fn set_bad_handler(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants of `self.0`, we know `self.0.ptr` is valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::irq_set_handler_locked(self.0.ptr, Some(bindings::handle_bad_irq)) };
+ }
+}
+
+impl Deref for LockedIrqData {
+ type Target = IrqData;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ &self.0
+ }
+}
+
+/// Extra information returned by some of the [`Chip`] methods on success.
+pub enum ExtraResult {
+ /// Indicates that the caller (irq core) will update the descriptor state.
+ None = bindings::IRQ_SET_MASK_OK as _,
+
+ /// Indicates that the callee (irq chip implementation) already updated the descriptor state.
+ NoCopy = bindings::IRQ_SET_MASK_OK_NOCOPY as _,
+
+ /// Same as [`ExtraResult::None`] in terms of updating descriptor state. It is used in stacked
+ /// irq chips to indicate that descendant chips should be skipped.
+ Done = bindings::IRQ_SET_MASK_OK_DONE as _,
+}
+
+/// An irq chip.
+///
+/// It is a trait for the functions defined in [`struct irq_chip`].
+///
+/// [`struct irq_chip`]: ../../../include/linux/irq.h
+pub trait Chip: Sized {
+ /// The type of the context data stored in the irq chip and made available on each callback.
+ type Data: PointerWrapper;
+
+ /// The methods to use to populate [`struct irq_chip`]. This is typically populated with
+ /// [`declare_irq_chip_operations`].
+ const TO_USE: ToUse;
+
+ /// Called at the start of a new interrupt.
+ fn ack(data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, irq_data: &IrqData);
+
+ /// Masks an interrupt source.
+ fn mask(data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, irq_data: &IrqData);
+
+ /// Unmasks an interrupt source.
+ fn unmask(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, irq_data: &IrqData);
+
+ /// Sets the flow type of an interrupt.
+ ///
+ /// The flow type is a combination of the constants in [`Type`].
+ fn set_type(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _irq_data: &mut LockedIrqData,
+ _flow_type: u32,
+ ) -> Result<ExtraResult> {
+ Ok(ExtraResult::None)
+ }
+
+ /// Enables or disables power-management wake-on of an interrupt.
+ fn set_wake(
+ _data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>,
+ _irq_data: &IrqData,
+ _on: bool,
+ ) -> Result {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+/// Initialises `chip` with the callbacks defined in `T`.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// The caller must ensure that the value stored in the irq chip data is the result of calling
+/// [`PointerWrapper::into_pointer] for the [`T::Data`] type.
+pub(crate) unsafe fn init_chip<T: Chip>(chip: &mut bindings::irq_chip) {
+ chip.irq_ack = Some(irq_ack_callback::<T>);
+ chip.irq_mask = Some(irq_mask_callback::<T>);
+ chip.irq_unmask = Some(irq_unmask_callback::<T>);
+
+ if T::TO_USE.set_type {
+ chip.irq_set_type = Some(irq_set_type_callback::<T>);
+ }
+
+ if T::TO_USE.set_wake {
+ chip.irq_set_wake = Some(irq_set_wake_callback::<T>);
+ }
+}
+
+/// Represents which fields of [`struct irq_chip`] should be populated with pointers.
+///
+/// This is typically populated with the [`declare_irq_chip_operations`] macro.
+pub struct ToUse {
+ /// The `irq_set_type` field of [`struct irq_chip`].
+ pub set_type: bool,
+
+ /// The `irq_set_wake` field of [`struct irq_chip`].
+ pub set_wake: bool,
+}
+
+/// A constant version where all values are to set to `false`, that is, all supported fields will
+/// be set to null pointers.
+pub const USE_NONE: ToUse = ToUse {
+ set_type: false,
+ set_wake: false,
+};
+
+/// Defines the [`Chip::TO_USE`] field based on a list of fields to be populated.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! declare_irq_chip_operations {
+ () => {
+ const TO_USE: $crate::irq::ToUse = $crate::irq::USE_NONE;
+ };
+ ($($i:ident),+) => {
+ #[allow(clippy::needless_update)]
+ const TO_USE: $crate::irq::ToUse =
+ $crate::irq::ToUse {
+ $($i: true),+ ,
+ ..$crate::irq::USE_NONE
+ };
+ };
+}
+
+/// Enables or disables power-management wake-on for the given irq number.
+pub fn set_wake(irq: u32, on: bool) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call, there are no extra requirements for safety.
+ let ret = unsafe { bindings::irq_set_irq_wake(irq, on as _) };
+ if ret < 0 {
+ Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(ret))
+ } else {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_ack_callback<T: Chip>(irq_data: *mut bindings::irq_data) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `init_chip`, which is the only place that uses this
+ // callback, ensure that the value stored as irq chip data comes from a previous call to
+ // `PointerWrapper::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_data_get_irq_chip_data(irq_data)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `IrqData` is only valid until the end of this function, and
+ // `irq_data` is guaranteed to be valid until then (by the contract with C code).
+ T::ack(data, unsafe { &IrqData::from_ptr(irq_data) })
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_mask_callback<T: Chip>(irq_data: *mut bindings::irq_data) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `init_chip`, which is the only place that uses this
+ // callback, ensure that the value stored as irq chip data comes from a previous call to
+ // `PointerWrapper::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_data_get_irq_chip_data(irq_data)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `IrqData` is only valid until the end of this function, and
+ // `irq_data` is guaranteed to be valid until then (by the contract with C code).
+ T::mask(data, unsafe { &IrqData::from_ptr(irq_data) })
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_unmask_callback<T: Chip>(irq_data: *mut bindings::irq_data) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `init_chip`, which is the only place that uses this
+ // callback, ensure that the value stored as irq chip data comes from a previous call to
+ // `PointerWrapper::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_data_get_irq_chip_data(irq_data)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `IrqData` is only valid until the end of this function, and
+ // `irq_data` is guaranteed to be valid until then (by the contract with C code).
+ T::unmask(data, unsafe { &IrqData::from_ptr(irq_data) })
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_set_type_callback<T: Chip>(
+ irq_data: *mut bindings::irq_data,
+ flow_type: c_types::c_uint,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `init_chip`, which is the only place that uses this
+ // callback, ensure that the value stored as irq chip data comes from a previous call to
+ // `PointerWrapper::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_data_get_irq_chip_data(irq_data)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `IrqData` is only valid until the end of this function, and
+ // `irq_data` is guaranteed to be valid until then (by the contract with C code).
+ let ret = T::set_type(data, &mut LockedIrqData(unsafe { IrqData::from_ptr(irq_data) }), flow_type)?;
+ Ok(ret as _)
+ }
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_set_wake_callback<T: Chip>(
+ irq_data: *mut bindings::irq_data,
+ on: c_types::c_uint,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `init_chip`, which is the only place that uses this
+ // callback, ensure that the value stored as irq chip data comes from a previous call to
+ // `PointerWrapper::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_data_get_irq_chip_data(irq_data)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The value returned by `IrqData` is only valid until the end of this function, and
+ // `irq_data` is guaranteed to be valid until then (by the contract with C code).
+ T::set_wake(data, unsafe { &IrqData::from_ptr(irq_data) }, on != 0)?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+/// Contains constants that describes how an interrupt can be triggered.
+///
+/// It is tagged with `non_exhaustive` to prevent users from instantiating it.
+#[non_exhaustive]
+pub struct Type;
+
+impl Type {
+ /// The interrupt cannot be triggered.
+ pub const NONE: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_NONE;
+
+ /// The interrupt is triggered when the signal goes from low to high.
+ pub const EDGE_RISING: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_EDGE_RISING;
+
+ /// The interrupt is triggered when the signal goes from high to low.
+ pub const EDGE_FALLING: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_EDGE_FALLING;
+
+ /// The interrupt is triggered when the signal goes from low to high and when it goes to high
+ /// to low.
+ pub const EDGE_BOTH: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_EDGE_BOTH;
+
+ /// The interrupt is triggered while the signal is held high.
+ pub const LEVEL_HIGH: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH;
+
+ /// The interrupt is triggered while the signal is held low.
+ pub const LEVEL_LOW: u32 = bindings::IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_LOW;
+}
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct irq_desc`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `Descriptor::ptr` is non-null and valid.
+pub struct Descriptor {
+ pub(crate) ptr: *mut bindings::irq_desc,
+}
+
+impl Descriptor {
+ /// Constructs a new `struct irq_desc` wrapper.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the returned object.
+ unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::irq_desc) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements ensure the invariant.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+
+ /// Calls `chained_irq_enter` and returns a guard that calls `chained_irq_exit` once dropped.
+ ///
+ /// It is meant to be used by chained irq handlers to dispatch irqs to the next handlers.
+ pub fn enter_chained(&self) -> ChainedGuard<'_> {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, `ptr` is always non-null and valid.
+ let irq_chip = unsafe { bindings::irq_desc_get_chip(self.ptr) };
+
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, `ptr` is always non-null and valid. `irq_chip` was just
+ // returned from `ptr`, so it is still valid too.
+ unsafe { bindings::chained_irq_enter(irq_chip, self.ptr) };
+ ChainedGuard {
+ desc: self,
+ irq_chip,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A guard to call `chained_irq_exit` after `chained_irq_enter` was called.
+///
+/// It is also used as evidence that a previous `chained_irq_enter` was called. So there are no
+/// public constructors and it is only created after indeed calling `chained_irq_enter`.
+pub struct ChainedGuard<'a> {
+ desc: &'a Descriptor,
+ irq_chip: *mut bindings::irq_chip,
+}
+
+impl Drop for ChainedGuard<'_> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: The lifetime of `ChainedGuard` guarantees that `self.desc` remains valid, so it
+ // also guarantess `irq_chip` (which was returned from it) and `self.desc.ptr` (guaranteed
+ // by the type invariants).
+ unsafe { bindings::chained_irq_exit(self.irq_chip, self.desc.ptr) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct irq_domain`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `Domain::ptr` is non-null and valid.
+pub struct Domain {
+ ptr: *mut bindings::irq_domain,
+}
+
+impl Domain {
+ /// Constructs a new `struct irq_domain` wrapper.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the returned object.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::irq_domain) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements ensure the invariant.
+ Self { ptr }
+ }
+
+ /// Invokes the chained handler of the given hw irq of the given domain.
+ ///
+ /// It requires evidence that `chained_irq_enter` was called, which is done by passing a
+ /// `ChainedGuard` instance.
+ pub fn generic_handle_chained(&self, hwirq: u32, _guard: &ChainedGuard<'_>) {
+ // SAFETY: `ptr` is valid by the type invariants.
+ unsafe { bindings::generic_handle_domain_irq(self.ptr, hwirq) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// A high-level irq flow handler.
+pub trait FlowHandler {
+ /// The data associated with the handler.
+ type Data: PointerWrapper;
+
+ /// Implements the irq flow for the given descriptor.
+ fn handle_irq_flow(data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>, desc: &Descriptor);
+}
+
+/// Returns the raw irq flow handler corresponding to the (high-level) one defined in `T`.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// The caller must ensure that the value stored in the irq handler data (as returned by
+/// `irq_desc_get_handler_data`) is the result of calling [`PointerWrapper::into_pointer] for the
+/// [`T::Data`] type.
+pub(crate) unsafe fn new_flow_handler<T: FlowHandler>() -> bindings::irq_flow_handler_t {
+ Some(irq_flow_handler::<T>)
+}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn irq_flow_handler<T: FlowHandler>(desc: *mut bindings::irq_desc) {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements of `new_flow_handler`, we know that the value returned by
+ // `irq_desc_get_handler_data` comes from calling `T::Data::into_pointer`. `desc` is valid by
+ // the C API contract.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(bindings::irq_desc_get_handler_data(desc)) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The C API guarantees that `desc` is valid for the duration of this call, which
+ // outlives the lifetime returned by `from_desc`.
+ T::handle_irq_flow(data, &unsafe { Descriptor::from_ptr(desc) });
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/lib.rs b/rust/kernel/lib.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..5917b7d789c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/lib.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,256 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! The `kernel` crate.
+//!
+//! This crate contains the kernel APIs that have been ported or wrapped for
+//! usage by Rust code in the kernel and is shared by all of them.
+//!
+//! In other words, all the rest of the Rust code in the kernel (e.g. kernel
+//! modules written in Rust) depends on [`core`], [`alloc`] and this crate.
+//!
+//! If you need a kernel C API that is not ported or wrapped yet here, then
+//! do so first instead of bypassing this crate.
+
+#![no_std]
+#![feature(
+ allocator_api,
+ associated_type_defaults,
+ concat_idents,
+ const_fn_trait_bound,
+ const_mut_refs,
+ doc_cfg,
+ generic_associated_types,
+ ptr_metadata,
+ receiver_trait,
+ coerce_unsized,
+ dispatch_from_dyn,
+ unsize
+)]
+
+// Ensure conditional compilation based on the kernel configuration works;
+// otherwise we may silently break things like initcall handling.
+#[cfg(not(CONFIG_RUST))]
+compile_error!("Missing kernel configuration for conditional compilation");
+
+#[cfg(not(test))]
+#[cfg(not(testlib))]
+mod allocator;
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub mod bindings;
+
+#[cfg(CONFIG_ARM_AMBA)]
+pub mod amba;
+pub mod buffer;
+pub mod c_types;
+pub mod chrdev;
+pub mod cred;
+pub mod device;
+pub mod driver;
+mod error;
+pub mod file;
+pub mod file_operations;
+pub mod gpio;
+pub mod irq;
+pub mod miscdev;
+pub mod pages;
+pub mod power;
+pub mod revocable;
+pub mod security;
+pub mod str;
+pub mod task;
+
+pub mod linked_list;
+mod raw_list;
+pub mod rbtree;
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub mod module_param;
+
+mod build_assert;
+pub mod prelude;
+pub mod print;
+pub mod random;
+mod static_assert;
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub mod std_vendor;
+pub mod sync;
+
+#[cfg(any(CONFIG_SYSCTL, doc))]
+#[doc(cfg(CONFIG_SYSCTL))]
+pub mod sysctl;
+
+pub mod io_buffer;
+pub mod io_mem;
+pub mod iov_iter;
+pub mod of;
+pub mod platdev;
+mod types;
+pub mod user_ptr;
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub use build_error::build_error;
+
+pub use crate::error::{to_result, Error, Result};
+pub use crate::types::{bit, bits_iter, Mode, Opaque, ScopeGuard};
+
+use core::marker::PhantomData;
+
+/// Page size defined in terms of the `PAGE_SHIFT` macro from C.
+///
+/// [`PAGE_SHIFT`]: ../../../include/asm-generic/page.h
+pub const PAGE_SIZE: usize = 1 << bindings::PAGE_SHIFT;
+
+/// Prefix to appear before log messages printed from within the kernel crate.
+const __LOG_PREFIX: &[u8] = b"rust_kernel\0";
+
+/// The top level entrypoint to implementing a kernel module.
+///
+/// For any teardown or cleanup operations, your type may implement [`Drop`].
+pub trait KernelModule: Sized + Sync {
+ /// Called at module initialization time.
+ ///
+ /// Use this method to perform whatever setup or registration your module
+ /// should do.
+ ///
+ /// Equivalent to the `module_init` macro in the C API.
+ fn init(name: &'static str::CStr, module: &'static ThisModule) -> Result<Self>;
+}
+
+/// Equivalent to `THIS_MODULE` in the C API.
+///
+/// C header: `include/linux/export.h`
+pub struct ThisModule(*mut bindings::module);
+
+// SAFETY: `THIS_MODULE` may be used from all threads within a module.
+unsafe impl Sync for ThisModule {}
+
+impl ThisModule {
+ /// Creates a [`ThisModule`] given the `THIS_MODULE` pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer must be equal to the right `THIS_MODULE`.
+ pub const unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::module) -> ThisModule {
+ ThisModule(ptr)
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the module parameters to access them.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a [`KParamGuard`] that will release the lock when dropped.
+ pub fn kernel_param_lock(&self) -> KParamGuard<'_> {
+ // SAFETY: `kernel_param_lock` will check if the pointer is null and
+ // use the built-in mutex in that case.
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_SYSFS)]
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::kernel_param_lock(self.0)
+ }
+
+ KParamGuard {
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_SYSFS)]
+ this_module: self,
+ phantom: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Scoped lock on the kernel parameters of [`ThisModule`].
+///
+/// Lock will be released when this struct is dropped.
+pub struct KParamGuard<'a> {
+ #[cfg(CONFIG_SYSFS)]
+ this_module: &'a ThisModule,
+ phantom: PhantomData<&'a ()>,
+}
+
+#[cfg(CONFIG_SYSFS)]
+impl<'a> Drop for KParamGuard<'a> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: `kernel_param_lock` will check if the pointer is null and
+ // use the built-in mutex in that case. The existance of `self`
+ // guarantees that the lock is held.
+ unsafe { bindings::kernel_param_unlock(self.this_module.0) }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Calculates the offset of a field from the beginning of the struct it belongs to.
+///
+/// # Example
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::offset_of;
+/// struct Test {
+/// a: u64,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() {
+/// // This prints `8`.
+/// pr_info!("{}\n", offset_of!(Test, b));
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! offset_of {
+ ($type:ty, $($f:tt)*) => {{
+ let tmp = core::mem::MaybeUninit::<$type>::uninit();
+ let outer = tmp.as_ptr();
+ // To avoid warnings when nesting `unsafe` blocks.
+ #[allow(unused_unsafe)]
+ // SAFETY: The pointer is valid and aligned, just not initialised; `addr_of` ensures that
+ // we don't actually read from `outer` (which would be UB) nor create an intermediate
+ // reference.
+ let inner = unsafe { core::ptr::addr_of!((*outer).$($f)*) } as *const u8;
+ // To avoid warnings when nesting `unsafe` blocks.
+ #[allow(unused_unsafe)]
+ // SAFETY: The two pointers are within the same allocation block.
+ unsafe { inner.offset_from(outer as *const u8) }
+ }}
+}
+
+/// Produces a pointer to an object from a pointer to one of its fields.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// Callers must ensure that the pointer to the field is in fact a pointer to the specified field,
+/// as opposed to a pointer to another object of the same type. If this condition is not met,
+/// any dereference of the resulting pointer is UB.
+///
+/// # Example
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::container_of;
+/// struct Test {
+/// a: u64,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() {
+/// let test = Test { a: 10, b: 20 };
+/// let b_ptr = &test.b;
+/// let test_alias = container_of!(b_ptr, Test, b);
+/// // This prints `true`.
+/// pr_info!("{}\n", core::ptr::eq(&test, test_alias));
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! container_of {
+ ($ptr:expr, $type:ty, $($f:tt)*) => {{
+ let ptr = $ptr as *const _ as *const u8;
+ let offset = $crate::offset_of!($type, $($f)*);
+ ptr.wrapping_offset(-offset) as *const $type
+ }}
+}
+
+#[cfg(not(any(testlib, test)))]
+#[panic_handler]
+fn panic(info: &core::panic::PanicInfo<'_>) -> ! {
+ pr_emerg!("{}\n", info);
+ // SAFETY: FFI call.
+ unsafe { bindings::BUG() };
+ // Bindgen currently does not recognize `__noreturn` so `BUG` returns `()`
+ // instead of `!`.
+ // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-bindgen/issues/2094
+ loop {}
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/linked_list.rs b/rust/kernel/linked_list.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3330edcc7ca8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/linked_list.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,247 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Linked lists.
+//!
+//! TODO: This module is a work in progress.
+
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::ptr::NonNull;
+
+pub use crate::raw_list::{Cursor, GetLinks, Links};
+use crate::{raw_list, raw_list::RawList, sync::Ref};
+
+// TODO: Use the one from `kernel::file_operations::PointerWrapper` instead.
+/// Wraps an object to be inserted in a linked list.
+pub trait Wrapper<T: ?Sized> {
+ /// Converts the wrapped object into a pointer that represents it.
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> NonNull<T>;
+
+ /// Converts the object back from the pointer representation.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The passed pointer must come from a previous call to [`Wrapper::into_pointer()`].
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: NonNull<T>) -> Self;
+
+ /// Returns a reference to the wrapped object.
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T;
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Wrapper<T> for Box<T> {
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> NonNull<T> {
+ NonNull::new(Box::into_raw(self)).unwrap()
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: NonNull<T>) -> Self {
+ unsafe { Box::from_raw(ptr.as_ptr()) }
+ }
+
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T {
+ AsRef::as_ref(self)
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Wrapper<T> for Ref<T> {
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> NonNull<T> {
+ NonNull::new(Ref::into_raw(self) as _).unwrap()
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: NonNull<T>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `from_pointer` satisfy the ones from `Ref::from_raw`.
+ unsafe { Ref::from_raw(ptr.as_ptr() as _) }
+ }
+
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T {
+ AsRef::as_ref(self)
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Wrapper<T> for &T {
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> NonNull<T> {
+ NonNull::from(self)
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: NonNull<T>) -> Self {
+ unsafe { &*ptr.as_ptr() }
+ }
+
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T {
+ self
+ }
+}
+
+/// A descriptor of wrapped list elements.
+pub trait GetLinksWrapped: GetLinks {
+ /// Specifies which wrapper (e.g., `Box` and `Arc`) wraps the list entries.
+ type Wrapped: Wrapper<Self::EntryType>;
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> GetLinksWrapped for Box<T>
+where
+ Box<T>: GetLinks,
+{
+ type Wrapped = Box<<Box<T> as GetLinks>::EntryType>;
+}
+
+impl<T: GetLinks + ?Sized> GetLinks for Box<T> {
+ type EntryType = T::EntryType;
+ fn get_links(data: &Self::EntryType) -> &Links<Self::EntryType> {
+ <T as GetLinks>::get_links(data)
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> GetLinksWrapped for Ref<T>
+where
+ Ref<T>: GetLinks,
+{
+ type Wrapped = Ref<<Ref<T> as GetLinks>::EntryType>;
+}
+
+impl<T: GetLinks + ?Sized> GetLinks for Ref<T> {
+ type EntryType = T::EntryType;
+
+ fn get_links(data: &Self::EntryType) -> &Links<Self::EntryType> {
+ <T as GetLinks>::get_links(data)
+ }
+}
+
+/// A linked list.
+///
+/// Elements in the list are wrapped and ownership is transferred to the list while the element is
+/// in the list.
+pub struct List<G: GetLinksWrapped> {
+ list: RawList<G>,
+}
+
+impl<G: GetLinksWrapped> List<G> {
+ /// Constructs a new empty linked list.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ list: RawList::new(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns whether the list is empty.
+ pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
+ self.list.is_empty()
+ }
+
+ /// Adds the given object to the end (back) of the list.
+ ///
+ /// It is dropped if it's already on this (or another) list; this can happen for
+ /// reference-counted objects, so dropping means decrementing the reference count.
+ pub fn push_back(&mut self, data: G::Wrapped) {
+ let ptr = data.into_pointer();
+
+ // SAFETY: We took ownership of the entry, so it is safe to insert it.
+ if !unsafe { self.list.push_back(ptr.as_ref()) } {
+ // If insertion failed, rebuild object so that it can be freed.
+ // SAFETY: We just called `into_pointer` above.
+ unsafe { G::Wrapped::from_pointer(ptr) };
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Inserts the given object after `existing`.
+ ///
+ /// It is dropped if it's already on this (or another) list; this can happen for
+ /// reference-counted objects, so dropping means decrementing the reference count.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `existing` points to a valid entry that is on the list.
+ pub unsafe fn insert_after(&mut self, existing: NonNull<G::EntryType>, data: G::Wrapped) {
+ let ptr = data.into_pointer();
+ let entry = unsafe { &*existing.as_ptr() };
+ if unsafe { !self.list.insert_after(entry, ptr.as_ref()) } {
+ // If insertion failed, rebuild object so that it can be freed.
+ unsafe { G::Wrapped::from_pointer(ptr) };
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the given entry.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `data` is either on this list or in no list. It being on another
+ /// list leads to memory unsafety.
+ pub unsafe fn remove(&mut self, data: &G::Wrapped) -> Option<G::Wrapped> {
+ let entry_ref = Wrapper::as_ref(data);
+ if unsafe { self.list.remove(entry_ref) } {
+ Some(unsafe { G::Wrapped::from_pointer(NonNull::from(entry_ref)) })
+ } else {
+ None
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the element currently at the front of the list and returns it.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `None` if the list is empty.
+ pub fn pop_front(&mut self) -> Option<G::Wrapped> {
+ let front = self.list.pop_front()?;
+ // SAFETY: Elements on the list were inserted after a call to `into_pointer `.
+ Some(unsafe { G::Wrapped::from_pointer(front) })
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a cursor starting on the first (front) element of the list.
+ pub fn cursor_front(&self) -> Cursor<'_, G> {
+ self.list.cursor_front()
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable cursor starting on the first (front) element of the list.
+ pub fn cursor_front_mut(&mut self) -> CursorMut<'_, G> {
+ CursorMut::new(self.list.cursor_front_mut())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<G: GetLinksWrapped> Default for List<G> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<G: GetLinksWrapped> Drop for List<G> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ while self.pop_front().is_some() {}
+ }
+}
+
+/// A list cursor that allows traversing a linked list and inspecting & mutating elements.
+pub struct CursorMut<'a, G: GetLinksWrapped> {
+ cursor: raw_list::CursorMut<'a, G>,
+}
+
+impl<'a, G: GetLinksWrapped> CursorMut<'a, G> {
+ fn new(cursor: raw_list::CursorMut<'a, G>) -> Self {
+ Self { cursor }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the element the cursor is currently positioned on.
+ pub fn current(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ self.cursor.current()
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the element the cursor is currently positioned on.
+ ///
+ /// After removal, it advances the cursor to the next element.
+ pub fn remove_current(&mut self) -> Option<G::Wrapped> {
+ let ptr = self.cursor.remove_current()?;
+
+ // SAFETY: Elements on the list were inserted after a call to `into_pointer `.
+ Some(unsafe { G::Wrapped::from_pointer(ptr) })
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the element immediately after the one the cursor is positioned on.
+ pub fn peek_next(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ self.cursor.peek_next()
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the element immediately before the one the cursor is positioned on.
+ pub fn peek_prev(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ self.cursor.peek_prev()
+ }
+
+ /// Moves the cursor to the next element.
+ pub fn move_next(&mut self) {
+ self.cursor.move_next();
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/miscdev.rs b/rust/kernel/miscdev.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b93e423bfb1e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/miscdev.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Miscellaneous devices.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/miscdevice.h`](../../../../include/linux/miscdevice.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/driver-api/misc_devices.html>
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use crate::error::{Error, Result};
+use crate::file_operations::{FileOpenAdapter, FileOpener, FileOperationsVtable};
+use crate::{str::CStr, KernelModule, ThisModule};
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::marker::{PhantomData, PhantomPinned};
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+/// A registration of a miscellaneous device.
+pub struct Registration<T: Sync = ()> {
+ registered: bool,
+ mdev: bindings::miscdevice,
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ /// Context initialised on construction and made available to all file instances on
+ /// [`FileOpener::open`].
+ pub context: T,
+}
+
+impl<T: Sync> Registration<T> {
+ /// Creates a new [`Registration`] but does not register it yet.
+ ///
+ /// It is allowed to move.
+ pub fn new(context: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ registered: false,
+ mdev: bindings::miscdevice::default(),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ context,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a miscellaneous device.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a pinned heap-allocated representation of the registration.
+ pub fn new_pinned<F: FileOpener<T>>(
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ minor: Option<i32>,
+ context: T,
+ ) -> Result<Pin<Box<Self>>> {
+ let mut r = Pin::from(Box::try_new(Self::new(context))?);
+ r.as_mut().register::<F>(name, minor)?;
+ Ok(r)
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a miscellaneous device with the rest of the kernel.
+ ///
+ /// It must be pinned because the memory block that represents the registration is
+ /// self-referential. If a minor is not given, the kernel allocates a new one if possible.
+ pub fn register<F: FileOpener<T>>(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ minor: Option<i32>,
+ ) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: We must ensure that we never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.get_unchecked_mut() };
+ if this.registered {
+ // Already registered.
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: The adapter is compatible with `misc_register`.
+ this.mdev.fops = unsafe { FileOperationsVtable::<Self, F>::build() };
+ this.mdev.name = name.as_char_ptr();
+ this.mdev.minor = minor.unwrap_or(bindings::MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR as i32);
+
+ let ret = unsafe { bindings::misc_register(&mut this.mdev) };
+ if ret < 0 {
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(ret));
+ }
+ this.registered = true;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: Sync> FileOpenAdapter for Registration<T> {
+ type Arg = T;
+
+ unsafe fn convert(_inode: *mut bindings::inode, file: *mut bindings::file) -> *const Self::Arg {
+ // SAFETY: the caller must guarantee that `file` is valid.
+ let reg = crate::container_of!(unsafe { (*file).private_data }, Self, mdev);
+ unsafe { &(*reg).context }
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The only method is `register()`, which requires a (pinned) mutable `Registration`, so it
+// is safe to pass `&Registration` to multiple threads because it offers no interior mutability,
+// except maybe through `Registration::context`, but it is itself `Sync`.
+unsafe impl<T: Sync> Sync for Registration<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: All functions work from any thread. So as long as the `Registration::context` is
+// `Send`, so is `Registration<T>`. `T` needs to be `Sync` because it's a requirement of
+// `Registration<T>`.
+unsafe impl<T: Send + Sync> Send for Registration<T> {}
+
+impl<T: Sync> Drop for Registration<T> {
+ /// Removes the registration from the kernel if it has completed successfully before.
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ if self.registered {
+ unsafe { bindings::misc_deregister(&mut self.mdev) }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Kernel module that exposes a single miscdev device implemented by `F`.
+pub struct Module<F: FileOpener<()>> {
+ _dev: Pin<Box<Registration>>,
+ _p: PhantomData<F>,
+}
+
+impl<F: FileOpener<()>> KernelModule for Module<F> {
+ fn init(name: &'static CStr, _module: &'static ThisModule) -> Result<Self> {
+ Ok(Self {
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ _dev: Registration::new_pinned::<F>(name, None, ())?,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+/// Declares a kernel module that exposes a single misc device.
+///
+/// The `type` argument should be a type which implements the [`FileOpener`] trait. Also accepts
+/// various forms of kernel metadata.
+///
+/// C header: [`include/linux/moduleparam.h`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+///
+/// [`FileOpener`]: ../kernel/file_operations/trait.FileOpener.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```ignore
+/// use kernel::prelude::*;
+///
+/// module_misc_device! {
+/// type: MyFile,
+/// name: b"my_miscdev_kernel_module",
+/// author: b"Rust for Linux Contributors",
+/// description: b"My very own misc device kernel module!",
+/// license: b"GPL v2",
+/// }
+///
+/// #[derive(Default)]
+/// struct MyFile;
+///
+/// impl kernel::file_operations::FileOperations for MyFile {
+/// kernel::declare_file_operations!();
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! module_misc_device {
+ (type: $type:ty, $($f:tt)*) => {
+ type ModuleType = kernel::miscdev::Module<$type>;
+ module! {
+ type: ModuleType,
+ $($f)*
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/module_param.rs b/rust/kernel/module_param.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a588449c41fa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/module_param.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,497 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Types for module parameters.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/moduleparam.h`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+
+use crate::str::CStr;
+use core::fmt::Write;
+
+/// Types that can be used for module parameters.
+///
+/// Note that displaying the type in `sysfs` will fail if
+/// [`alloc::string::ToString::to_string`] (as implemented through the
+/// [`core::fmt::Display`] trait) writes more than [`PAGE_SIZE`]
+/// bytes (including an additional null terminator).
+///
+/// [`PAGE_SIZE`]: `crate::PAGE_SIZE`
+pub trait ModuleParam: core::fmt::Display + core::marker::Sized {
+ /// The `ModuleParam` will be used by the kernel module through this type.
+ ///
+ /// This may differ from `Self` if, for example, `Self` needs to track
+ /// ownership without exposing it or allocate extra space for other possible
+ /// parameter values. See [`StringParam`] or [`ArrayParam`] for examples.
+ type Value: ?Sized;
+
+ /// Whether the parameter is allowed to be set without an argument.
+ ///
+ /// Setting this to `true` allows the parameter to be passed without an
+ /// argument (e.g. just `module.param` instead of `module.param=foo`).
+ const NOARG_ALLOWED: bool;
+
+ /// Convert a parameter argument into the parameter value.
+ ///
+ /// `None` should be returned when parsing of the argument fails.
+ /// `arg == None` indicates that the parameter was passed without an
+ /// argument. If `NOARG_ALLOWED` is set to `false` then `arg` is guaranteed
+ /// to always be `Some(_)`.
+ ///
+ /// Parameters passed at boot time will be set before [`kmalloc`] is
+ /// available (even if the module is loaded at a later time). However, in
+ /// this case, the argument buffer will be valid for the entire lifetime of
+ /// the kernel. So implementations of this method which need to allocate
+ /// should first check that the allocator is available (with
+ /// [`crate::bindings::slab_is_available`]) and when it is not available
+ /// provide an alternative implementation which doesn't allocate. In cases
+ /// where the allocator is not available it is safe to save references to
+ /// `arg` in `Self`, but in other cases a copy should be made.
+ ///
+ /// [`kmalloc`]: ../../../include/linux/slab.h
+ fn try_from_param_arg(arg: Option<&'static [u8]>) -> Option<Self>;
+
+ /// Get the current value of the parameter for use in the kernel module.
+ ///
+ /// This function should not be used directly. Instead use the wrapper
+ /// `read` which will be generated by [`macros::module`].
+ fn value(&self) -> &Self::Value;
+
+ /// Set the module parameter from a string.
+ ///
+ /// Used to set the parameter value when loading the module or when set
+ /// through `sysfs`.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// If `val` is non-null then it must point to a valid null-terminated
+ /// string. The `arg` field of `param` must be an instance of `Self`.
+ unsafe extern "C" fn set_param(
+ val: *const crate::c_types::c_char,
+ param: *const crate::bindings::kernel_param,
+ ) -> crate::c_types::c_int {
+ let arg = if val.is_null() {
+ None
+ } else {
+ Some(unsafe { CStr::from_char_ptr(val).as_bytes() })
+ };
+ match Self::try_from_param_arg(arg) {
+ Some(new_value) => {
+ let old_value = unsafe { (*param).__bindgen_anon_1.arg as *mut Self };
+ let _ = unsafe { core::ptr::replace(old_value, new_value) };
+ 0
+ }
+ None => crate::error::Error::EINVAL.to_kernel_errno(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Write a string representation of the current parameter value to `buf`.
+ ///
+ /// Used for displaying the current parameter value in `sysfs`.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `buf` must be a buffer of length at least `kernel::PAGE_SIZE` that is
+ /// writeable. The `arg` field of `param` must be an instance of `Self`.
+ unsafe extern "C" fn get_param(
+ buf: *mut crate::c_types::c_char,
+ param: *const crate::bindings::kernel_param,
+ ) -> crate::c_types::c_int {
+ let slice = unsafe { core::slice::from_raw_parts_mut(buf as *mut u8, crate::PAGE_SIZE) };
+ let mut buf = crate::buffer::Buffer::new(slice);
+ match unsafe { write!(buf, "{}\0", *((*param).__bindgen_anon_1.arg as *mut Self)) } {
+ Err(_) => crate::error::Error::EINVAL.to_kernel_errno(),
+ Ok(()) => buf.bytes_written() as crate::c_types::c_int,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Drop the parameter.
+ ///
+ /// Called when unloading a module.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The `arg` field of `param` must be an instance of `Self`.
+ unsafe extern "C" fn free(arg: *mut crate::c_types::c_void) {
+ unsafe { core::ptr::drop_in_place(arg as *mut Self) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// Trait for parsing integers.
+///
+/// Strings begining with `0x`, `0o`, or `0b` are parsed as hex, octal, or
+/// binary respectively. Strings beginning with `0` otherwise are parsed as
+/// octal. Anything else is parsed as decimal. A leading `+` or `-` is also
+/// permitted. Any string parsed by [`kstrtol()`] or [`kstrtoul()`] will be
+/// successfully parsed.
+///
+/// [`kstrtol()`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/kernel-api.html#c.kstrtol
+/// [`kstrtoul()`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/kernel-api.html#c.kstrtoul
+trait ParseInt: Sized {
+ fn from_str_radix(src: &str, radix: u32) -> Result<Self, core::num::ParseIntError>;
+ fn checked_neg(self) -> Option<Self>;
+
+ fn from_str_unsigned(src: &str) -> Result<Self, core::num::ParseIntError> {
+ let (radix, digits) = if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0x") {
+ (16, n)
+ } else if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0X") {
+ (16, n)
+ } else if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0o") {
+ (8, n)
+ } else if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0O") {
+ (8, n)
+ } else if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0b") {
+ (2, n)
+ } else if let Some(n) = src.strip_prefix("0B") {
+ (2, n)
+ } else if src.starts_with('0') {
+ (8, src)
+ } else {
+ (10, src)
+ };
+ Self::from_str_radix(digits, radix)
+ }
+
+ fn from_str(src: &str) -> Option<Self> {
+ match src.bytes().next() {
+ None => None,
+ Some(b'-') => Self::from_str_unsigned(&src[1..]).ok()?.checked_neg(),
+ Some(b'+') => Some(Self::from_str_unsigned(&src[1..]).ok()?),
+ Some(_) => Some(Self::from_str_unsigned(src).ok()?),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+macro_rules! impl_parse_int {
+ ($ty:ident) => {
+ impl ParseInt for $ty {
+ fn from_str_radix(src: &str, radix: u32) -> Result<Self, core::num::ParseIntError> {
+ $ty::from_str_radix(src, radix)
+ }
+
+ fn checked_neg(self) -> Option<Self> {
+ self.checked_neg()
+ }
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+impl_parse_int!(i8);
+impl_parse_int!(u8);
+impl_parse_int!(i16);
+impl_parse_int!(u16);
+impl_parse_int!(i32);
+impl_parse_int!(u32);
+impl_parse_int!(i64);
+impl_parse_int!(u64);
+impl_parse_int!(isize);
+impl_parse_int!(usize);
+
+macro_rules! impl_module_param {
+ ($ty:ident) => {
+ impl ModuleParam for $ty {
+ type Value = $ty;
+
+ const NOARG_ALLOWED: bool = false;
+
+ fn try_from_param_arg(arg: Option<&'static [u8]>) -> Option<Self> {
+ let bytes = arg?;
+ let utf8 = core::str::from_utf8(bytes).ok()?;
+ <$ty as crate::module_param::ParseInt>::from_str(utf8)
+ }
+
+ fn value(&self) -> &Self::Value {
+ self
+ }
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+#[macro_export]
+/// Generate a static [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h) struct.
+///
+/// # Example
+/// ```ignore
+/// make_param_ops!(
+/// /// Documentation for new param ops.
+/// PARAM_OPS_MYTYPE, // Name for the static.
+/// MyType // A type which implements [`ModuleParam`].
+/// );
+/// ```
+macro_rules! make_param_ops {
+ ($ops:ident, $ty:ty) => {
+ $crate::make_param_ops!(
+ #[doc=""]
+ $ops,
+ $ty
+ );
+ };
+ ($(#[$meta:meta])* $ops:ident, $ty:ty) => {
+ $(#[$meta])*
+ ///
+ /// Static [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// struct generated by [`make_param_ops`].
+ pub static $ops: $crate::bindings::kernel_param_ops = $crate::bindings::kernel_param_ops {
+ flags: if <$ty as $crate::module_param::ModuleParam>::NOARG_ALLOWED {
+ $crate::bindings::KERNEL_PARAM_OPS_FL_NOARG
+ } else {
+ 0
+ },
+ set: Some(<$ty as $crate::module_param::ModuleParam>::set_param),
+ get: Some(<$ty as $crate::module_param::ModuleParam>::get_param),
+ free: Some(<$ty as $crate::module_param::ModuleParam>::free),
+ };
+ };
+}
+
+impl_module_param!(i8);
+impl_module_param!(u8);
+impl_module_param!(i16);
+impl_module_param!(u16);
+impl_module_param!(i32);
+impl_module_param!(u32);
+impl_module_param!(i64);
+impl_module_param!(u64);
+impl_module_param!(isize);
+impl_module_param!(usize);
+
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`i8`].
+ PARAM_OPS_I8,
+ i8
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`u8`].
+ PARAM_OPS_U8,
+ u8
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`i16`].
+ PARAM_OPS_I16,
+ i16
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`u16`].
+ PARAM_OPS_U16,
+ u16
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`i32`].
+ PARAM_OPS_I32,
+ i32
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`u32`].
+ PARAM_OPS_U32,
+ u32
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`i64`].
+ PARAM_OPS_I64,
+ i64
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`u64`].
+ PARAM_OPS_U64,
+ u64
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`isize`].
+ PARAM_OPS_ISIZE,
+ isize
+);
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`usize`].
+ PARAM_OPS_USIZE,
+ usize
+);
+
+impl ModuleParam for bool {
+ type Value = bool;
+
+ const NOARG_ALLOWED: bool = true;
+
+ fn try_from_param_arg(arg: Option<&'static [u8]>) -> Option<Self> {
+ match arg {
+ None => Some(true),
+ Some(b"y") | Some(b"Y") | Some(b"1") | Some(b"true") => Some(true),
+ Some(b"n") | Some(b"N") | Some(b"0") | Some(b"false") => Some(false),
+ _ => None,
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn value(&self) -> &Self::Value {
+ self
+ }
+}
+
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`bool`].
+ PARAM_OPS_BOOL,
+ bool
+);
+
+/// An array of at __most__ `N` values.
+///
+/// # Invariant
+///
+/// The first `self.used` elements of `self.values` are initialized.
+pub struct ArrayParam<T, const N: usize> {
+ values: [core::mem::MaybeUninit<T>; N],
+ used: usize,
+}
+
+impl<T, const N: usize> ArrayParam<T, { N }> {
+ fn values(&self) -> &[T] {
+ // SAFETY: The invariant maintained by `ArrayParam` allows us to cast
+ // the first `self.used` elements to `T`.
+ unsafe {
+ &*(&self.values[0..self.used] as *const [core::mem::MaybeUninit<T>] as *const [T])
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: Copy, const N: usize> ArrayParam<T, { N }> {
+ const fn new() -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The first `self.used` elements of `self.values` are
+ // initialized.
+ ArrayParam {
+ values: [core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit(); N],
+ used: 0,
+ }
+ }
+
+ const fn push(&mut self, val: T) {
+ if self.used < N {
+ // INVARIANT: The first `self.used` elements of `self.values` are
+ // initialized.
+ self.values[self.used] = core::mem::MaybeUninit::new(val);
+ self.used += 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Create an instance of `ArrayParam` initialized with `vals`.
+ ///
+ /// This function is only meant to be used in the [`module::module`] macro.
+ pub const fn create(vals: &[T]) -> Self {
+ let mut result = ArrayParam::new();
+ let mut i = 0;
+ while i < vals.len() {
+ result.push(vals[i]);
+ i += 1;
+ }
+ result
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: core::fmt::Display, const N: usize> core::fmt::Display for ArrayParam<T, { N }> {
+ fn fmt(&self, f: &mut core::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> core::fmt::Result {
+ for val in self.values() {
+ write!(f, "{},", val)?;
+ }
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: Copy + core::fmt::Display + ModuleParam, const N: usize> ModuleParam
+ for ArrayParam<T, { N }>
+{
+ type Value = [T];
+
+ const NOARG_ALLOWED: bool = false;
+
+ fn try_from_param_arg(arg: Option<&'static [u8]>) -> Option<Self> {
+ arg.and_then(|args| {
+ let mut result = Self::new();
+ for arg in args.split(|b| *b == b',') {
+ result.push(T::try_from_param_arg(Some(arg))?);
+ }
+ Some(result)
+ })
+ }
+
+ fn value(&self) -> &Self::Value {
+ self.values()
+ }
+}
+
+/// A C-style string parameter.
+///
+/// The Rust version of the [`charp`] parameter. This type is meant to be
+/// used by the [`macros::module`] macro, not handled directly. Instead use the
+/// `read` method generated by that macro.
+///
+/// [`charp`]: ../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h
+pub enum StringParam {
+ /// A borrowed parameter value.
+ ///
+ /// Either the default value (which is static in the module) or borrowed
+ /// from the original argument buffer used to set the value.
+ Ref(&'static [u8]),
+
+ /// A value that was allocated when the parameter was set.
+ ///
+ /// The value needs to be freed when the parameter is reset or the module is
+ /// unloaded.
+ Owned(alloc::vec::Vec<u8>),
+}
+
+impl StringParam {
+ fn bytes(&self) -> &[u8] {
+ match self {
+ StringParam::Ref(bytes) => *bytes,
+ StringParam::Owned(vec) => &vec[..],
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl core::fmt::Display for StringParam {
+ fn fmt(&self, f: &mut core::fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> core::fmt::Result {
+ let bytes = self.bytes();
+ match core::str::from_utf8(bytes) {
+ Ok(utf8) => write!(f, "{}", utf8),
+ Err(_) => write!(f, "{:?}", bytes),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl ModuleParam for StringParam {
+ type Value = [u8];
+
+ const NOARG_ALLOWED: bool = false;
+
+ fn try_from_param_arg(arg: Option<&'static [u8]>) -> Option<Self> {
+ // SAFETY: It is always safe to call [`slab_is_available`](../../../include/linux/slab.h).
+ let slab_available = unsafe { crate::bindings::slab_is_available() };
+ arg.and_then(|arg| {
+ if slab_available {
+ let mut vec = alloc::vec::Vec::new();
+ vec.try_extend_from_slice(arg).ok()?;
+ Some(StringParam::Owned(vec))
+ } else {
+ Some(StringParam::Ref(arg))
+ }
+ })
+ }
+
+ fn value(&self) -> &Self::Value {
+ self.bytes()
+ }
+}
+
+make_param_ops!(
+ /// Rust implementation of [`kernel_param_ops`](../../../include/linux/moduleparam.h)
+ /// for [`StringParam`].
+ PARAM_OPS_STR,
+ StringParam
+);
diff --git a/rust/kernel/of.rs b/rust/kernel/of.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..78aa5956f03f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/of.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,101 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Devicetree and Open Firmware abstractions.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/of_*.h`](../../../../include/linux/of_*.h)
+
+use crate::{bindings, c_types, str::CStr};
+
+use core::ops::Deref;
+use core::ptr;
+
+/// A kernel Open Firmware / devicetree match table.
+///
+/// Can only exist as an `&OfMatchTable` reference (akin to `&str` or
+/// `&Path` in Rust std).
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The inner reference points to a sentinel-terminated C array.
+#[repr(transparent)]
+pub struct OfMatchTable(bindings::of_device_id);
+
+impl OfMatchTable {
+ /// Returns the table as a reference to a static lifetime, sentinel-terminated C array.
+ ///
+ /// This is suitable to be coerced into the kernel's `of_match_table` field.
+ pub fn as_ptr(&'static self) -> &'static bindings::of_device_id {
+ // The inner reference points to a sentinel-terminated C array, as per
+ // the type invariant.
+ &self.0
+ }
+}
+
+/// An Open Firmware Match Table that can be constructed at build time.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// `sentinel` always contains zeroes.
+#[repr(C)]
+pub struct ConstOfMatchTable<const N: usize> {
+ table: [bindings::of_device_id; N],
+ sentinel: bindings::of_device_id,
+}
+
+impl<const N: usize> ConstOfMatchTable<N> {
+ /// Creates a new Open Firmware Match Table from a list of compatible strings.
+ pub const fn new_const(compatibles: [&'static CStr; N]) -> Self {
+ let mut table = [Self::zeroed_of_device_id(); N];
+ let mut i = 0;
+ while i < N {
+ table[i] = Self::new_of_device_id(compatibles[i]);
+ i += 1;
+ }
+ Self {
+ table,
+ // INVARIANTS: we zero the sentinel here, and never change it
+ // anywhere. Therefore it always contains zeroes.
+ sentinel: Self::zeroed_of_device_id(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ const fn zeroed_of_device_id() -> bindings::of_device_id {
+ bindings::of_device_id {
+ name: [0; 32],
+ type_: [0; 32],
+ compatible: [0; 128],
+ data: ptr::null(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ const fn new_of_device_id(compatible: &'static CStr) -> bindings::of_device_id {
+ let mut id = Self::zeroed_of_device_id();
+ let compatible = compatible.as_bytes_with_nul();
+ let mut i = 0;
+ while i < compatible.len() {
+ // If `compatible` does not fit in `id.compatible`, an
+ // "index out of bounds" build time error will be triggered.
+ id.compatible[i] = compatible[i] as c_types::c_char;
+ i += 1;
+ }
+ id
+ }
+}
+
+impl<const N: usize> Deref for ConstOfMatchTable<N> {
+ type Target = OfMatchTable;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &OfMatchTable {
+ // INVARIANTS: `head` points to a sentinel-terminated C array,
+ // as per the `ConstOfMatchTable` type invariant, therefore
+ // `&OfMatchTable`'s inner reference will point to a sentinel-terminated C array.
+ let head = &self.table[0] as *const bindings::of_device_id as *const OfMatchTable;
+
+ // SAFETY: The returned reference must remain valid for the lifetime of `self`.
+ // The raw pointer `head` points to memory inside `self`. So the reference created
+ // from this raw pointer has the same lifetime as `self`.
+ // Therefore this reference remains valid for the lifetime of `self`, and
+ // is safe to return.
+ unsafe { &*head }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/pages.rs b/rust/kernel/pages.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..de8358629fdd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/pages.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,162 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Kernel page allocation and management.
+//!
+//! TODO: This module is a work in progress.
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types, io_buffer::IoBufferReader, user_ptr::UserSlicePtrReader, Error, Result,
+ PAGE_SIZE,
+};
+use core::{marker::PhantomData, ptr};
+
+/// A set of physical pages.
+///
+/// `Pages` holds a reference to a set of pages of order `ORDER`. Having the order as a generic
+/// const allows the struct to have the same size as a pointer.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `Pages::pages` is valid and points to 2^ORDER pages.
+pub struct Pages<const ORDER: u32> {
+ pages: *mut bindings::page,
+}
+
+impl<const ORDER: u32> Pages<ORDER> {
+ /// Allocates a new set of contiguous pages.
+ pub fn new() -> Result<Self> {
+ // TODO: Consider whether we want to allow callers to specify flags.
+ // SAFETY: This only allocates pages. We check that it succeeds in the next statement.
+ let pages = unsafe {
+ bindings::alloc_pages(
+ bindings::GFP_KERNEL | bindings::__GFP_ZERO | bindings::__GFP_HIGHMEM,
+ ORDER,
+ )
+ };
+ if pages.is_null() {
+ return Err(Error::ENOMEM);
+ }
+ // INVARIANTS: We checked that the allocation above succeeded>
+ Ok(Self { pages })
+ }
+
+ /// Maps a single page at the given address in the given VM area.
+ ///
+ /// This is only meant to be used by pages of order 0.
+ pub fn insert_page(&self, vma: &mut bindings::vm_area_struct, address: usize) -> Result {
+ if ORDER != 0 {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: We check above that the allocation is of order 0. The range of `address` is
+ // already checked by `vm_insert_page`.
+ let ret = unsafe { bindings::vm_insert_page(vma, address as _, self.pages) };
+ if ret != 0 {
+ Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(ret))
+ } else {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Copies data from the given [`UserSlicePtrReader`] into the pages.
+ pub fn copy_into_page(
+ &self,
+ reader: &mut UserSlicePtrReader,
+ offset: usize,
+ len: usize,
+ ) -> Result {
+ // TODO: For now this only works on the first page.
+ let end = offset.checked_add(len).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ if end > PAGE_SIZE {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ let mapping = self.kmap(0).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+
+ // SAFETY: We ensured that the buffer was valid with the check above.
+ unsafe { reader.read_raw((mapping.ptr as usize + offset) as _, len) }?;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Maps the pages and reads from them into the given buffer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that the destination buffer is valid for the given length.
+ /// Additionally, if the raw buffer is intended to be recast, they must ensure that the data
+ /// can be safely cast; [`crate::io_buffer::ReadableFromBytes`] has more details about it.
+ pub unsafe fn read(&self, dest: *mut u8, offset: usize, len: usize) -> Result {
+ // TODO: For now this only works on the first page.
+ let end = offset.checked_add(len).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ if end > PAGE_SIZE {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ let mapping = self.kmap(0).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ unsafe { ptr::copy((mapping.ptr as *mut u8).add(offset), dest, len) };
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Maps the pages and writes into them from the given bufer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that the buffer is valid for the given length. Additionally, if the
+ /// page is (or will be) mapped by userspace, they must ensure that no kernel data is leaked
+ /// through padding if it was cast from another type; [`crate::io_buffer::WritableToBytes`] has
+ /// more details about it.
+ pub unsafe fn write(&self, src: *const u8, offset: usize, len: usize) -> Result {
+ // TODO: For now this only works on the first page.
+ let end = offset.checked_add(len).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ if end > PAGE_SIZE {
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ let mapping = self.kmap(0).ok_or(Error::EINVAL)?;
+ unsafe { ptr::copy(src, (mapping.ptr as *mut u8).add(offset), len) };
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Maps the page at index `index`.
+ fn kmap(&self, index: usize) -> Option<PageMapping<'_>> {
+ if index >= 1usize << ORDER {
+ return None;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: We checked above that `index` is within range.
+ let page = unsafe { self.pages.add(index) };
+
+ // SAFETY: `page` is valid based on the checks above.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::kmap(page) };
+ if ptr.is_null() {
+ return None;
+ }
+
+ Some(PageMapping {
+ page,
+ ptr,
+ _phantom: PhantomData,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<const ORDER: u32> Drop for Pages<ORDER> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, we know the pages are allocated with the given order.
+ unsafe { bindings::__free_pages(self.pages, ORDER) };
+ }
+}
+
+struct PageMapping<'a> {
+ page: *mut bindings::page,
+ ptr: *mut c_types::c_void,
+ _phantom: PhantomData<&'a i32>,
+}
+
+impl Drop for PageMapping<'_> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: An instance of `PageMapping` is created only when `kmap` succeeded for the given
+ // page, so it is safe to unmap it here.
+ unsafe { bindings::kunmap(self.page) };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/platdev.rs b/rust/kernel/platdev.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..852607dfe7f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/platdev.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,152 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Platform devices.
+//!
+//! Also called `platdev`, `pdev`.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/platform_device.h`](../../../../include/linux/platform_device.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types,
+ error::{from_kernel_result, Error, Result},
+ of::OfMatchTable,
+ str::CStr,
+ types::PointerWrapper,
+};
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::{marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// A registration of a platform device.
+#[derive(Default)]
+pub struct Registration {
+ registered: bool,
+ pdrv: bindings::platform_driver,
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Registration` does not expose any of its state across threads
+// (it is fine for multiple threads to have a shared reference to it).
+unsafe impl Sync for Registration {}
+
+extern "C" fn probe_callback<P: PlatformDriver>(
+ pdev: *mut bindings::platform_device,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `pdev` is guaranteed to be a valid, non-null pointer.
+ let device_id = unsafe { (*pdev).id };
+ let drv_data = P::probe(device_id)?;
+ let drv_data = drv_data.into_pointer() as *mut c_types::c_void;
+ // SAFETY: `pdev` is guaranteed to be a valid, non-null pointer.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::platform_set_drvdata(pdev, drv_data);
+ }
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+extern "C" fn remove_callback<P: PlatformDriver>(
+ pdev: *mut bindings::platform_device,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `pdev` is guaranteed to be a valid, non-null pointer.
+ let device_id = unsafe { (*pdev).id };
+ // SAFETY: `pdev` is guaranteed to be a valid, non-null pointer.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::platform_get_drvdata(pdev) };
+ // SAFETY:
+ // - we allocated this pointer using `P::DrvData::into_pointer`,
+ // so it is safe to turn back into a `P::DrvData`.
+ // - the allocation happened in `probe`, no-one freed the memory,
+ // `remove` is the canonical kernel location to free driver data. so OK
+ // to convert the pointer back to a Rust structure here.
+ let drv_data = unsafe { P::DrvData::from_pointer(ptr) };
+ P::remove(device_id, drv_data)?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+}
+
+impl Registration {
+ fn register<P: PlatformDriver>(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ of_match_table: Option<&'static OfMatchTable>,
+ module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ ) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: We must ensure that we never move out of `this`.
+ let this = unsafe { self.get_unchecked_mut() };
+ if this.registered {
+ // Already registered.
+ return Err(Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+ this.pdrv.driver.name = name.as_char_ptr();
+ if let Some(tbl) = of_match_table {
+ this.pdrv.driver.of_match_table = tbl.as_ptr();
+ }
+ this.pdrv.probe = Some(probe_callback::<P>);
+ this.pdrv.remove = Some(remove_callback::<P>);
+ // SAFETY:
+ // - `this.pdrv` lives at least until the call to `platform_driver_unregister()` returns.
+ // - `name` pointer has static lifetime.
+ // - `module.0` lives at least as long as the module.
+ // - `probe()` and `remove()` are static functions.
+ // - `of_match_table` is either a raw pointer with static lifetime,
+ // as guaranteed by the [`of::OfMatchTable::as_ptr()`] return type,
+ // or null.
+ let ret = unsafe { bindings::__platform_driver_register(&mut this.pdrv, module.0) };
+ if ret < 0 {
+ return Err(Error::from_kernel_errno(ret));
+ }
+ this.registered = true;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Registers a platform device.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a pinned heap-allocated representation of the registration.
+ pub fn new_pinned<P: PlatformDriver>(
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ of_match_tbl: Option<&'static OfMatchTable>,
+ module: &'static crate::ThisModule,
+ ) -> Result<Pin<Box<Self>>> {
+ let mut r = Pin::from(Box::try_new(Self::default())?);
+ r.as_mut().register::<P>(name, of_match_tbl, module)?;
+ Ok(r)
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Registration {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ if self.registered {
+ // SAFETY: if `registered` is true, then `self.pdev` was registered
+ // previously, which means `platform_driver_unregister` is always
+ // safe to call.
+ unsafe { bindings::platform_driver_unregister(&mut self.pdrv) }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Trait for implementers of platform drivers.
+///
+/// Implement this trait whenever you create a platform driver.
+pub trait PlatformDriver {
+ /// Device driver data.
+ ///
+ /// Corresponds to the data set or retrieved via the kernel's
+ /// `platform_{set,get}_drvdata()` functions.
+ ///
+ /// Require that `DrvData` implements `PointerWrapper`. We guarantee to
+ /// never move the underlying wrapped data structure. This allows
+ /// driver writers to use pinned or self-referential data structures.
+ type DrvData: PointerWrapper;
+
+ /// Platform driver probe.
+ ///
+ /// Called when a new platform device is added or discovered.
+ /// Implementers should attempt to initialize the device here.
+ fn probe(device_id: i32) -> Result<Self::DrvData>;
+
+ /// Platform driver remove.
+ ///
+ /// Called when a platform device is removed.
+ /// Implementers should prepare the device for complete removal here.
+ fn remove(device_id: i32, drv_data: Self::DrvData) -> Result;
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/power.rs b/rust/kernel/power.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e318b5d9f0c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/power.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,118 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Power management interfaces.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/pm.h`](../../../../include/linux/pm.h)
+
+#![allow(dead_code)]
+
+use crate::{bindings, c_types, error::from_kernel_result, types::PointerWrapper, Result};
+use core::marker::PhantomData;
+
+/// Corresponds to the kernel's `struct dev_pm_ops`.
+///
+/// It is meant to be implemented by drivers that support power-management operations.
+pub trait Operations {
+ /// The type of the context data stored by the driver on each device.
+ type Data: PointerWrapper + Sync + Send;
+
+ /// Called before the system goes into a sleep state.
+ fn suspend(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>) -> Result {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Called after the system comes back from a sleep state.
+ fn resume(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>) -> Result {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Called before creating a hibernation image.
+ fn freeze(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>) -> Result {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+
+ /// Called after the system is restored from a hibernation image.
+ fn restore(_data: <Self::Data as PointerWrapper>::Borrowed<'_>) -> Result {
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+macro_rules! pm_callback {
+ ($callback:ident, $method:ident) => {
+ unsafe extern "C" fn $callback<T: Operations>(
+ dev: *mut bindings::device,
+ ) -> c_types::c_int {
+ from_kernel_result! {
+ // SAFETY: `dev` is valid as it was passed in by the C portion.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::dev_get_drvdata(dev) };
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements of `OpsTable::build`, we know that `ptr` came
+ // from a previous call to `T::Data::into_pointer`.
+ let data = unsafe { T::Data::borrow(ptr) };
+ T::$method(data)?;
+ Ok(0)
+ }
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+pm_callback!(suspend_callback, suspend);
+pm_callback!(resume_callback, resume);
+pm_callback!(freeze_callback, freeze);
+pm_callback!(restore_callback, restore);
+
+pub(crate) struct OpsTable<T: Operations>(PhantomData<*const T>);
+
+impl<T: Operations> OpsTable<T> {
+ const VTABLE: bindings::dev_pm_ops = bindings::dev_pm_ops {
+ prepare: None,
+ complete: None,
+ suspend: Some(suspend_callback::<T>),
+ resume: Some(resume_callback::<T>),
+ freeze: Some(freeze_callback::<T>),
+ thaw: None,
+ poweroff: None,
+ restore: Some(restore_callback::<T>),
+ suspend_late: None,
+ resume_early: None,
+ freeze_late: None,
+ thaw_early: None,
+ poweroff_late: None,
+ restore_early: None,
+ suspend_noirq: None,
+ resume_noirq: None,
+ freeze_noirq: None,
+ thaw_noirq: None,
+ poweroff_noirq: None,
+ restore_noirq: None,
+ runtime_suspend: None,
+ runtime_resume: None,
+ runtime_idle: None,
+ };
+
+ /// Builds an instance of `struct dev_pm_ops`.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that `dev_get_drvdata` will result in a value returned by
+ /// [`T::Data::into_pointer`].
+ pub(crate) const unsafe fn build() -> &'static bindings::dev_pm_ops {
+ &Self::VTABLE
+ }
+}
+
+/// Implements the [`Operations`] trait as no-ops.
+///
+/// This is useful when one doesn't want to provide the implementation of any power-manager related
+/// operation.
+pub struct NoOperations<T: PointerWrapper>(PhantomData<T>);
+
+impl<T: PointerWrapper + Send + Sync> Operations for NoOperations<T> {
+ type Data = T;
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `NoOperation` provides no functionality, it is safe to send a reference to it to
+// different threads.
+unsafe impl<T: PointerWrapper> Sync for NoOperations<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `NoOperation` provides no functionality, it is safe to send it to different threads.
+unsafe impl<T: PointerWrapper> Send for NoOperations<T> {}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/prelude.rs b/rust/kernel/prelude.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b602fc6db761
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/prelude.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! The `kernel` prelude.
+//!
+//! These are the most common items used by Rust code in the kernel,
+//! intended to be imported by all Rust code, for convenience.
+//!
+//! # Examples
+//!
+//! ```
+//! use kernel::prelude::*;
+//! ```
+
+pub use core::pin::Pin;
+
+pub use alloc::{boxed::Box, string::String, vec::Vec};
+
+pub use macros::module;
+
+pub use super::build_assert;
+
+pub use super::{dbg, pr_alert, pr_crit, pr_debug, pr_emerg, pr_err, pr_info, pr_notice, pr_warn};
+
+pub use super::module_misc_device;
+
+#[cfg(CONFIG_ARM_AMBA)]
+pub use super::module_amba_driver;
+
+pub use super::static_assert;
+
+pub use super::{Error, KernelModule, Result};
+
+pub use super::{str::CStr, ThisModule};
diff --git a/rust/kernel/print.rs b/rust/kernel/print.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..328d893f87aa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/print.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,441 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Printing facilities.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/printk.h`](../../../../include/linux/printk.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html>
+
+use core::cmp;
+use core::fmt;
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use crate::c_types::{c_char, c_void};
+
+// Called from `vsprintf` with format specifier `%pA`.
+#[no_mangle]
+unsafe fn rust_fmt_argument(buf: *mut c_char, end: *mut c_char, ptr: *const c_void) -> *mut c_char {
+ use fmt::Write;
+
+ // Use `usize` to use `saturating_*` functions.
+ struct Writer {
+ buf: usize,
+ end: usize,
+ }
+
+ impl Write for Writer {
+ fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) -> fmt::Result {
+ // `buf` value after writing `len` bytes. This does not have to be bounded
+ // by `end`, but we don't want it to wrap around to 0.
+ let buf_new = self.buf.saturating_add(s.len());
+
+ // Amount that we can copy. `saturating_sub` ensures we get 0 if
+ // `buf` goes past `end`.
+ let len_to_copy = cmp::min(buf_new, self.end).saturating_sub(self.buf);
+
+ // SAFETY: In any case, `buf` is non-null and properly aligned.
+ // If `len_to_copy` is non-zero, then we know `buf` has not past
+ // `end` yet and so is valid.
+ unsafe {
+ core::ptr::copy_nonoverlapping(
+ s.as_bytes().as_ptr(),
+ self.buf as *mut u8,
+ len_to_copy,
+ )
+ };
+
+ self.buf = buf_new;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ }
+
+ let mut w = Writer {
+ buf: buf as _,
+ end: end as _,
+ };
+ let _ = w.write_fmt(unsafe { *(ptr as *const fmt::Arguments<'_>) });
+ w.buf as _
+}
+
+/// Format strings.
+///
+/// Public but hidden since it should only be used from public macros.
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub mod format_strings {
+ use crate::bindings;
+
+ /// The length we copy from the `KERN_*` kernel prefixes.
+ const LENGTH_PREFIX: usize = 2;
+
+ /// The length of the fixed format strings.
+ pub const LENGTH: usize = 10;
+
+ /// Generates a fixed format string for the kernel's [`_printk`].
+ ///
+ /// The format string is always the same for a given level, i.e. for a
+ /// given `prefix`, which are the kernel's `KERN_*` constants.
+ ///
+ /// [`_printk`]: ../../../../include/linux/printk.h
+ const fn generate(is_cont: bool, prefix: &[u8; 3]) -> [u8; LENGTH] {
+ // Ensure the `KERN_*` macros are what we expect.
+ assert!(prefix[0] == b'\x01');
+ if is_cont {
+ assert!(prefix[1] == b'c');
+ } else {
+ assert!(prefix[1] >= b'0' && prefix[1] <= b'7');
+ }
+ assert!(prefix[2] == b'\x00');
+
+ let suffix: &[u8; LENGTH - LENGTH_PREFIX] = if is_cont {
+ b"%pA\0\0\0\0\0"
+ } else {
+ b"%s: %pA\0"
+ };
+
+ [
+ prefix[0], prefix[1], suffix[0], suffix[1], suffix[2], suffix[3], suffix[4], suffix[5],
+ suffix[6], suffix[7],
+ ]
+ }
+
+ // Generate the format strings at compile-time.
+ //
+ // This avoids the compiler generating the contents on the fly in the stack.
+ //
+ // Furthermore, `static` instead of `const` is used to share the strings
+ // for all the kernel.
+ pub static EMERG: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_EMERG);
+ pub static ALERT: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_ALERT);
+ pub static CRIT: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_CRIT);
+ pub static ERR: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_ERR);
+ pub static WARNING: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_WARNING);
+ pub static NOTICE: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_NOTICE);
+ pub static INFO: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_INFO);
+ pub static DEBUG: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(false, bindings::KERN_DEBUG);
+ pub static CONT: [u8; LENGTH] = generate(true, bindings::KERN_CONT);
+}
+
+/// Prints a message via the kernel's [`_printk`].
+///
+/// Public but hidden since it should only be used from public macros.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// The format string must be one of the ones in [`format_strings`], and
+/// the module name must be null-terminated.
+///
+/// [`_printk`]: ../../../../include/linux/_printk.h
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub unsafe fn call_printk(
+ format_string: &[u8; format_strings::LENGTH],
+ module_name: &[u8],
+ args: fmt::Arguments<'_>,
+) {
+ // `_printk` does not seem to fail in any path.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::_printk(
+ format_string.as_ptr() as _,
+ module_name.as_ptr(),
+ &args as *const _ as *const c_void,
+ );
+ }
+}
+
+/// Prints a message via the kernel's [`_printk`] for the `CONT` level.
+///
+/// Public but hidden since it should only be used from public macros.
+///
+/// [`_printk`]: ../../../../include/linux/printk.h
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub fn call_printk_cont(args: fmt::Arguments<'_>) {
+ // `_printk` does not seem to fail in any path.
+ //
+ // SAFETY: The format string is fixed.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::_printk(
+ format_strings::CONT.as_ptr() as _,
+ &args as *const _ as *const c_void,
+ );
+ }
+}
+
+/// Performs formatting and forwards the string to [`call_printk`].
+///
+/// Public but hidden since it should only be used from public macros.
+#[doc(hidden)]
+#[cfg(not(testlib))]
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! print_macro (
+ // The non-continuation cases (most of them, e.g. `INFO`).
+ ($format_string:path, false, $($arg:tt)+) => (
+ // SAFETY: This hidden macro should only be called by the documented
+ // printing macros which ensure the format string is one of the fixed
+ // ones. All `__LOG_PREFIX`s are null-terminated as they are generated
+ // by the `module!` proc macro or fixed values defined in a kernel
+ // crate.
+ unsafe {
+ $crate::print::call_printk(
+ &$format_string,
+ crate::__LOG_PREFIX,
+ format_args!($($arg)+),
+ );
+ }
+ );
+
+ // The `CONT` case.
+ ($format_string:path, true, $($arg:tt)+) => (
+ $crate::print::call_printk_cont(
+ format_args!($($arg)+),
+ );
+ );
+);
+
+/// Stub for doctests
+#[cfg(testlib)]
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! print_macro (
+ ($format_string:path, $e:expr, $($arg:tt)+) => (
+ ()
+ );
+);
+
+// We could use a macro to generate these macros. However, doing so ends
+// up being a bit ugly: it requires the dollar token trick to escape `$` as
+// well as playing with the `doc` attribute. Furthermore, they cannot be easily
+// imported in the prelude due to [1]. So, for the moment, we just write them
+// manually, like in the C side; while keeping most of the logic in another
+// macro, i.e. [`print_macro`].
+//
+// [1]: https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/52234
+
+/// Prints an emergency-level message (level 0).
+///
+/// Use this level if the system is unusable.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_emerg`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_emerg`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_emerg
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_emerg!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_emerg (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::EMERG, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints an alert-level message (level 1).
+///
+/// Use this level if action must be taken immediately.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_alert`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_alert`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_alert
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_alert!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_alert (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::ALERT, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints a critical-level message (level 2).
+///
+/// Use this level for critical conditions.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_crit`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_crit`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_crit
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_crit!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_crit (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::CRIT, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints an error-level message (level 3).
+///
+/// Use this level for error conditions.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_err`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_err`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_err
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_err!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_err (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::ERR, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints a warning-level message (level 4).
+///
+/// Use this level for warning conditions.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_warn`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_warn`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_warn
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_warn!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_warn (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::WARNING, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints a notice-level message (level 5).
+///
+/// Use this level for normal but significant conditions.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_notice`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_notice`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_notice
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_notice!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_notice (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::NOTICE, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints an info-level message (level 6).
+///
+/// Use this level for informational messages.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_info`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_info`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_info
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_info!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+#[doc(alias = "print")]
+macro_rules! pr_info (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::INFO, false, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
+
+/// Prints a debug-level message (level 7).
+///
+/// Use this level for debug messages.
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_debug`] macro, except that it doesn't support dynamic debug
+/// yet.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_debug`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_debug
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// pr_debug!("hello {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+#[doc(alias = "print")]
+macro_rules! pr_debug (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ if cfg!(debug_assertions) {
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::DEBUG, false, $($arg)*)
+ }
+ )
+);
+
+/// Continues a previous log message in the same line.
+///
+/// Use only when continuing a previous `pr_*!` macro (e.g. [`pr_info!`]).
+///
+/// Equivalent to the kernel's [`pr_cont`] macro.
+///
+/// Mimics the interface of [`std::print!`]. See [`core::fmt`] and
+/// [`alloc::format!`] for information about the formatting syntax.
+///
+/// [`pr_cont`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html#c.pr_cont
+/// [`std::print!`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.print.html
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::pr_cont;
+/// pr_info!("hello");
+/// pr_cont!(" {}\n", "there");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! pr_cont (
+ ($($arg:tt)*) => (
+ $crate::print_macro!($crate::print::format_strings::CONT, true, $($arg)*)
+ )
+);
diff --git a/rust/kernel/random.rs b/rust/kernel/random.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..723a89829f66
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/random.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Random numbers.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/random.h`](../../../../include/linux/random.h)
+
+use core::convert::TryInto;
+
+use crate::{bindings, c_types, error};
+
+/// Fills a byte slice with random bytes generated from the kernel's CSPRNG.
+///
+/// Ensures that the CSPRNG has been seeded before generating any random bytes,
+/// and will block until it is ready.
+pub fn getrandom(dest: &mut [u8]) -> error::Result {
+ let res = unsafe { bindings::wait_for_random_bytes() };
+ if res != 0 {
+ return Err(error::Error::from_kernel_errno(res));
+ }
+
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::get_random_bytes(
+ dest.as_mut_ptr() as *mut c_types::c_void,
+ dest.len().try_into()?,
+ );
+ }
+ Ok(())
+}
+
+/// Fills a byte slice with random bytes generated from the kernel's CSPRNG.
+///
+/// If the CSPRNG is not yet seeded, returns an `Err(EAGAIN)` immediately.
+pub fn getrandom_nonblock(dest: &mut [u8]) -> error::Result {
+ if !unsafe { bindings::rng_is_initialized() } {
+ return Err(error::Error::EAGAIN);
+ }
+ getrandom(dest)
+}
+
+/// Contributes the contents of a byte slice to the kernel's entropy pool.
+///
+/// Does *not* credit the kernel entropy counter though.
+pub fn add_randomness(data: &[u8]) {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::add_device_randomness(
+ data.as_ptr() as *const c_types::c_void,
+ data.len().try_into().unwrap(),
+ );
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/raw_list.rs b/rust/kernel/raw_list.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4bc4f4a24ad5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/raw_list.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,361 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Raw lists.
+//!
+//! TODO: This module is a work in progress.
+
+use core::{
+ cell::UnsafeCell,
+ ptr,
+ ptr::NonNull,
+ sync::atomic::{AtomicBool, Ordering},
+};
+
+/// A descriptor of list elements.
+///
+/// It describes the type of list elements and provides a function to determine how to get the
+/// links to be used on a list.
+///
+/// A type that may be in multiple lists simultaneously neneds to implement one of these for each
+/// simultaneous list.
+pub trait GetLinks {
+ /// The type of the entries in the list.
+ type EntryType: ?Sized;
+
+ /// Returns the links to be used when linking an entry within a list.
+ fn get_links(data: &Self::EntryType) -> &Links<Self::EntryType>;
+}
+
+/// The links used to link an object on a linked list.
+///
+/// Instances of this type are usually embedded in structures and returned in calls to
+/// [`GetLinks::get_links`].
+pub struct Links<T: ?Sized> {
+ inserted: AtomicBool,
+ entry: UnsafeCell<ListEntry<T>>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Links<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new [`Links`] instance that isn't inserted on any lists yet.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ inserted: AtomicBool::new(false),
+ entry: UnsafeCell::new(ListEntry::new()),
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn acquire_for_insertion(&self) -> bool {
+ self.inserted
+ .compare_exchange(false, true, Ordering::Acquire, Ordering::Relaxed)
+ .is_ok()
+ }
+
+ fn release_after_removal(&self) {
+ self.inserted.store(false, Ordering::Release);
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Default for Links<T> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+struct ListEntry<T: ?Sized> {
+ next: Option<NonNull<T>>,
+ prev: Option<NonNull<T>>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> ListEntry<T> {
+ fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ next: None,
+ prev: None,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A linked list.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The links of objects added to a list are owned by the list.
+pub(crate) struct RawList<G: GetLinks> {
+ head: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>,
+}
+
+impl<G: GetLinks> RawList<G> {
+ pub(crate) fn new() -> Self {
+ Self { head: None }
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
+ self.head.is_none()
+ }
+
+ fn insert_after_priv(
+ &mut self,
+ existing: &G::EntryType,
+ new_entry: &mut ListEntry<G::EntryType>,
+ new_ptr: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>,
+ ) {
+ {
+ // SAFETY: It's safe to get the previous entry of `existing` because the list cannot
+ // change.
+ let existing_links = unsafe { &mut *G::get_links(existing).entry.get() };
+ new_entry.next = existing_links.next;
+ existing_links.next = new_ptr;
+ }
+
+ new_entry.prev = Some(NonNull::from(existing));
+
+ // SAFETY: It's safe to get the next entry of `existing` because the list cannot change.
+ let next_links =
+ unsafe { &mut *G::get_links(new_entry.next.unwrap().as_ref()).entry.get() };
+ next_links.prev = new_ptr;
+ }
+
+ /// Inserts the given object after `existing`.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `existing` points to a valid entry that is on the list.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn insert_after(
+ &mut self,
+ existing: &G::EntryType,
+ new: &G::EntryType,
+ ) -> bool {
+ let links = G::get_links(new);
+ if !links.acquire_for_insertion() {
+ // Nothing to do if already inserted.
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: The links are now owned by the list, so it is safe to get a mutable reference.
+ let new_entry = unsafe { &mut *links.entry.get() };
+ self.insert_after_priv(existing, new_entry, Some(NonNull::from(new)));
+ true
+ }
+
+ fn push_back_internal(&mut self, new: &G::EntryType) -> bool {
+ let links = G::get_links(new);
+ if !links.acquire_for_insertion() {
+ // Nothing to do if already inserted.
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: The links are now owned by the list, so it is safe to get a mutable reference.
+ let new_entry = unsafe { &mut *links.entry.get() };
+ let new_ptr = Some(NonNull::from(new));
+ match self.back() {
+ // SAFETY: `back` is valid as the list cannot change.
+ Some(back) => self.insert_after_priv(unsafe { back.as_ref() }, new_entry, new_ptr),
+ None => {
+ self.head = new_ptr;
+ new_entry.next = new_ptr;
+ new_entry.prev = new_ptr;
+ }
+ }
+ true
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn push_back(&mut self, new: &G::EntryType) -> bool {
+ self.push_back_internal(new)
+ }
+
+ fn remove_internal(&mut self, data: &G::EntryType) -> bool {
+ let links = G::get_links(data);
+
+ // SAFETY: The links are now owned by the list, so it is safe to get a mutable reference.
+ let entry = unsafe { &mut *links.entry.get() };
+ let next = if let Some(next) = entry.next {
+ next
+ } else {
+ // Nothing to do if the entry is not on the list.
+ return false;
+ };
+
+ if ptr::eq(data, next.as_ptr()) {
+ // We're removing the only element.
+ self.head = None
+ } else {
+ // Update the head if we're removing it.
+ if let Some(raw_head) = self.head {
+ if ptr::eq(data, raw_head.as_ptr()) {
+ self.head = Some(next);
+ }
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: It's safe to get the previous entry because the list cannot change.
+ unsafe { &mut *G::get_links(entry.prev.unwrap().as_ref()).entry.get() }.next =
+ entry.next;
+
+ // SAFETY: It's safe to get the next entry because the list cannot change.
+ unsafe { &mut *G::get_links(next.as_ref()).entry.get() }.prev = entry.prev;
+ }
+
+ // Reset the links of the element we're removing so that we know it's not on any list.
+ entry.next = None;
+ entry.prev = None;
+ links.release_after_removal();
+ true
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the given entry.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure that `data` is either on this list or in no list. It being on another
+ /// list leads to memory unsafety.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn remove(&mut self, data: &G::EntryType) -> bool {
+ self.remove_internal(data)
+ }
+
+ fn pop_front_internal(&mut self) -> Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>> {
+ let head = self.head?;
+ // SAFETY: The head is on the list as we just got it from there and it cannot change.
+ unsafe { self.remove(head.as_ref()) };
+ Some(head)
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn pop_front(&mut self) -> Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>> {
+ self.pop_front_internal()
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn front(&self) -> Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>> {
+ self.head
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn back(&self) -> Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>> {
+ // SAFETY: The links of head are owned by the list, so it is safe to get a reference.
+ unsafe { &*G::get_links(self.head?.as_ref()).entry.get() }.prev
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn cursor_front(&self) -> Cursor<'_, G> {
+ Cursor::new(self, self.front())
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn cursor_front_mut(&mut self) -> CursorMut<'_, G> {
+ CursorMut::new(self, self.front())
+ }
+}
+
+struct CommonCursor<G: GetLinks> {
+ cur: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>,
+}
+
+impl<G: GetLinks> CommonCursor<G> {
+ fn new(cur: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>) -> Self {
+ Self { cur }
+ }
+
+ fn move_next(&mut self, list: &RawList<G>) {
+ match self.cur.take() {
+ None => self.cur = list.head,
+ Some(cur) => {
+ if let Some(head) = list.head {
+ // SAFETY: We have a shared ref to the linked list, so the links can't change.
+ let links = unsafe { &*G::get_links(cur.as_ref()).entry.get() };
+ if links.next.unwrap() != head {
+ self.cur = links.next;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn move_prev(&mut self, list: &RawList<G>) {
+ match list.head {
+ None => self.cur = None,
+ Some(head) => {
+ let next = match self.cur.take() {
+ None => head,
+ Some(cur) => {
+ if cur == head {
+ return;
+ }
+ cur
+ }
+ };
+ // SAFETY: There's a shared ref to the list, so the links can't change.
+ let links = unsafe { &*G::get_links(next.as_ref()).entry.get() };
+ self.cur = links.prev;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A list cursor that allows traversing a linked list and inspecting elements.
+pub struct Cursor<'a, G: GetLinks> {
+ cursor: CommonCursor<G>,
+ list: &'a RawList<G>,
+}
+
+impl<'a, G: GetLinks> Cursor<'a, G> {
+ fn new(list: &'a RawList<G>, cur: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ list,
+ cursor: CommonCursor::new(cur),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the element the cursor is currently positioned on.
+ pub fn current(&self) -> Option<&'a G::EntryType> {
+ let cur = self.cursor.cur?;
+ // SAFETY: Objects must be kept alive while on the list.
+ Some(unsafe { &*cur.as_ptr() })
+ }
+
+ /// Moves the cursor to the next element.
+ pub fn move_next(&mut self) {
+ self.cursor.move_next(self.list);
+ }
+}
+
+pub(crate) struct CursorMut<'a, G: GetLinks> {
+ cursor: CommonCursor<G>,
+ list: &'a mut RawList<G>,
+}
+
+impl<'a, G: GetLinks> CursorMut<'a, G> {
+ fn new(list: &'a mut RawList<G>, cur: Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>>) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ list,
+ cursor: CommonCursor::new(cur),
+ }
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn current(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ let cur = self.cursor.cur?;
+ // SAFETY: Objects must be kept alive while on the list.
+ Some(unsafe { &mut *cur.as_ptr() })
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the entry the cursor is pointing to and advances the cursor to the next entry. It
+ /// returns a raw pointer to the removed element (if one is removed).
+ pub(crate) fn remove_current(&mut self) -> Option<NonNull<G::EntryType>> {
+ let entry = self.cursor.cur?;
+ self.cursor.move_next(self.list);
+ // SAFETY: The entry is on the list as we just got it from there and it cannot change.
+ unsafe { self.list.remove(entry.as_ref()) };
+ Some(entry)
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn peek_next(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ let mut new = CommonCursor::new(self.cursor.cur);
+ new.move_next(self.list);
+ // SAFETY: Objects must be kept alive while on the list.
+ Some(unsafe { &mut *new.cur?.as_ptr() })
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn peek_prev(&mut self) -> Option<&mut G::EntryType> {
+ let mut new = CommonCursor::new(self.cursor.cur);
+ new.move_prev(self.list);
+ // SAFETY: Objects must be kept alive while on the list.
+ Some(unsafe { &mut *new.cur?.as_ptr() })
+ }
+
+ pub(crate) fn move_next(&mut self) {
+ self.cursor.move_next(self.list);
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/rbtree.rs b/rust/kernel/rbtree.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..880252e9cde7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/rbtree.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,562 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Red-black trees.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/rbtree.h`](../../../../include/linux/rbtree.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/rbtree.html>
+
+use crate::{bindings, Result};
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::{
+ cmp::{Ord, Ordering},
+ iter::{IntoIterator, Iterator},
+ marker::PhantomData,
+ mem::MaybeUninit,
+ ptr::{addr_of_mut, NonNull},
+};
+
+struct Node<K, V> {
+ links: bindings::rb_node,
+ key: K,
+ value: V,
+}
+
+/// A red-black tree with owned nodes.
+///
+/// It is backed by the kernel C red-black trees.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// Non-null parent/children pointers stored in instances of the `rb_node` C struct are always
+/// valid, and pointing to a field of our internal representation of a node.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// In the example below we do several operations on a tree. We note that insertions may fail if
+/// the system is out of memory.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::rbtree::RBTree;
+///
+/// fn rbtest() -> Result {
+/// // Create a new tree.
+/// let mut tree = RBTree::new();
+///
+/// // Insert three elements.
+/// tree.try_insert(20, 200)?;
+/// tree.try_insert(10, 100)?;
+/// tree.try_insert(30, 300)?;
+///
+/// // Check the nodes we just inserted.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &100));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &300));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Print all elements.
+/// for (key, value) in &tree {
+/// pr_info!("{} = {}\n", key, value);
+/// }
+///
+/// // Replace one of the elements.
+/// tree.try_insert(10, 1000)?;
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflects the replacement.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &1000));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &300));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Change the value of one of the elements.
+/// *tree.get_mut(&30).unwrap() = 3000;
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflects the update.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &1000));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &3000));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Remove an element.
+/// tree.remove(&10);
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflects the removal.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &3000));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Update all values.
+/// for value in tree.values_mut() {
+/// *value *= 10;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflects the changes to values.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &2000));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &30000));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// Ok(())
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the example below, we first allocate a node, acquire a spinlock, then insert the node into
+/// the tree. This is useful when the insertion context does not allow sleeping, for example, when
+/// holding a spinlock.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::{rbtree::RBTree, sync::SpinLock};
+///
+/// fn insert_test(tree: &SpinLock<RBTree<u32, u32>>) -> Result {
+/// // Pre-allocate node. This may fail (as it allocates memory).
+/// let node = RBTree::try_allocate_node(10, 100)?;
+///
+/// // Insert node while holding the lock. It is guaranteed to succeed with no allocation
+/// // attempts.
+/// let mut guard = tree.lock();
+/// guard.insert(node);
+/// Ok(())
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the example below, we reuse an existing node allocation from an element we removed.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::rbtree::RBTree;
+///
+/// fn reuse_test() -> Result {
+/// // Create a new tree.
+/// let mut tree = RBTree::new();
+///
+/// // Insert three elements.
+/// tree.try_insert(20, 200)?;
+/// tree.try_insert(10, 100)?;
+/// tree.try_insert(30, 300)?;
+///
+/// // Check the nodes we just inserted.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &100));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&30, &300));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Remove a node, getting back ownership of it.
+/// let existing = tree.remove_node(&30).unwrap();
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflects the removal.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &100));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// // Turn the node into a reservation so that we can reuse it with a different key/value.
+/// let reservation = existing.into_reservation();
+///
+/// // Insert a new node into the tree, reusing the previous allocation. This is guaranteed to
+/// // succeed (no memory allocations).
+/// tree.insert(reservation.into_node(15, 150));
+///
+/// // Check that the tree reflect the new insertion.
+/// {
+/// let mut iter = tree.iter();
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&10, &100));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&15, &150));
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), (&20, &200));
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// }
+///
+/// Ok(())
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct RBTree<K, V> {
+ root: bindings::rb_root,
+ _p: PhantomData<Node<K, V>>,
+}
+
+impl<K, V> RBTree<K, V> {
+ /// Creates a new and empty tree.
+ pub fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ // INVARIANT: There are no nodes in the tree, so the invariant holds vacuously.
+ root: bindings::rb_root::default(),
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Tries to insert a new value into the tree.
+ ///
+ /// It overwrites a node if one already exists with the same key and returns it (containing the
+ /// key/value pair). Returns [`None`] if a node with the same key didn't already exist.
+ ///
+ /// Returns an error if it cannot allocate memory for the new node.
+ pub fn try_insert(&mut self, key: K, value: V) -> Result<Option<RBTreeNode<K, V>>>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ Ok(self.insert(Self::try_allocate_node(key, value)?))
+ }
+
+ /// Allocates memory for a node to be eventually initialised and inserted into the tree via a
+ /// call to [`RBTree::insert`].
+ pub fn try_reserve_node() -> Result<RBTreeNodeReservation<K, V>> {
+ Ok(RBTreeNodeReservation {
+ node: Box::try_new(MaybeUninit::uninit())?,
+ })
+ }
+
+ /// Allocates and initialiases a node that can be inserted into the tree via
+ /// [`RBTree::insert`].
+ pub fn try_allocate_node(key: K, value: V) -> Result<RBTreeNode<K, V>> {
+ Ok(Self::try_reserve_node()?.into_node(key, value))
+ }
+
+ /// Inserts a new node into the tree.
+ ///
+ /// It overwrites a node if one already exists with the same key and returns it (containing the
+ /// key/value pair). Returns [`None`] if a node with the same key didn't already exist.
+ ///
+ /// This function always succeeds.
+ pub fn insert(&mut self, node: RBTreeNode<K, V>) -> Option<RBTreeNode<K, V>>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ let RBTreeNode { node } = node;
+ let node = Box::into_raw(node);
+ // SAFETY: `node` is valid at least until we call `Box::from_raw`, which only happens when
+ // the node is removed or replaced.
+ let node_links = unsafe { addr_of_mut!((*node).links) };
+ let mut new_link: &mut *mut bindings::rb_node = &mut self.root.rb_node;
+ let mut parent = core::ptr::null_mut();
+ while !new_link.is_null() {
+ let this = crate::container_of!(*new_link, Node<K, V>, links);
+
+ parent = *new_link;
+
+ // SAFETY: `this` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants. `node` is
+ // valid until the node is removed.
+ match unsafe { (*node).key.cmp(&(*this).key) } {
+ // SAFETY: `parent` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants.
+ Ordering::Less => new_link = unsafe { &mut (*parent).rb_left },
+ // SAFETY: `parent` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants.
+ Ordering::Greater => new_link = unsafe { &mut (*parent).rb_right },
+ Ordering::Equal => {
+ // INVARIANT: We are replacing an existing node with a new one, which is valid.
+ // It remains valid because we "forgot" it with `Box::into_raw`.
+ // SAFETY: All pointers are non-null and valid (parent, despite the name, really
+ // is the node we're replacing).
+ unsafe { bindings::rb_replace_node(parent, node_links, &mut self.root) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: The node is being returned and the caller may free it, however,
+ // it was removed from the tree. So the invariants still hold.
+ return Some(RBTreeNode {
+ // SAFETY: `this` was a node in the tree, so it is valid.
+ node: unsafe { Box::from_raw(this as _) },
+ });
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ // INVARIANT: We are linking in a new node, which is valid. It remains valid because we
+ // "forgot" it with `Box::into_raw`.
+ // SAFETY: All pointers are non-null and valid (`*new_link` is null, but `new_link` is a
+ // mutable reference).
+ unsafe { bindings::rb_link_node(node_links, parent, new_link) };
+
+ // SAFETY: All pointers are valid. `node` has just been inserted into the tree.
+ unsafe { bindings::rb_insert_color(node_links, &mut self.root) };
+ None
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a node with the given key, if one exists.
+ fn find(&self, key: &K) -> Option<NonNull<Node<K, V>>>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ let mut node = self.root.rb_node;
+ while !node.is_null() {
+ let this = crate::container_of!(node, Node<K, V>, links);
+ // SAFETY: `this` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants.
+ node = match key.cmp(unsafe { &(*this).key }) {
+ // SAFETY: `node` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants.
+ Ordering::Less => unsafe { (*node).rb_left },
+ // SAFETY: `node` is a non-null node so it is valid by the type invariants.
+ Ordering::Greater => unsafe { (*node).rb_right },
+ Ordering::Equal => return NonNull::new(this as _),
+ }
+ }
+ None
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a reference to the value corresponding to the key.
+ pub fn get(&self, key: &K) -> Option<&V>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ // SAFETY: The `find` return value is a node in the tree, so it is valid.
+ self.find(key).map(|node| unsafe { &node.as_ref().value })
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable reference to the value corresponding to the key.
+ pub fn get_mut(&mut self, key: &K) -> Option<&mut V>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ // SAFETY: the `find` return value is a node in the tree, so it is valid.
+ self.find(key)
+ .map(|mut node| unsafe { &mut node.as_mut().value })
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the node with the given key from the tree.
+ ///
+ /// It returns the node that was removed if one exists, or [`None`] otherwise.
+ pub fn remove_node(&mut self, key: &K) -> Option<RBTreeNode<K, V>>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ let mut node = self.find(key)?;
+
+ // SAFETY: the `find` return value is a node in the tree, so it is valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::rb_erase(&mut node.as_mut().links, &mut self.root) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: The node is being returned and the caller may free it, however, it was
+ // removed from the tree. So the invariants still hold.
+ Some(RBTreeNode {
+ // SAFETY: the `find` return value was a node in the tree, so it is valid.
+ node: unsafe { Box::from_raw(node.as_ptr()) },
+ })
+ }
+
+ /// Removes the node with the given key from the tree.
+ ///
+ /// It returns the value that was removed if one exists, or [`None`] otherwise.
+ pub fn remove(&mut self, key: &K) -> Option<V>
+ where
+ K: Ord,
+ {
+ let node = self.remove_node(key)?;
+ let RBTreeNode { node } = node;
+ let Node {
+ links: _,
+ key: _,
+ value,
+ } = *node;
+ Some(value)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns an iterator over the tree nodes, sorted by key.
+ pub fn iter(&self) -> RBTreeIterator<'_, K, V> {
+ RBTreeIterator {
+ _tree: PhantomData,
+ // SAFETY: `root` is valid as it's embedded in `self` and we have a valid `self`.
+ next: unsafe { bindings::rb_first(&self.root) },
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable iterator over the tree nodes, sorted by key.
+ pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> RBTreeIteratorMut<'_, K, V> {
+ RBTreeIteratorMut {
+ _tree: PhantomData,
+ // SAFETY: `root` is valid as it's embedded in `self` and we have a valid `self`.
+ next: unsafe { bindings::rb_first(&self.root) },
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns an iterator over the keys of the nodes in the tree, in sorted order.
+ pub fn keys(&self) -> impl Iterator<Item = &'_ K> {
+ self.iter().map(|(k, _)| k)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns an iterator over the values of the nodes in the tree, sorted by key.
+ pub fn values(&self) -> impl Iterator<Item = &'_ V> {
+ self.iter().map(|(_, v)| v)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable iterator over the values of the nodes in the tree, sorted by key.
+ pub fn values_mut(&mut self) -> impl Iterator<Item = &'_ mut V> {
+ self.iter_mut().map(|(_, v)| v)
+ }
+}
+
+impl<K, V> Default for RBTree<K, V> {
+ fn default() -> Self {
+ Self::new()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<K, V> Drop for RBTree<K, V> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: `root` is valid as it's embedded in `self` and we have a valid `self`.
+ let mut next = unsafe { bindings::rb_first_postorder(&self.root) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: The loop invariant is that all tree nodes from `next` in postorder are valid.
+ while !next.is_null() {
+ let this = crate::container_of!(next, Node<K, V>, links);
+
+ // Find out what the next node is before disposing of the current one.
+ // SAFETY: `next` and all nodes in postorder are still valid.
+ next = unsafe { bindings::rb_next_postorder(next) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: This is the destructor, so we break the type invariant during clean-up,
+ // but it is not observable. The loop invariant is still maintained.
+ // SAFETY: `this` is valid per the loop invariant.
+ unsafe { Box::from_raw(this as *mut Node<K, V>) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<'a, K, V> IntoIterator for &'a RBTree<K, V> {
+ type Item = (&'a K, &'a V);
+ type IntoIter = RBTreeIterator<'a, K, V>;
+
+ fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter {
+ self.iter()
+ }
+}
+
+/// An iterator over the nodes of a [`RBTree`].
+///
+/// Instances are created by calling [`RBTree::iter`].
+pub struct RBTreeIterator<'a, K, V> {
+ _tree: PhantomData<&'a RBTree<K, V>>,
+ next: *mut bindings::rb_node,
+}
+
+impl<'a, K, V> Iterator for RBTreeIterator<'a, K, V> {
+ type Item = (&'a K, &'a V);
+
+ fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Self::Item> {
+ if self.next.is_null() {
+ return None;
+ }
+
+ let cur = crate::container_of!(self.next, Node<K, V>, links);
+
+ // SAFETY: The reference to the tree used to create the iterator outlives the iterator, so
+ // the tree cannot change. By the tree invariant, all nodes are valid.
+ self.next = unsafe { bindings::rb_next(self.next) };
+
+ // SAFETY: By the same reasoning above, it is safe to dereference the node. Additionally,
+ // it is ok to return a reference to members because the iterator must outlive it.
+ Some(unsafe { (&(*cur).key, &(*cur).value) })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<'a, K, V> IntoIterator for &'a mut RBTree<K, V> {
+ type Item = (&'a K, &'a mut V);
+ type IntoIter = RBTreeIteratorMut<'a, K, V>;
+
+ fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter {
+ self.iter_mut()
+ }
+}
+
+/// A mutable iterator over the nodes of a [`RBTree`].
+///
+/// Instances are created by calling [`RBTree::iter_mut`].
+pub struct RBTreeIteratorMut<'a, K, V> {
+ _tree: PhantomData<&'a RBTree<K, V>>,
+ next: *mut bindings::rb_node,
+}
+
+impl<'a, K, V> Iterator for RBTreeIteratorMut<'a, K, V> {
+ type Item = (&'a K, &'a mut V);
+
+ fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Self::Item> {
+ if self.next.is_null() {
+ return None;
+ }
+
+ let cur = crate::container_of!(self.next, Node<K, V>, links) as *mut Node<K, V>;
+
+ // SAFETY: The reference to the tree used to create the iterator outlives the iterator, so
+ // the tree cannot change (except for the value of previous nodes, but those don't affect
+ // the iteration process). By the tree invariant, all nodes are valid.
+ self.next = unsafe { bindings::rb_next(self.next) };
+
+ // SAFETY: By the same reasoning above, it is safe to dereference the node. Additionally,
+ // it is ok to return a reference to members because the iterator must outlive it.
+ Some(unsafe { (&(*cur).key, &mut (*cur).value) })
+ }
+}
+
+/// A memory reservation for a red-black tree node.
+///
+/// It contains the memory needed to hold a node that can be inserted into a red-black tree. One
+/// can be obtained by directly allocating it ([`RBTree::try_reserve_node`]) or by "uninitialising"
+/// ([`RBTreeNode::into_reservation`]) an actual node (usually returned by some operation like
+/// removal from a tree).
+pub struct RBTreeNodeReservation<K, V> {
+ node: Box<MaybeUninit<Node<K, V>>>,
+}
+
+impl<K, V> RBTreeNodeReservation<K, V> {
+ /// Initialises a node reservation.
+ ///
+ /// It then becomes an [`RBTreeNode`] that can be inserted into a tree.
+ pub fn into_node(mut self, key: K, value: V) -> RBTreeNode<K, V> {
+ let node_ptr = self.node.as_mut_ptr();
+ // SAFETY: `node_ptr` is valid, and so are its fields.
+ unsafe { addr_of_mut!((*node_ptr).links).write(bindings::rb_node::default()) };
+ // SAFETY: `node_ptr` is valid, and so are its fields.
+ unsafe { addr_of_mut!((*node_ptr).key).write(key) };
+ // SAFETY: `node_ptr` is valid, and so are its fields.
+ unsafe { addr_of_mut!((*node_ptr).value).write(value) };
+ let raw = Box::into_raw(self.node);
+ RBTreeNode {
+ // SAFETY: The pointer came from a `MaybeUninit<Node>` whose fields have all been
+ // initialised. Additionally, it has the same layout as `Node`.
+ node: unsafe { Box::from_raw(raw as _) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A red-black tree node.
+///
+/// The node is fully initialised (with key and value) and can be inserted into a tree without any
+/// extra allocations or failure paths.
+pub struct RBTreeNode<K, V> {
+ node: Box<Node<K, V>>,
+}
+
+impl<K, V> RBTreeNode<K, V> {
+ /// "Uninitialises" a node.
+ ///
+ /// It then becomes a reservation that can be re-initialised into a different node (i.e., with
+ /// a different key and/or value).
+ ///
+ /// The existing key and value are dropped in-place as part of this operation, that is, memory
+ /// may be freed (but only for the key/value; memory for the node itself is kept for reuse).
+ pub fn into_reservation(self) -> RBTreeNodeReservation<K, V> {
+ let raw = Box::into_raw(self.node);
+ let mut ret = RBTreeNodeReservation {
+ // SAFETY: The pointer came from a valid `Node`, which has the same layout as
+ // `MaybeUninit<Node>`.
+ node: unsafe { Box::from_raw(raw as _) },
+ };
+ // SAFETY: Although the type is `MaybeUninit<Node>`, we know it has been initialised
+ // because it came from a `Node`. So it is safe to drop it.
+ unsafe { core::ptr::drop_in_place(ret.node.as_mut_ptr()) };
+ ret
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/revocable.rs b/rust/kernel/revocable.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9cc65ca3a1b6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/revocable.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,163 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Revocable objects.
+//!
+//! The [`Revocable`] type wraps other types and allows access to them to be revoked. The existence
+//! of a [`RevocableGuard`] ensures that objects remain valid.
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use core::{
+ cell::UnsafeCell,
+ marker::PhantomData,
+ mem::ManuallyDrop,
+ ops::Deref,
+ ptr::drop_in_place,
+ sync::atomic::{AtomicBool, Ordering},
+};
+
+/// An object that can become inaccessible at runtime.
+///
+/// Once access is revoked and all concurrent users complete (i.e., all existing instances of
+/// [`RevocableGuard`] are dropped), the wrapped object is also dropped.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::revocable::Revocable;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn add_two(v: &Revocable<Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let guard = v.try_access()?;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// fn example() {
+/// let v = Revocable::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 });
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), Some(30));
+/// v.revoke();
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), None);
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct Revocable<T: ?Sized> {
+ is_available: AtomicBool,
+ data: ManuallyDrop<UnsafeCell<T>>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Revocable` is `Send` if the wrapped object is also `Send`. This is because while the
+// functionality exposed by `Revocable` can be accessed from any thread/CPU, it is possible that
+// this isn't supported by the wrapped object.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for Revocable<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `Revocable` is `Sync` if the wrapped object is both `Send` and `Sync`. We require `Send`
+// from the wrapped object as well because of `Revocable::revoke`, which can trigger the `Drop`
+// implementation of the wrapped object from an arbitrary thread.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Sync for Revocable<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Revocable<T> {
+ /// Creates a new revocable instance of the given data.
+ pub fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ is_available: AtomicBool::new(true),
+ data: ManuallyDrop::new(UnsafeCell::new(data)),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Revocable<T> {
+ /// Tries to access the \[revocable\] wrapped object.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `None` if the object has been revoked and is therefore no longer accessible.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a guard that gives access to the object otherwise; the object is guaranteed to
+ /// remain accessible while the guard is alive. In such cases, callers are not allowed to sleep
+ /// because another CPU may be waiting to complete the revocation of this object.
+ pub fn try_access(&self) -> Option<RevocableGuard<'_, T>> {
+ let guard = RevocableGuard::new(self.data.get());
+ if self.is_available.load(Ordering::Relaxed) {
+ Some(guard)
+ } else {
+ None
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Revokes access to and drops the wrapped object.
+ ///
+ /// Access to the object is revoked immediately to new callers of [`Revocable::try_access`]. If
+ /// there are concurrent users of the object (i.e., ones that called [`Revocable::try_access`]
+ /// beforehand and still haven't dropped the returned guard), this function waits for the
+ /// concurrent access to complete before dropping the wrapped object.
+ pub fn revoke(&self) {
+ if self
+ .is_available
+ .compare_exchange(true, false, Ordering::Relaxed, Ordering::Relaxed)
+ .is_ok()
+ {
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call, there are no further requirements.
+ unsafe { bindings::synchronize_rcu() };
+
+ // SAFETY: We know `self.data` is valid because only one CPU can succeed the
+ // `compare_exchange` above that takes `is_available` from `true` to `false`.
+ unsafe { drop_in_place(self.data.get()) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for Revocable<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // Drop only if the data hasn't been revoked yet (in which case it has already been
+ // dropped).
+ if *self.is_available.get_mut() {
+ // SAFETY: We know `self.data` is valid because no other CPU has changed
+ // `is_available` to `false` yet, and no other CPU can do it anymore because this CPU
+ // holds the only reference (mutable) to `self` now.
+ unsafe { drop_in_place(self.data.get()) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A guard that allows access to a revocable object and keeps it alive.
+///
+/// CPUs may not sleep while holding on to [`RevocableGuard`] because it's in atomic context
+/// holding the RCU read-side lock.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The RCU read-side lock is held while the guard is alive.
+pub struct RevocableGuard<'a, T: ?Sized> {
+ data_ref: *const T,
+ _p: PhantomData<&'a ()>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RevocableGuard<'_, T> {
+ fn new(data_ref: *const T) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call, there are no further requirements.
+ unsafe { bindings::rcu_read_lock() };
+
+ // INVARIANTS: The RCU read-side lock was just acquired.
+ Self {
+ data_ref,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for RevocableGuard<'_, T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, we know that we hold the RCU read-side lock.
+ unsafe { bindings::rcu_read_unlock() };
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for RevocableGuard<'_, T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariants, we hold the rcu read-side lock, so the object is
+ // guaranteed to remain valid.
+ unsafe { &*self.data_ref }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/security.rs b/rust/kernel/security.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2004d01233f4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/security.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Linux Security Modules (LSM).
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/security.h`](../../../../include/linux/security.h).
+
+use crate::{bindings, cred::Credential, file::File, to_result, Result};
+
+/// Calls the security modules to determine if the given task can become the manager of a binder
+/// context.
+pub fn binder_set_context_mgr(mgr: &Credential) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Credential` invariants, `mgr.ptr` is valid.
+ to_result(|| unsafe { bindings::security_binder_set_context_mgr(mgr.ptr) })
+}
+
+/// Calls the security modules to determine if binder transactions are allowed from task `from` to
+/// task `to`.
+pub fn binder_transaction(from: &Credential, to: &Credential) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Credential` invariants, `from.ptr` and `to.ptr` are valid.
+ to_result(|| unsafe { bindings::security_binder_transaction(from.ptr, to.ptr) })
+}
+
+/// Calls the security modules to determine if task `from` is allowed to send binder objects
+/// (owned by itself or other processes) to task `to` through a binder transaction.
+pub fn binder_transfer_binder(from: &Credential, to: &Credential) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Credential` invariants, `from.ptr` and `to.ptr` are valid.
+ to_result(|| unsafe { bindings::security_binder_transfer_binder(from.ptr, to.ptr) })
+}
+
+/// Calls the security modules to determine if task `from` is allowed to send the given file to
+/// task `to` (which would get its own file descriptor) through a binder transaction.
+pub fn binder_transfer_file(from: &Credential, to: &Credential, file: &File) -> Result {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Credential` invariants, `from.ptr` and `to.ptr` are valid. Similarly, by the
+ // `File` invariants, `file.ptr` is also valid.
+ to_result(|| unsafe { bindings::security_binder_transfer_file(from.ptr, to.ptr, file.ptr) })
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/static_assert.rs b/rust/kernel/static_assert.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a80d8ab57564
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/static_assert.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Static assert.
+
+/// Static assert (i.e. compile-time assert).
+///
+/// Similar to C11 [`_Static_assert`] and C++11 [`static_assert`].
+///
+/// The feature may be added to Rust in the future: see [RFC 2790].
+///
+/// [`_Static_assert`]: https://en.cppreference.com/w/c/language/_Static_assert
+/// [`static_assert`]: https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/language/static_assert
+/// [RFC 2790]: https://github.com/rust-lang/rfcs/issues/2790
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// static_assert!(42 > 24);
+/// static_assert!(core::mem::size_of::<u8>() == 1);
+///
+/// const X: &[u8] = b"bar";
+/// static_assert!(X[1] == 'a' as u8);
+///
+/// const fn f(x: i32) -> i32 {
+/// x + 2
+/// }
+/// static_assert!(f(40) == 42);
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! static_assert {
+ ($condition:expr) => {
+ // Based on the latest one in `rustc`'s one before it was [removed].
+ //
+ // [removed]: https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/commit/c2dad1c6b9f9636198d7c561b47a2974f5103f6d
+ #[allow(dead_code)]
+ const _: () = [()][!($condition) as usize];
+ };
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/std_vendor.rs b/rust/kernel/std_vendor.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..492388d7ce10
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/std_vendor.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 OR MIT
+
+//! The contents of this file come from the Rust standard library, hosted in the
+//! <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust> repository. For copyright details, see
+//! <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/blob/master/COPYRIGHT>.
+
+/// [`std::dbg`], but using [`pr_info`] instead of [`eprintln`].
+///
+/// Prints and returns the value of a given expression for quick and dirty
+/// debugging.
+///
+/// An example:
+///
+/// ```rust
+/// let a = 2;
+/// let b = dbg!(a * 2) + 1;
+/// // ^-- prints: [src/main.rs:2] a * 2 = 4
+/// assert_eq!(b, 5);
+/// ```
+///
+/// The macro works by using the `Debug` implementation of the type of
+/// the given expression to print the value with [`printk`] along with the
+/// source location of the macro invocation as well as the source code
+/// of the expression.
+///
+/// Invoking the macro on an expression moves and takes ownership of it
+/// before returning the evaluated expression unchanged. If the type
+/// of the expression does not implement `Copy` and you don't want
+/// to give up ownership, you can instead borrow with `dbg!(&expr)`
+/// for some expression `expr`.
+///
+/// The `dbg!` macro works exactly the same in release builds.
+/// This is useful when debugging issues that only occur in release
+/// builds or when debugging in release mode is significantly faster.
+///
+/// Note that the macro is intended as a debugging tool and therefore you
+/// should avoid having uses of it in version control for long periods
+/// (other than in tests and similar).
+///
+/// # Stability
+///
+/// The exact output printed by this macro should not be relied upon
+/// and is subject to future changes.
+///
+/// # Further examples
+///
+/// With a method call:
+///
+/// ```rust
+/// fn foo(n: usize) {
+/// if let Some(_) = dbg!(n.checked_sub(4)) {
+/// // ...
+/// }
+/// }
+///
+/// foo(3)
+/// ```
+///
+/// This prints to the kernel log:
+///
+/// ```text,ignore
+/// [src/main.rs:4] n.checked_sub(4) = None
+/// ```
+///
+/// Naive factorial implementation:
+///
+/// ```rust
+/// fn factorial(n: u32) -> u32 {
+/// if dbg!(n <= 1) {
+/// dbg!(1)
+/// } else {
+/// dbg!(n * factorial(n - 1))
+/// }
+/// }
+///
+/// dbg!(factorial(4));
+/// ```
+///
+/// This prints to the kernel log:
+///
+/// ```text,ignore
+/// [src/main.rs:3] n <= 1 = false
+/// [src/main.rs:3] n <= 1 = false
+/// [src/main.rs:3] n <= 1 = false
+/// [src/main.rs:3] n <= 1 = true
+/// [src/main.rs:4] 1 = 1
+/// [src/main.rs:5] n * factorial(n - 1) = 2
+/// [src/main.rs:5] n * factorial(n - 1) = 6
+/// [src/main.rs:5] n * factorial(n - 1) = 24
+/// [src/main.rs:11] factorial(4) = 24
+/// ```
+///
+/// The `dbg!(..)` macro moves the input:
+///
+/// ```compile_fail
+/// /// A wrapper around `usize` which importantly is not Copyable.
+/// #[derive(Debug)]
+/// struct NoCopy(usize);
+///
+/// let a = NoCopy(42);
+/// let _ = dbg!(a); // <-- `a` is moved here.
+/// let _ = dbg!(a); // <-- `a` is moved again; error!
+/// ```
+///
+/// You can also use `dbg!()` without a value to just print the
+/// file and line whenever it's reached.
+///
+/// Finally, if you want to `dbg!(..)` multiple values, it will treat them as
+/// a tuple (and return it, too):
+///
+/// ```
+/// assert_eq!(dbg!(1usize, 2u32), (1, 2));
+/// ```
+///
+/// However, a single argument with a trailing comma will still not be treated
+/// as a tuple, following the convention of ignoring trailing commas in macro
+/// invocations. You can use a 1-tuple directly if you need one:
+///
+/// ```
+/// assert_eq!(1, dbg!(1u32,)); // trailing comma ignored
+/// assert_eq!((1,), dbg!((1u32,))); // 1-tuple
+/// ```
+///
+/// [`std::dbg`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.dbg.html
+/// [`eprintln`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/macro.eprintln.html
+/// [`printk`]: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/core-api/printk-basics.html
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! dbg {
+ // NOTE: We cannot use `concat!` to make a static string as a format argument
+ // of `pr_info!` because `file!` could contain a `{` or
+ // `$val` expression could be a block (`{ .. }`), in which case the `pr_info!`
+ // will be malformed.
+ () => {
+ $crate::pr_info!("[{}:{}]\n", ::core::file!(), ::core::line!())
+ };
+ ($val:expr $(,)?) => {
+ // Use of `match` here is intentional because it affects the lifetimes
+ // of temporaries - https://stackoverflow.com/a/48732525/1063961
+ match $val {
+ tmp => {
+ $crate::pr_info!("[{}:{}] {} = {:#?}\n",
+ ::core::file!(), ::core::line!(), ::core::stringify!($val), &tmp);
+ tmp
+ }
+ }
+ };
+ ($($val:expr),+ $(,)?) => {
+ ($($crate::dbg!($val)),+,)
+ };
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/str.rs b/rust/kernel/str.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..840099f384b3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/str.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,375 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! String representations.
+
+use core::fmt::{self, Write};
+use core::ops::{self, Deref, Index};
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use crate::c_types;
+
+/// Byte string without UTF-8 validity guarantee.
+///
+/// `BStr` is simply an alias to `[u8]`, but has a more evident semantical meaning.
+pub type BStr = [u8];
+
+/// Creates a new [`BStr`] from a string literal.
+///
+/// `b_str!` converts the supplied string literal to byte string, so non-ASCII
+/// characters can be included.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::b_str;
+/// # use kernel::str::BStr;
+/// const MY_BSTR: &'static BStr = b_str!("My awesome BStr!");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! b_str {
+ ($str:literal) => {{
+ const S: &'static str = $str;
+ const C: &'static $crate::str::BStr = S.as_bytes();
+ C
+ }};
+}
+
+/// Possible errors when using conversion functions in [`CStr`].
+#[derive(Debug, Clone, Copy)]
+pub enum CStrConvertError {
+ /// Supplied bytes contain an interior `NUL`.
+ InteriorNul,
+
+ /// Supplied bytes are not terminated by `NUL`.
+ NotNulTerminated,
+}
+
+impl From<CStrConvertError> for crate::Error {
+ #[inline]
+ fn from(_: CStrConvertError) -> crate::Error {
+ crate::Error::EINVAL
+ }
+}
+
+/// A string that is guaranteed to have exactly one `NUL` byte, which is at the
+/// end.
+///
+/// Used for interoperability with kernel APIs that take C strings.
+#[repr(transparent)]
+pub struct CStr([u8]);
+
+impl CStr {
+ /// Returns the length of this string excluding `NUL`.
+ #[inline]
+ pub const fn len(&self) -> usize {
+ self.len_with_nul() - 1
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the length of this string with `NUL`.
+ #[inline]
+ pub const fn len_with_nul(&self) -> usize {
+ // SAFETY: This is one of the invariant of `CStr`.
+ // We add a `unreachable_unchecked` here to hint the optimizer that
+ // the value returned from this function is non-zero.
+ if self.0.is_empty() {
+ unsafe { core::hint::unreachable_unchecked() };
+ }
+ self.0.len()
+ }
+
+ /// Returns `true` if the string only includes `NUL`.
+ #[inline]
+ pub const fn is_empty(&self) -> bool {
+ self.len() == 0
+ }
+
+ /// Wraps a raw C string pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must be a valid pointer to a `NUL`-terminated C string, and it must
+ /// last at least `'a`. When `CStr` is alive, the memory pointed by `ptr`
+ /// must not be mutated.
+ #[inline]
+ pub unsafe fn from_char_ptr<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_char) -> &'a Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety precondition guarantees `ptr` is a valid pointer
+ // to a `NUL`-terminated C string.
+ let len = unsafe { bindings::strlen(ptr) } + 1;
+ // SAFETY: Lifetime guaranteed by the safety precondition.
+ let bytes = unsafe { core::slice::from_raw_parts(ptr as _, len as _) };
+ // SAFETY: As `len` is returned by `strlen`, `bytes` does not contain interior `NUL`.
+ // As we have added 1 to `len`, the last byte is known to be `NUL`.
+ unsafe { Self::from_bytes_with_nul_unchecked(bytes) }
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a [`CStr`] from a `[u8]`.
+ ///
+ /// The provided slice must be `NUL`-terminated, does not contain any
+ /// interior `NUL` bytes.
+ pub const fn from_bytes_with_nul(bytes: &[u8]) -> Result<&Self, CStrConvertError> {
+ if bytes.is_empty() {
+ return Err(CStrConvertError::NotNulTerminated);
+ }
+ if bytes[bytes.len() - 1] != 0 {
+ return Err(CStrConvertError::NotNulTerminated);
+ }
+ let mut i = 0;
+ // `i + 1 < bytes.len()` allows LLVM to optimize away bounds checking,
+ // while it couldn't optimize away bounds checks for `i < bytes.len() - 1`.
+ while i + 1 < bytes.len() {
+ if bytes[i] == 0 {
+ return Err(CStrConvertError::InteriorNul);
+ }
+ i += 1;
+ }
+ // SAFETY: We just checked that all properties hold.
+ Ok(unsafe { Self::from_bytes_with_nul_unchecked(bytes) })
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a [`CStr`] from a `[u8]`, panic if input is not valid.
+ ///
+ /// This function is only meant to be used by `c_str!` macro, so
+ /// crates using `c_str!` macro don't have to enable `const_panic` feature.
+ #[doc(hidden)]
+ pub const fn from_bytes_with_nul_unwrap(bytes: &[u8]) -> &Self {
+ match Self::from_bytes_with_nul(bytes) {
+ Ok(v) => v,
+ Err(_) => panic!("string contains interior NUL"),
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Creates a [`CStr`] from a `[u8]` without performing any additional
+ /// checks.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `bytes` *must* end with a `NUL` byte, and should only have a single
+ /// `NUL` byte (or the string will be truncated).
+ #[inline]
+ pub const unsafe fn from_bytes_with_nul_unchecked(bytes: &[u8]) -> &CStr {
+ // SAFETY: Properties of `bytes` guaranteed by the safety precondition.
+ unsafe { core::mem::transmute(bytes) }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a C pointer to the string.
+ #[inline]
+ pub const fn as_char_ptr(&self) -> *const c_types::c_char {
+ self.0.as_ptr() as _
+ }
+
+ /// Convert the string to a byte slice without the trailing 0 byte.
+ #[inline]
+ pub fn as_bytes(&self) -> &[u8] {
+ &self.0[..self.len()]
+ }
+
+ /// Convert the string to a byte slice containing the trailing 0 byte.
+ #[inline]
+ pub const fn as_bytes_with_nul(&self) -> &[u8] {
+ &self.0
+ }
+
+ /// Yields a [`&str`] slice if the [`CStr`] contains valid UTF-8.
+ ///
+ /// If the contents of the [`CStr`] are valid UTF-8 data, this
+ /// function will return the corresponding [`&str`] slice. Otherwise,
+ /// it will return an error with details of where UTF-8 validation failed.
+ ///
+ /// # Examples
+ ///
+ /// ```
+ /// # use kernel::str::CStr;
+ /// let cstr = CStr::from_bytes_with_nul(b"foo\0").unwrap();
+ /// assert_eq!(cstr.to_str(), Ok("foo"));
+ /// ```
+ #[inline]
+ pub fn to_str(&self) -> Result<&str, core::str::Utf8Error> {
+ core::str::from_utf8(self.as_bytes())
+ }
+
+ /// Unsafely convert this [`CStr`] into a [`&str`], without checking for
+ /// valid UTF-8.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The contents must be valid UTF-8.
+ ///
+ /// # Examples
+ ///
+ /// ```
+ /// # use kernel::c_str;
+ /// # use kernel::str::CStr;
+ /// // SAFETY: String literals are guaranteed to be valid UTF-8
+ /// // by the Rust compiler.
+ /// let bar = c_str!("ツ");
+ /// assert_eq!(unsafe { bar.as_str_unchecked() }, "ツ");
+ /// ```
+ #[inline]
+ pub unsafe fn as_str_unchecked(&self) -> &str {
+ unsafe { core::str::from_utf8_unchecked(self.as_bytes()) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl fmt::Display for CStr {
+ /// Formats printable ASCII characters, escaping the rest.
+ ///
+ /// ```
+ /// # use kernel::c_str;
+ /// # use kernel::str::CStr;
+ /// let penguin = c_str!("🐧");
+ /// assert_eq!(format!("{}", penguin), "\\xf0\\x9f\\x90\\xa7");
+ ///
+ /// let ascii = c_str!("so \"cool\"");
+ /// assert_eq!(format!("{}", ascii), "so \"cool\"");
+ /// ```
+ fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
+ for &c in self.as_bytes() {
+ if (0x20..0x7f).contains(&c) {
+ // Printable character
+ f.write_char(c as char)?;
+ } else {
+ write!(f, "\\x{:02x}", c)?;
+ }
+ }
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+impl fmt::Debug for CStr {
+ /// Formats printable ASCII characters with a double quote on either end, escaping the rest.
+ ///
+ /// ```
+ /// # use kernel::c_str;
+ /// # use kernel::str::CStr;
+ /// let penguin = c_str!("🐧");
+ /// assert_eq!(format!("{:?}", penguin), "\"\\xf0\\x9f\\x90\\xa7\"");
+ ///
+ /// // embedded double quotes are escaped
+ /// let ascii = c_str!("so \"cool\"");
+ /// assert_eq!(format!("{:?}", ascii), "\"so \\\"cool\\\"\"");
+ /// ```
+ fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
+ f.write_str("\"")?;
+ for &c in self.as_bytes() {
+ match c {
+ // Printable characters
+ b'\"' => f.write_str("\\\"")?,
+ 0x20..=0x7e => f.write_char(c as char)?,
+ _ => write!(f, "\\x{:02x}", c)?,
+ }
+ }
+ f.write_str("\"")
+ }
+}
+
+impl AsRef<BStr> for CStr {
+ #[inline]
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &BStr {
+ self.as_bytes()
+ }
+}
+
+impl Deref for CStr {
+ type Target = BStr;
+
+ #[inline]
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.as_bytes()
+ }
+}
+
+impl Index<ops::RangeFrom<usize>> for CStr {
+ type Output = CStr;
+
+ #[inline]
+ fn index(&self, index: ops::RangeFrom<usize>) -> &Self::Output {
+ // Delegate bounds checking to slice.
+ // Assign to _ to mute clippy's unnecessary operation warning.
+ let _ = &self.as_bytes()[index.start..];
+ // SAFETY: We just checked the bounds.
+ unsafe { Self::from_bytes_with_nul_unchecked(&self.0[index.start..]) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Index<ops::RangeFull> for CStr {
+ type Output = CStr;
+
+ #[inline]
+ fn index(&self, _index: ops::RangeFull) -> &Self::Output {
+ self
+ }
+}
+
+mod private {
+ use core::ops;
+
+ // Marker trait for index types that can be forward to `BStr`.
+ pub trait CStrIndex {}
+
+ impl CStrIndex for usize {}
+ impl CStrIndex for ops::Range<usize> {}
+ impl CStrIndex for ops::RangeInclusive<usize> {}
+ impl CStrIndex for ops::RangeToInclusive<usize> {}
+}
+
+impl<Idx> Index<Idx> for CStr
+where
+ Idx: private::CStrIndex,
+ BStr: Index<Idx>,
+{
+ type Output = <BStr as Index<Idx>>::Output;
+
+ #[inline]
+ fn index(&self, index: Idx) -> &Self::Output {
+ &self.as_bytes()[index]
+ }
+}
+
+/// Creates a new [`CStr`] from a string literal.
+///
+/// The string literal should not contain any `NUL` bytes.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::c_str;
+/// # use kernel::str::CStr;
+/// const MY_CSTR: &'static CStr = c_str!("My awesome CStr!");
+/// ```
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! c_str {
+ ($str:literal) => {{
+ const S: &str = concat!($str, "\0");
+ const C: &$crate::str::CStr = $crate::str::CStr::from_bytes_with_nul_unwrap(S.as_bytes());
+ C
+ }};
+}
+
+#[cfg(test)]
+mod tests {
+ use super::*;
+
+ #[test]
+ fn test_cstr_to_str() {
+ let good_bytes = b"\xf0\x9f\xa6\x80\0";
+ let checked_cstr = CStr::from_bytes_with_nul(good_bytes).unwrap();
+ let checked_str = checked_cstr.to_str().unwrap();
+ assert_eq!(checked_str, "🦀");
+ }
+
+ #[test]
+ #[should_panic]
+ fn test_cstr_to_str_panic() {
+ let bad_bytes = b"\xc3\x28\0";
+ let checked_cstr = CStr::from_bytes_with_nul(bad_bytes).unwrap();
+ checked_cstr.to_str().unwrap();
+ }
+
+ #[test]
+ fn test_cstr_as_str_unchecked() {
+ let good_bytes = b"\xf0\x9f\x90\xA7\0";
+ let checked_cstr = CStr::from_bytes_with_nul(good_bytes).unwrap();
+ let unchecked_str = unsafe { checked_cstr.as_str_unchecked() };
+ assert_eq!(unchecked_str, "🐧");
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7ca921fb5d1d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/arc.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,500 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A reference-counted pointer.
+//!
+//! This module implements a way for users to create reference-counted objects and pointers to
+//! them. Such a pointer automatically increments and decrements the count, and drops the
+//! underlying object when it reaches zero. It is also safe to use concurrently from multiple
+//! threads.
+//!
+//! It is different from the standard library's [`Arc`] in a few ways:
+//! 1. It is backed by the kernel's `refcount_t` type.
+//! 2. It does not support weak references, which allows it to be half the size.
+//! 3. It saturates the reference count instead of aborting when it goes over a threshold.
+//! 4. It does not provide a `get_mut` method, so the ref counted object is pinned.
+//!
+//! [`Arc`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/sync/struct.Arc.html
+
+use crate::{bindings, Error, Opaque, Result};
+use alloc::{
+ alloc::{alloc, dealloc},
+ vec::Vec,
+};
+use core::{
+ alloc::Layout,
+ convert::{AsRef, TryFrom},
+ marker::{PhantomData, Unsize},
+ mem::{ManuallyDrop, MaybeUninit},
+ ops::{Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+ ptr::{self, NonNull},
+};
+
+/// A reference-counted pointer to an instance of `T`.
+///
+/// The reference count is incremented when new instances of [`Ref`] are created, and decremented
+/// when they are dropped. When the count reaches zero, the underlying `T` is also dropped.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The reference count on an instance of [`Ref`] is always non-zero.
+/// The object pointed to by [`Ref`] is always pinned.
+pub struct Ref<T: ?Sized> {
+ ptr: NonNull<RefInner<T>>,
+ _p: PhantomData<RefInner<T>>,
+}
+
+#[repr(C)]
+struct RefInner<T: ?Sized> {
+ refcount: Opaque<bindings::refcount_t>,
+ data: T,
+}
+
+// This is to allow [`Ref`] (and variants) to be used as the type of `self`.
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::Receiver for Ref<T> {}
+
+// This is to allow [`RefBorrow`] (and variants) to be used as the type of `self`.
+impl<T: ?Sized> core::ops::Receiver for RefBorrow<'_, T> {}
+
+// This is to allow coercion from `Ref<T>` to `Ref<U>` if `T` can be converted to the
+// dynamically-sized type (DST) `U`.
+impl<T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> core::ops::CoerceUnsized<Ref<U>> for Ref<T> {}
+
+// This is to allow `Ref<U>` to be dispatched on when `Ref<T>` can be coerced into `Ref<U>`.
+impl<T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> core::ops::DispatchFromDyn<Ref<U>> for Ref<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: It is safe to send `Ref<T>` to another thread when the underlying `T` is `Sync` because
+// it effectively means sharing `&T` (which is safe because `T` is `Sync`); additionally, it needs
+// `T` to be `Send` because any thread that has a `Ref<T>` may ultimately access `T` directly, for
+// example, when the reference count reaches zero and `T` is dropped.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Send for Ref<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: It is safe to send `&Ref<T>` to another thread when the underlying `T` is `Sync` for
+// the same reason as above. `T` needs to be `Send` as well because a thread can clone a `&Ref<T>`
+// into a `Ref<T>`, which may lead to `T` being accessed by the same reasoning as above.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Sync + Send> Sync for Ref<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Ref<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new reference counted instance of `T`.
+ pub fn try_new(contents: T) -> Result<Self> {
+ let layout = Layout::new::<RefInner<T>>();
+ // SAFETY: The layout size is guaranteed to be non-zero because `RefInner` contains the
+ // reference count.
+ let inner = NonNull::new(unsafe { alloc(layout) })
+ .ok_or(Error::ENOMEM)?
+ .cast::<RefInner<T>>();
+
+ // INVARIANT: The refcount is initialised to a non-zero value.
+ let value = RefInner {
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call that returns a `refcount_t` initialised to 1.
+ refcount: Opaque::new(unsafe { bindings::REFCOUNT_INIT(1) }),
+ data: contents,
+ };
+ // SAFETY: `inner` is writable and properly aligned.
+ unsafe { inner.as_ptr().write(value) };
+
+ // SAFETY: We just created `inner` with a reference count of 1, which is owned by the new
+ // `Ref` object.
+ Ok(unsafe { Self::from_inner(inner) })
+ }
+
+ /// Deconstructs a [`Ref`] object into a `usize`.
+ ///
+ /// It can be reconstructed once via [`Ref::from_usize`].
+ pub fn into_usize(obj: Self) -> usize {
+ ManuallyDrop::new(obj).ptr.as_ptr() as _
+ }
+
+ /// Borrows a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_usize`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `encoded` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_usize`]. Additionally,
+ /// [`Ref::from_usize`] can only be called after *all* instances of [`RefBorrow`] have been
+ /// dropped.
+ pub unsafe fn borrow_usize<'a>(encoded: usize) -> RefBorrow<'a, T> {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirement of this function, we know that `encoded` came from
+ // a previous call to `Ref::into_usize`.
+ let inner = NonNull::new(encoded as *mut RefInner<T>).unwrap();
+
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements ensure that the object remains alive for the lifetime of
+ // the returned value. There is no way to create mutable references to the object.
+ unsafe { RefBorrow::new(inner) }
+ }
+
+ /// Recreates a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_usize`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `encoded` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_usize`]. Additionally,
+ /// it can only be called once for each previous call to [``Ref::into_usize`].
+ pub unsafe fn from_usize(encoded: usize) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: By the safety invariants we know that `encoded` came from `Ref::into_usize`, so
+ // the reference count held then will be owned by the new `Ref` object.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(encoded as _).unwrap()) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Ref<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new [`Ref`] from an existing [`RefInner`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that `inner` points to a valid location and has a non-zero reference
+ /// count, one of which will be owned by the new [`Ref`] instance.
+ unsafe fn from_inner(inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: By the safety requirements, the invariants hold.
+ Ref {
+ ptr: inner,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Determines if two reference-counted pointers point to the same underlying instance of `T`.
+ pub fn ptr_eq(a: &Self, b: &Self) -> bool {
+ ptr::eq(a.ptr.as_ptr(), b.ptr.as_ptr())
+ }
+
+ /// Deconstructs a [`Ref`] object into a raw pointer.
+ ///
+ /// It can be reconstructed once via [`Ref::from_raw`].
+ pub fn into_raw(obj: Self) -> *const T {
+ let ret = &*obj as *const T;
+ core::mem::forget(obj);
+ ret
+ }
+
+ /// Recreates a [`Ref`] instance previously deconstructed via [`Ref::into_raw`].
+ ///
+ /// This code relies on the `repr(C)` layout of structs as described in
+ /// <https://doc.rust-lang.org/reference/type-layout.html#reprc-structs>.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must have been returned by a previous call to [`Ref::into_raw`]. Additionally, it
+ /// can only be called once for each previous call to [``Ref::into_raw`].
+ pub unsafe fn from_raw(ptr: *const T) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirement ensures that the pointer is valid.
+ let align = core::mem::align_of_val(unsafe { &*ptr });
+ let offset = Layout::new::<RefInner<()>>()
+ .align_to(align)
+ .unwrap()
+ .pad_to_align()
+ .size();
+ // SAFETY: The pointer is in bounds because by the safety requirements `ptr` came from
+ // `Ref::into_raw`, so it is a pointer `offset` bytes from the beginning of the allocation.
+ let data = unsafe { (ptr as *const u8).sub(offset) };
+ let metadata = ptr::metadata(ptr as *const RefInner<T>);
+ let ptr = ptr::from_raw_parts_mut(data as _, metadata);
+ // SAFETY: By the safety requirements we know that `ptr` came from `Ref::into_raw`, so the
+ // reference count held then will be owned by the new `Ref` object.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(ptr).unwrap()) }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a [`RefBorrow`] from the given [`Ref`].
+ ///
+ /// This is useful when the argument of a function call is a [`RefBorrow`] (e.g., in a method
+ /// receiver), but we have a [`Ref`] instead. Getting a [`RefBorrow`] is free when optimised.
+ #[inline]
+ pub fn as_ref_borrow(&self) -> RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ // SAFETY: The constraint that lifetime of the shared reference must outlive that of
+ // the returned `RefBorrow` ensures that the object remains alive.
+ unsafe { RefBorrow::new(self.ptr) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for Ref<T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to dereference it.
+ unsafe { &self.ptr.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Clone for Ref<T> {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: C `refcount_inc` saturates the refcount, so it cannot overflow to zero.
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to increment the refcount.
+ unsafe { bindings::refcount_inc(self.ptr.as_ref().refcount.get()) };
+
+ // SAFETY: We just incremented the refcount. This increment is now owned by the new `Ref`.
+ unsafe { Self::from_inner(self.ptr) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> AsRef<T> for Ref<T> {
+ fn as_ref(&self) -> &T {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so it is
+ // safe to dereference it.
+ unsafe { &self.ptr.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for Ref<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object. We cannot
+ // touch `refcount` after it's decremented to a non-zero value because another thread/CPU
+ // may concurrently decrement it to zero and free it. It is ok to have a raw pointer to
+ // freed/invalid memory as long as it is never dereferenced.
+ let refcount = unsafe { self.ptr.as_ref() }.refcount.get();
+
+ // INVARIANT: If the refcount reaches zero, there are no other instances of `Ref`, and
+ // this instance is being dropped, so the broken invariant is not observable.
+ // SAFETY: Also by the type invariant, we are allowed to decrement the refcount.
+ let is_zero = unsafe { bindings::refcount_dec_and_test(refcount) };
+ if is_zero {
+ // The count reached zero, we must free the memory.
+
+ // SAFETY: This thread holds the only remaining reference to `self`, so it is safe to
+ // get a mutable reference to it.
+ let inner = unsafe { self.ptr.as_mut() };
+ let layout = Layout::for_value(inner);
+ // SAFETY: The value stored in inner is valid.
+ unsafe { core::ptr::drop_in_place(inner) };
+ // SAFETY: The pointer was initialised from the result of a call to `alloc`.
+ unsafe { dealloc(self.ptr.cast().as_ptr(), layout) };
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> TryFrom<Vec<T>> for Ref<[T]> {
+ type Error = Error;
+
+ fn try_from(mut v: Vec<T>) -> Result<Self> {
+ let value_layout = Layout::array::<T>(v.len())?;
+ let layout = Layout::new::<RefInner<()>>()
+ .extend(value_layout)?
+ .0
+ .pad_to_align();
+ // SAFETY: The layout size is guaranteed to be non-zero because `RefInner` contains the
+ // reference count.
+ let ptr = NonNull::new(unsafe { alloc(layout) }).ok_or(Error::ENOMEM)?;
+ let inner =
+ core::ptr::slice_from_raw_parts_mut(ptr.as_ptr() as _, v.len()) as *mut RefInner<[T]>;
+
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call that returns a `refcount_t` initialised to 1.
+ let count = Opaque::new(unsafe { bindings::REFCOUNT_INIT(1) });
+ // SAFETY: `inner.refcount` is writable and properly aligned.
+ unsafe { core::ptr::addr_of_mut!((*inner).refcount).write(count) };
+ // SAFETY: The contents of `v` as readable and properly aligned; `inner.data` is writable
+ // and properly aligned. There is no overlap between the two because `inner` is a new
+ // allocation.
+ unsafe {
+ core::ptr::copy_nonoverlapping(
+ v.as_ptr(),
+ core::ptr::addr_of_mut!((*inner).data) as *mut [T] as *mut T,
+ v.len(),
+ )
+ };
+ // SAFETY: We're setting the new length to zero, so it is <= to capacity, and old_len..0 is
+ // an empty range (so satisfies vacuously the requirement of being initialised).
+ unsafe { v.set_len(0) };
+ // SAFETY: We just created `inner` with a reference count of 1, which is owned by the new
+ // `Ref` object.
+ Ok(unsafe { Self::from_inner(NonNull::new(inner).unwrap()) })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<UniqueRef<T>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(item: UniqueRef<T>) -> Self {
+ item.inner
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<UniqueRef<T>> for Pin<UniqueRef<T>> {
+ fn from(obj: UniqueRef<T>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: It is not possible to move/replace `T` inside a `Pin<UniqueRef<T>>` (unless `T`
+ // is `Unpin`), so it is ok to convert it to `Pin<UniqueRef<T>>`.
+ unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(obj) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<Pin<UniqueRef<T>>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(item: Pin<UniqueRef<T>>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants of `Ref` guarantee that the data is pinned.
+ unsafe { Pin::into_inner_unchecked(item).inner }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A borrowed [`Ref`] with manually-managed lifetime.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// There are no mutable references to the underlying [`Ref`], and it remains valid for the lifetime
+/// of the [`RefBorrow`] instance.
+pub struct RefBorrow<'a, T: ?Sized + 'a> {
+ inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>,
+ _p: PhantomData<&'a ()>,
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Clone for RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ *self
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Copy for RefBorrow<'_, T> {}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ /// Creates a new [`RefBorrow`] instance.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must ensure the following for the lifetime of the returned [`RefBorrow`] instance:
+ /// 1. That `obj` remains valid;
+ /// 2. That no mutable references to `obj` are created.
+ unsafe fn new(inner: NonNull<RefInner<T>>) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The safety requirements guarantee the invariants.
+ Self {
+ inner,
+ _p: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> From<RefBorrow<'_, T>> for Ref<T> {
+ fn from(b: RefBorrow<'_, T>) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The existence of `b` guarantees that the refcount is non-zero. `ManuallyDrop`
+ // guarantees that `drop` isn't called, so it's ok that the temporary `Ref` doesn't own the
+ // increment.
+ ManuallyDrop::new(unsafe { Ref::from_inner(b.inner) })
+ .deref()
+ .clone()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for RefBorrow<'_, T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, the underlying object is still alive with no mutable
+ // references to it, so it is safe to create a shared reference.
+ unsafe { &self.inner.as_ref().data }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A refcounted object that is known to have a refcount of 1.
+///
+/// It is mutable and can be converted to a [`Ref`] so that it can be shared.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// `inner` always has a reference count of 1.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// In the following example, we make changes to the inner object before turning it into a
+/// `Ref<Test>` object (after which point, it cannot be mutated directly). Note that `x.into()`
+/// cannot fail.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let mut x = UniqueRef::try_new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 })?;
+/// x.a += 1;
+/// x.b += 1;
+/// Ok(x.into())
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the following example we first allocate memory for a ref-counted `Example` but we don't
+/// initialise it on allocation. We do initialise it later with a call to [`UniqueRef::write`],
+/// followed by a conversion to `Ref<Example>`. This is particularly useful when allocation happens
+/// in one context (e.g., sleepable) and initialisation in another (e.g., atomic):
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test2() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let x = UniqueRef::try_new_uninit()?;
+/// Ok(x.write(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }).into())
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the last example below, the caller gets a pinned instance of `Example` while converting to
+/// `Ref<Example>`; this is useful in scenarios where one needs a pinned reference during
+/// initialisation, for example, when initialising fields that are wrapped in locks.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::sync::{Ref, UniqueRef};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn test2() -> Result<Ref<Example>> {
+/// let mut pinned = Pin::from(UniqueRef::try_new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 })?);
+/// // We can modify `pinned` because it is `Unpin`.
+/// pinned.as_mut().a += 1;
+/// Ok(pinned.into())
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct UniqueRef<T: ?Sized> {
+ inner: Ref<T>,
+}
+
+impl<T> UniqueRef<T> {
+ /// Tries to allocate a new [`UniqueRef`] instance.
+ pub fn try_new(value: T) -> Result<Self> {
+ Ok(Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The newly-created object has a ref-count of 1.
+ inner: Ref::try_new(value)?,
+ })
+ }
+
+ /// Tries to allocate a new [`UniqueRef`] instance whose contents are not initialised yet.
+ pub fn try_new_uninit() -> Result<UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>>> {
+ Ok(UniqueRef::<MaybeUninit<T>> {
+ // INVARIANT: The newly-created object has a ref-count of 1.
+ inner: Ref::try_new(MaybeUninit::uninit())?,
+ })
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>> {
+ /// Converts a `UniqueRef<MaybeUninit<T>>` into a `UniqueRef<T>` by writing a value into it.
+ pub fn write(mut self, value: T) -> UniqueRef<T> {
+ self.deref_mut().write(value);
+ let inner = ManuallyDrop::new(self).inner.ptr;
+ UniqueRef {
+ // SAFETY: The new `Ref` is taking over `ptr` from `self.inner` (which won't be
+ // dropped). The types are compatible because `MaybeUninit<T>` is compatible with `T`.
+ inner: unsafe { Ref::from_inner(inner.cast()) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for UniqueRef<T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.inner.deref()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> DerefMut for UniqueRef<T> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: By the `Ref` type invariant, there is necessarily a reference to the object, so
+ // it is safe to dereference it. Additionally, we know there is only one reference when
+ // it's inside a `UniqueRef`, so it is safe to get a mutable reference.
+ unsafe { &mut self.inner.ptr.as_mut().data }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b60b7e418c73
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/condvar.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,137 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A condition variable.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct wait_queue_head`] as a condition
+//! variable.
+
+use super::{GuardMut, Lock, NeedsLockClass};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, task::Task, Opaque};
+use core::{marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`CondVar`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! condvar_init {
+ ($condvar:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($condvar, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+// TODO: `bindgen` is not generating this constant. Figure out why.
+const POLLFREE: u32 = 0x4000;
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`struct wait_queue_head`] as a condition variable. It allows the caller to
+/// atomically release the given lock and go to sleep. It reacquires the lock when it wakes up. And
+/// it wakes up when notified by another thread (via [`CondVar::notify_one`] or
+/// [`CondVar::notify_all`]) or because the thread received a signal.
+///
+/// [`struct wait_queue_head`]: ../../../include/linux/wait.h
+pub struct CondVar {
+ pub(crate) wait_list: Opaque<bindings::wait_queue_head>,
+
+ /// A condvar needs to be pinned because it contains a [`struct list_head`] that is
+ /// self-referential, so it cannot be safely moved once it is initialised.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `CondVar` only uses a `struct wait_queue_head`, which is safe to use on any thread.
+unsafe impl Send for CondVar {}
+
+// SAFETY: `CondVar` only uses a `struct wait_queue_head`, which is safe to use on multiple threads
+// concurrently.
+unsafe impl Sync for CondVar {}
+
+impl CondVar {
+ /// Constructs a new conditional variable.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call `CondVar::init` before using the conditional variable.
+ pub unsafe fn new() -> Self {
+ Self {
+ wait_list: Opaque::uninit(),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Atomically releases the given lock (whose ownership is proven by the guard) and puts the
+ /// thread to sleep. It wakes up when notified by [`CondVar::notify_one`] or
+ /// [`CondVar::notify_all`], or when the thread receives a signal.
+ ///
+ /// Returns whether there is a signal pending.
+ #[must_use = "wait returns if a signal is pending, so the caller must check the return value"]
+ pub fn wait<L: Lock>(&self, guard: &mut GuardMut<'_, L>) -> bool {
+ let lock = guard.guard.lock;
+ let wait = Opaque::<bindings::wait_queue_entry>::uninit();
+
+ // SAFETY: `wait` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::init_wait(wait.get()) };
+
+ // SAFETY: Both `wait` and `wait_list` point to valid memory.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::prepare_to_wait_exclusive(
+ self.wait_list.get(),
+ wait.get(),
+ bindings::TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE as _,
+ )
+ };
+
+ // SAFETY: The guard is evidence that the caller owns the lock.
+ unsafe { lock.unlock(&mut guard.guard.context) };
+
+ // SAFETY: No arguments, switches to another thread.
+ unsafe { bindings::schedule() };
+
+ lock.relock(&mut guard.guard.context);
+
+ // SAFETY: Both `wait` and `wait_list` point to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::finish_wait(self.wait_list.get(), wait.get()) };
+
+ Task::current().signal_pending()
+ }
+
+ /// Calls the kernel function to notify the appropriate number of threads with the given flags.
+ fn notify(&self, count: i32, flags: u32) {
+ // SAFETY: `wait_list` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::__wake_up(
+ self.wait_list.get(),
+ bindings::TASK_NORMAL,
+ count,
+ flags as _,
+ )
+ };
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes a single waiter up, if any. This is not 'sticky' in the sense that if no thread is
+ /// waiting, the notification is lost completely (as opposed to automatically waking up the
+ /// next waiter).
+ pub fn notify_one(&self) {
+ self.notify(1, 0);
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes all waiters up, if any. This is not 'sticky' in the sense that if no thread is
+ /// waiting, the notification is lost completely (as opposed to automatically waking up the
+ /// next waiter).
+ pub fn notify_all(&self) {
+ self.notify(0, 0);
+ }
+
+ /// Wakes all waiters up. If they were added by `epoll`, they are also removed from the list of
+ /// waiters. This is useful when cleaning up a condition variable that may be waited on by
+ /// threads that use `epoll`.
+ pub fn free_waiters(&self) {
+ self.notify(1, bindings::POLLHUP | POLLFREE);
+ }
+}
+
+impl NeedsLockClass for CondVar {
+ unsafe fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ _: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__init_waitqueue_head(self.wait_list.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key) };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9b0506a31fe7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/guard.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,181 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A generic lock guard and trait.
+//!
+//! This module contains a lock guard that can be used with any locking primitive that implements
+//! the ([`Lock`]) trait. It also contains the definition of the trait, which can be leveraged by
+//! other constructs to work on generic locking primitives.
+
+use super::NeedsLockClass;
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr};
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+/// Allows mutual exclusion primitives that implement the [`Lock`] trait to automatically unlock
+/// when a guard goes out of scope. It also provides a safe and convenient way to access the data
+/// protected by the lock.
+#[must_use = "the lock unlocks immediately when the guard is unused"]
+pub struct GuardMut<'a, L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ pub(crate) guard: Guard<'a, L>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `GuardMut` is sync when the data protected by the lock is also sync. This is more
+// conservative than the default compiler implementation; more details can be found on
+// https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/41622 -- it refers to `MutexGuard` from the standard
+// library.
+unsafe impl<L> Sync for GuardMut<'_, L>
+where
+ L: Lock + ?Sized,
+ L::Inner: Sync,
+{
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> core::ops::Deref for GuardMut<'_, L> {
+ type Target = L::Inner;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.guard.deref()
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> core::ops::DerefMut for GuardMut<'_, L> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut L::Inner {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to deref the protected data.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.guard.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<'a, L: Lock + ?Sized> GuardMut<'a, L> {
+ /// Constructs a new lock guard.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that it owns the lock.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn new(lock: &'a L, context: L::GuardContext) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements for this function satisfy the `Guard::new` ones.
+ Self {
+ guard: unsafe { Guard::new(lock, context) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Allows mutual exclusion primitives that implement the [`Lock`] trait to automatically unlock
+/// when a guard goes out of scope. It also provides a safe and convenient way to immutably access
+/// the data protected by the lock.
+#[must_use = "the lock unlocks immediately when the guard is unused"]
+pub struct Guard<'a, L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ pub(crate) lock: &'a L,
+ pub(crate) context: L::GuardContext,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Guard` is sync when the data protected by the lock is also sync. This is more
+// conservative than the default compiler implementation; more details can be found on
+// https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/41622 -- it refers to `MutexGuard` from the standard
+// library.
+unsafe impl<L> Sync for Guard<'_, L>
+where
+ L: Lock + ?Sized,
+ L::Inner: Sync,
+{
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> core::ops::Deref for Guard<'_, L> {
+ type Target = L::Inner;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to deref the protected data.
+ unsafe { &*self.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: Lock + ?Sized> Drop for Guard<'_, L> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // SAFETY: The caller owns the lock, so it is safe to unlock it.
+ unsafe { self.lock.unlock(&mut self.context) };
+ }
+}
+
+impl<'a, L: Lock + ?Sized> Guard<'a, L> {
+ /// Constructs a new immutable lock guard.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must ensure that it owns the lock.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn new(lock: &'a L, context: L::GuardContext) -> Self {
+ Self { lock, context }
+ }
+}
+
+/// A generic mutual exclusion primitive.
+///
+/// [`Guard`] and [`GuardMut`] are written such that any mutual exclusion primitive that can
+/// implement this trait can also benefit from having an automatic way to unlock itself.
+///
+/// # Safety
+///
+/// Implementers of this trait must ensure that only one thread/CPU may access the protected data
+/// once the lock is held, that is, between calls to `lock_noguard` and `unlock`.
+pub unsafe trait Lock {
+ /// The type of the data protected by the lock.
+ type Inner: ?Sized;
+
+ /// The type of context, if any, that needs to be stored in the guard.
+ type GuardContext;
+
+ /// Acquires the lock, making the caller its owner.
+ #[must_use]
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> Self::GuardContext;
+
+ /// Reacquires the lock, making the caller its owner.
+ ///
+ /// The guard context before the last unlock is passed in.
+ ///
+ /// Locks that don't require this state on relock can simply use the default implementation
+ /// that calls [`Lock::lock_noguard`].
+ fn relock(&self, ctx: &mut Self::GuardContext) {
+ *ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ }
+
+ /// Releases the lock, giving up ownership of the lock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// It must only be called by the current owner of the lock.
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, context: &mut Self::GuardContext);
+
+ /// Returns the data protected by the lock.
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &core::cell::UnsafeCell<Self::Inner>;
+}
+
+/// A generic mutual exclusion primitive that can be instantiated generically.
+pub trait CreatableLock: Lock {
+ /// Constructs a new instance of the lock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`CreatableLock::init_lock`] before using the lock.
+ unsafe fn new_lock(data: Self::Inner) -> Self;
+
+ /// Initialises the lock type instance so that it can be safely used.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `key` must point to a valid memory location that will remain valid until the lock is
+ /// dropped.
+ unsafe fn init_lock(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ );
+}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock> NeedsLockClass for L {
+ unsafe fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ _: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of this function satisfy those of `init_lock`.
+ unsafe { self.init_lock(name, key) };
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e7546e12b8df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/locked_by.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,112 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A wrapper for data protected by a lock that does not wrap it.
+
+use super::{GuardMut, Lock};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, ops::Deref, ptr};
+
+/// Allows access to some data to be serialised by a lock that does not wrap it.
+///
+/// In most cases, data protected by a lock is wrapped by the appropriate lock type, e.g.,
+/// [`super::Mutex`] or [`super::SpinLock`]. [`LockedBy`] is meant for cases when this is not
+/// possible. For example, if a container has a lock and some data in the contained elements needs
+/// to be protected by the same lock.
+///
+/// [`LockedBy`] wraps the data in lieu of another locking primitive, and only allows access to it
+/// when the caller shows evidence that 'external' lock is locked.
+///
+/// # Example
+///
+/// The following is an example for illustrative purposes: `InnerDirectory::bytes_used` is an
+/// aggregate of all `InnerFile::bytes_used` and must be kept consistent; so we wrap `InnerFile` in
+/// a `LockedBy` so that it shares a lock with `InnerDirectory`. This allows us to enforce at
+/// compile-time that access to `InnerFile` is only granted when an `InnerDirectory` is also
+/// locked; we enforce at run time that the right `InnerDirectory` is locked.
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::sync::{LockedBy, Mutex};
+///
+/// struct InnerFile {
+/// bytes_used: u64,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct File {
+/// name: String,
+/// inner: LockedBy<InnerFile, Mutex<InnerDirectory>>,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct InnerDirectory {
+/// /// The sum of the bytes used by all files.
+/// bytes_used: u64,
+/// files: Vec<File>,
+/// }
+///
+/// struct Directory {
+/// name: String,
+/// inner: Mutex<InnerDirectory>,
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct LockedBy<T: ?Sized, L: Lock + ?Sized> {
+ owner: *const L::Inner,
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `LockedBy` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send, L: Lock + ?Sized> Send for LockedBy<T, L> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `LockedBy` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send, L: Lock + ?Sized> Sync for LockedBy<T, L> {}
+
+impl<T, L: Lock + ?Sized> LockedBy<T, L> {
+ /// Constructs a new instance of [`LockedBy`].
+ ///
+ /// It stores a raw pointer to the owner that is never dereferenced. It is only used to ensure
+ /// that the right owner is being used to access the protected data. If the owner is freed, the
+ /// data becomes inaccessible; if another instance of the owner is allocated *on the same
+ /// memory location*, the data becomes accessible again: none of this affects memory safety
+ /// because in any case at most one thread (or CPU) can access the protected data at a time.
+ pub fn new(owner: &L, data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ owner: owner.locked_data().get(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(data),
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized, L: Lock + ?Sized> LockedBy<T, L> {
+ /// Returns a reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// [`GuardMut`]) that the owner is locked.
+ pub fn access<'a>(&'a self, guard: &'a GuardMut<'_, L>) -> &'a T {
+ if !ptr::eq(guard.deref(), self.owner) {
+ panic!("guard does not match owner");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `guard` is evidence that the owner is locked.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// mutable [`GuardMut`]) that the owner is locked mutably.
+ pub fn access_mut<'a>(&'a self, guard: &'a mut GuardMut<'_, L>) -> &'a mut T {
+ if !ptr::eq(guard.deref().deref(), self.owner) {
+ panic!("guard does not match owner");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `guard` is evidence that the owner is locked.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a mutable reference to the protected data when the caller provides evidence (via a
+ /// mutable owner) that the owner is locked mutably. Showing a mutable reference to the owner
+ /// is sufficient because we know no other references can exist to it.
+ pub fn access_from_mut<'a>(&'a self, owner: &'a mut L::Inner) -> &'a mut T {
+ if !ptr::eq(owner, self.owner) {
+ panic!("mismatched owners");
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: `owner` is evidence that there is only one reference to the owner.
+ unsafe { &mut *self.data.get() }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/mod.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/mod.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..51067fc7b6fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/mod.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Synchronisation primitives.
+//!
+//! This module contains the kernel APIs related to synchronisation that have been ported or
+//! wrapped for usage by Rust code in the kernel and is shared by all of them.
+//!
+//! # Example
+//!
+//! ```no_run
+//! # use kernel::prelude::*;
+//! # use kernel::mutex_init;
+//! # use kernel::sync::Mutex;
+//! # use alloc::boxed::Box;
+//! # use core::pin::Pin;
+//! // SAFETY: `init` is called below.
+//! let mut data = Pin::from(Box::new(unsafe { Mutex::new(0) }));
+//! mutex_init!(data.as_mut(), "test::data");
+//! *data.lock() = 10;
+//! pr_info!("{}\n", *data.lock());
+//! ```
+
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr};
+use core::pin::Pin;
+
+mod arc;
+mod condvar;
+mod guard;
+mod locked_by;
+mod mutex;
+mod revocable_mutex;
+mod seqlock;
+mod spinlock;
+
+pub use arc::{Ref, RefBorrow, UniqueRef};
+pub use condvar::CondVar;
+pub use guard::{CreatableLock, Guard, GuardMut, Lock};
+pub use locked_by::LockedBy;
+pub use mutex::Mutex;
+pub use revocable_mutex::{RevocableMutex, RevocableMutexGuard};
+pub use seqlock::{SeqLock, SeqLockReadGuard};
+pub use spinlock::SpinLock;
+
+/// Safely initialises an object that has an `init` function that takes a name and a lock class as
+/// arguments, examples of these are [`Mutex`] and [`SpinLock`]. Each of them also provides a more
+/// specialised name that uses this macro.
+#[doc(hidden)]
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! init_with_lockdep {
+ ($obj:expr, $name:literal) => {{
+ static mut CLASS1: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ static mut CLASS2: core::mem::MaybeUninit<$crate::bindings::lock_class_key> =
+ core::mem::MaybeUninit::uninit();
+ let obj = $obj;
+ let name = $crate::c_str!($name);
+ // SAFETY: `CLASS1` and `CLASS2` are never used by Rust code directly; the C portion of the
+ // kernel may change it though.
+ #[allow(unused_unsafe)]
+ unsafe {
+ $crate::sync::NeedsLockClass::init(obj, name, CLASS1.as_mut_ptr(), CLASS2.as_mut_ptr())
+ };
+ }};
+}
+
+/// A trait for types that need a lock class during initialisation.
+///
+/// Implementers of this trait benefit from the [`init_with_lockdep`] macro that generates a new
+/// class for each initialisation call site.
+pub trait NeedsLockClass {
+ /// Initialises the type instance so that it can be safely used.
+ ///
+ /// Callers are encouraged to use the [`init_with_lockdep`] macro as it automatically creates a
+ /// new lock class on each usage.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `key1` and `key2` must point to valid memory locations and remain valid until `self` is
+ /// dropped.
+ unsafe fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ key2: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ );
+}
+
+/// Reschedules the caller's task if needed.
+pub fn cond_resched() -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: No arguments, reschedules `current` if needed.
+ unsafe { bindings::cond_resched() != 0 }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..aaaf5bcb87b3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/mutex.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel mutex.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct mutex`].
+
+use super::{CreatableLock, GuardMut, Lock};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`Mutex`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! mutex_init {
+ ($mutex:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($mutex, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`struct mutex`]. When multiple threads attempt to lock the same mutex,
+/// only one at a time is allowed to progress, the others will block (sleep) until the mutex is
+/// unlocked, at which point another thread will be allowed to wake up and make progress.
+///
+/// A [`Mutex`] must first be initialised with a call to [`Mutex::init_lock`] before it can be
+/// used. The [`mutex_init`] macro is provided to automatically assign a new lock class to a mutex
+/// instance.
+///
+/// Since it may block, [`Mutex`] needs to be used with care in atomic contexts.
+///
+/// [`struct mutex`]: ../../../include/linux/mutex.h
+pub struct Mutex<T: ?Sized> {
+ /// The kernel `struct mutex` object.
+ mutex: Opaque<bindings::mutex>,
+
+ /// A mutex needs to be pinned because it contains a [`struct list_head`] that is
+ /// self-referential, so it cannot be safely moved once it is initialised.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ /// The data protected by the mutex.
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for Mutex<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for Mutex<T> {}
+
+impl<T> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new mutex.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`Mutex::init_lock`] before using the mutex.
+ pub unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ mutex: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Mutex<T> {
+ /// Locks the mutex and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one thread at
+ /// a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> GuardMut<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The mutex was just acquired.
+ unsafe { GuardMut::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> CreatableLock for Mutex<T> {
+ unsafe fn new_lock(data: Self::Inner) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { Self::new(data) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn init_lock(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__mutex_init(self.mutex.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key) };
+ }
+}
+
+pub struct EmptyGuardContext;
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `struct mutex` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for Mutex<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = EmptyGuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> EmptyGuardContext {
+ // SAFETY: `mutex` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::mutex_lock(self.mutex.get()) };
+ EmptyGuardContext
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, _: &mut EmptyGuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the mutex is owned by the
+ // caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::mutex_unlock(self.mutex.get()) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/revocable_mutex.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/revocable_mutex.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2747cd254cb2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/revocable_mutex.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,184 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel mutex where acccess to contents can be revoked at runtime.
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings,
+ str::CStr,
+ sync::{GuardMut, Mutex, NeedsLockClass},
+};
+use core::{
+ mem::ManuallyDrop,
+ ops::{Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+ ptr::drop_in_place,
+};
+
+/// The state within a `RevocableMutex` that is protected by a mutex.
+///
+/// We don't use simply `Option<T>` because we need to drop in-place because the contents are
+/// implicitly pinned.
+struct RevocableMutexInner<T: ?Sized> {
+ is_available: bool,
+ data: ManuallyDrop<T>,
+}
+
+/// A mutex whose contents can become inaccessible at runtime.
+///
+/// Once access is revoked and all concurrent users complete (i.e., all existing instances of
+/// [`RevocableMutexGuard`] are dropped), the wrapped object is also dropped.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::sync::RevocableMutex;
+/// # use kernel::revocable_mutex_init;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn add_two(v: &RevocableMutex<Example>) -> Option<u32> {
+/// let guard = v.try_lock()?;
+/// Some(guard.a + guard.b)
+/// }
+///
+/// fn example() {
+/// // SAFETY: We call `revocable_mutex_init` immediately below.
+/// let mut v = unsafe { RevocableMutex::new(Example { a: 10, b: 20 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We never move out of `v`.
+/// let pinned = unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut v) };
+/// revocable_mutex_init!(pinned, "example::v");
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), Some(30));
+/// v.revoke();
+/// assert_eq!(add_two(&v), None);
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct RevocableMutex<T: ?Sized> {
+ inner: Mutex<RevocableMutexInner<T>>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for RevocableMutex<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `Mutex` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for RevocableMutex<T> {}
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`RevocableMutex`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! revocable_mutex_init {
+ ($mutex:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($mutex, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+impl<T> RevocableMutex<T> {
+ /// Creates a new revocable instance of the given data.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`RevocableMutex::init`] before using the revocable mutex.
+ pub unsafe fn new(data: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of this function require that `RevocableMutex::init`
+ // be called before the returned object can be used. Mutex initialisation is called
+ // from `RevocableMutex::init`, so we satisfy the requirement from `Mutex`.
+ inner: unsafe {
+ Mutex::new(RevocableMutexInner {
+ is_available: true,
+ data: ManuallyDrop::new(data),
+ })
+ },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> NeedsLockClass for RevocableMutex<T> {
+ unsafe fn init(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ key2: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ // SAFETY: `inner` is pinned when `self` is.
+ let mutex = unsafe { self.map_unchecked_mut(|r| &mut r.inner) };
+
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of this function satisfy the ones for `Mutex::init`
+ // (they're the same).
+ unsafe { mutex.init(name, key1, key2) };
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> RevocableMutex<T> {
+ /// Tries to lock (and access) the \[revocable\] wrapped object.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `None` if the object has been revoked and is therefore no longer accessible.
+ ///
+ /// Returns a guard that gives access to the object otherwise; the object is guaranteed to
+ /// remain accessible while the guard is alive. Callers are allowed to sleep while holding on
+ /// to the returned guard.
+ pub fn try_lock(&self) -> Option<RevocableMutexGuard<'_, T>> {
+ let inner = self.inner.lock();
+ if !inner.is_available {
+ return None;
+ }
+ Some(RevocableMutexGuard::new(inner))
+ }
+
+ /// Revokes access to and drops the wrapped object.
+ ///
+ /// Revocation and dropping happens after ongoing accessors complete.
+ pub fn revoke(&self) {
+ let mut inner = self.inner.lock();
+ if !inner.is_available {
+ // Already revoked.
+ return;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: We know `inner.data` is valid because `is_available` is set to true. We'll drop
+ // it here and set it to false so it isn't dropped again.
+ unsafe { drop_in_place(&mut inner.data) };
+ inner.is_available = false;
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Drop for RevocableMutex<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ self.revoke();
+ }
+}
+
+/// A guard that allows access to a revocable object and keeps it alive.
+pub struct RevocableMutexGuard<'a, T: ?Sized> {
+ guard: GuardMut<'a, Mutex<RevocableMutexInner<T>>>,
+}
+
+impl<'a, T: ?Sized> RevocableMutexGuard<'a, T> {
+ fn new(guard: GuardMut<'a, Mutex<RevocableMutexInner<T>>>) -> Self {
+ Self { guard }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a pinned mutable reference to the wrapped object.
+ pub fn as_pinned_mut(&mut self) -> Pin<&mut T> {
+ // SAFETY: Revocable mutexes must be pinned, so we choose to always project the data as
+ // pinned as well (i.e., we guarantee we never move it).
+ unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut self.guard.data) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> Deref for RevocableMutexGuard<'_, T> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ &self.guard.data
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> DerefMut for RevocableMutexGuard<'_, T> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
+ &mut self.guard.data
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..76eb620b6720
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/seqlock.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,201 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel sequential lock (seqlock).
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the sequential locks based on the kernel's `seqcount_t` and
+//! any locks implementing the [`CreatableLock`] trait.
+//!
+//! See <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/locking/seqlock.rst>.
+
+use super::{CreatableLock, Guard, Lock, NeedsLockClass};
+use crate::{bindings, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, ops::Deref, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Exposes sequential locks backed by the kernel's `seqcount_t`.
+///
+/// The write-side critical section is protected by a lock implementing the `CreatableLock` trait.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+///```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::sync::{SeqLock, SpinLock};
+/// use core::sync::atomic::{AtomicU32, Ordering};
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: AtomicU32,
+/// b: AtomicU32,
+/// }
+///
+/// fn get_sum(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) -> u32 {
+/// // Use `access` to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// v.access(|e| e.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed) + e.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed))
+/// }
+///
+/// fn get_sum_with_guard(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) -> u32 {
+/// // Use `read` and `need_retry` in a loop to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// loop {
+/// let guard = v.read();
+/// let sum = guard.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed) + guard.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// if !guard.need_retry() {
+/// break sum;
+/// }
+/// }
+/// }
+///
+/// fn inc_each(v: &SeqLock<SpinLock<Example>>) {
+/// // Use a write-side guard to access the fields of `Example`.
+/// let guard = v.write();
+/// let a = guard.a.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// guard.a.store(a + 1, Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// let b = guard.b.load(Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// guard.b.store(b + 1, Ordering::Relaxed);
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct SeqLock<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> {
+ _p: PhantomPinned,
+ count: Opaque<bindings::seqcount>,
+ write_lock: L,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `SeqLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects and the
+// underlying lock can.
+unsafe impl<L: CreatableLock + Send> Send for SeqLock<L> where L::Inner: Send {}
+
+// SAFETY: `SeqLock` allows concurrent access to the data it protects by both readers and writers,
+// so it requires that the data it protects be `Sync`, as well as the underlying lock.
+unsafe impl<L: CreatableLock + Sync> Sync for SeqLock<L> where L::Inner: Sync {}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock> SeqLock<L> {
+ /// Constructs a new instance of [`SeqLock`].
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`SeqLock::init`] before using the seqlock.
+ pub unsafe fn new(data: L::Inner) -> Self
+ where
+ L::Inner: Sized,
+ {
+ Self {
+ _p: PhantomPinned,
+ count: Opaque::uninit(),
+ // SAFETY: `L::init_lock` is called from `SeqLock::init`, which is required to be
+ // called by the function's safety requirements.
+ write_lock: unsafe { L::new_lock(data) },
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> SeqLock<L> {
+ /// Accesses the protected data in read mode.
+ ///
+ /// Readers and writers are allowed to run concurrently, so callers must check if they need to
+ /// refetch the values before they are used (e.g., because a writer changed them concurrently,
+ /// rendering them potentially inconsistent). The check is performed via calls to
+ /// [`SeqLockReadGuard::need_retry`].
+ pub fn read(&self) -> SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ SeqLockReadGuard {
+ lock: self,
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ start_count: unsafe { bindings::read_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) },
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Accesses the protected data in read mode.
+ ///
+ /// The provided closure is called repeatedly if it may have accessed inconsistent data (e.g.,
+ /// because a concurrent writer modified it). This is a wrapper around [`SeqLock::read`] and
+ /// [`SeqLockReadGuard::need_retry`] in a loop.
+ pub fn access<F: Fn(&L::Inner) -> R, R>(&self, cb: F) -> R {
+ loop {
+ let guard = self.read();
+ let ret = cb(&guard);
+ if !guard.need_retry() {
+ return ret;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the underlying lock and returns a guard that allows access to the protected data.
+ ///
+ /// The guard is not mutable though because readers are still allowed to concurrently access
+ /// the data. The protected data structure needs to provide interior mutability itself (e.g.,
+ /// via atomic types) for the individual fields that can be mutated.
+ pub fn write(&self) -> Guard<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The seqlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { Guard::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> NeedsLockClass for SeqLock<L> {
+ unsafe fn init(
+ mut self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key1: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ key2: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ // SAFETY: `write_lock` is pinned when `self` is.
+ let pinned = unsafe { self.as_mut().map_unchecked_mut(|s| &mut s.write_lock) };
+ // SAFETY: `key1` is valid by the safety requirements of this function.
+ unsafe { pinned.init_lock(name, key1) };
+ // SAFETY: `key2` is valid by the safety requirements of this function.
+ unsafe { bindings::__seqcount_init(self.count.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key2) };
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying lock ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> Lock for SeqLock<L> {
+ type Inner = L::Inner;
+ type GuardContext = L::GuardContext;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> L::GuardContext {
+ let ctx = self.write_lock.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) };
+ ctx
+ }
+
+ fn relock(&self, ctx: &mut L::GuardContext) {
+ self.write_lock.relock(ctx);
+ // SAFETY: `count` contains valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_begin(self.count.get()) };
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, ctx: &mut L::GuardContext) {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that lock is owned by the caller.
+ unsafe { bindings::write_seqcount_end(self.count.get()) };
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that lock is owned by the caller.
+ unsafe { self.write_lock.unlock(ctx) };
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<L::Inner> {
+ self.write_lock.locked_data()
+ }
+}
+
+/// Allows read-side access to data protected by a sequential lock.
+pub struct SeqLockReadGuard<'a, L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> {
+ lock: &'a SeqLock<L>,
+ start_count: u32,
+}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ /// Determine if the callers needs to retry reading values.
+ ///
+ /// It returns `true` when a concurrent writer ran between the guard being created and
+ /// [`Self::need_retry`] being called.
+ pub fn need_retry(&self) -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: `count` is valid because the guard guarantees that the lock remains alive.
+ unsafe { bindings::read_seqcount_retry(self.lock.count.get(), self.start_count) != 0 }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<L: CreatableLock + ?Sized> Deref for SeqLockReadGuard<'_, L> {
+ type Target = L::Inner;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ // SAFETY: We only ever allow shared access to the protected data.
+ unsafe { &*self.lock.locked_data().get() }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs b/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f4bcf57043ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sync/spinlock.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,180 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! A kernel spinlock.
+//!
+//! This module allows Rust code to use the kernel's [`struct spinlock`].
+//!
+//! See <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/locking/spinlocks.txt>.
+
+use super::{CreatableLock, GuardMut, Lock};
+use crate::{bindings, c_types, str::CStr, Opaque};
+use core::{cell::UnsafeCell, marker::PhantomPinned, pin::Pin};
+
+/// Safely initialises a [`SpinLock`] with the given name, generating a new lock class.
+#[macro_export]
+macro_rules! spinlock_init {
+ ($spinlock:expr, $name:literal) => {
+ $crate::init_with_lockdep!($spinlock, $name)
+ };
+}
+
+/// Exposes the kernel's [`spinlock_t`]. When multiple CPUs attempt to lock the same spinlock, only
+/// one at a time is allowed to progress, the others will block (spinning) until the spinlock is
+/// unlocked, at which point another CPU will be allowed to make progress.
+///
+/// A [`SpinLock`] must first be initialised with a call to [`SpinLock::init_lock`] before it can be
+/// used. The [`spinlock_init`] macro is provided to automatically assign a new lock class to a
+/// spinlock instance.
+///
+/// There are two ways to acquire the lock:
+/// - [`SpinLock::lock`], which doesn't manage interrupt state, so it should be used in only two
+/// cases: (a) when the caller knows that interrupts are disabled, or (b) when callers never use
+/// it in atomic context (e.g., interrupt handlers), in which case it is ok for interrupts to be
+/// enabled.
+/// - [`SpinLock::lock_irqdisable`], which disables interrupts if they are enabled before
+/// acquiring the lock. When the lock is released, the interrupt state is automatically returned
+/// to its value before [`SpinLock::lock_irqdisable`] was called.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::sync::SpinLock;
+/// # use core::pin::Pin;
+///
+/// struct Example {
+/// a: u32,
+/// b: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires spinlock without changing interrupt state.
+/// fn lock_example(value: &SpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock();
+/// guard.a = 10;
+/// guard.b = 20;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Function that acquires spinlock and disables interrupts while holding it.
+/// fn lock_irqdisable_example(value: &SpinLock<Example>) {
+/// let mut guard = value.lock_irqdisable();
+/// guard.a = 30;
+/// guard.b = 40;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Initialises a spinlock and calls the example functions.
+/// pub fn spinlock_example() {
+/// // SAFETY: `spinlock_init` is called below.
+/// let mut value = unsafe { SpinLock::new(Example { a: 1, b: 2 }) };
+/// // SAFETY: We don't move `value`.
+/// kernel::spinlock_init!(unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(&mut value) }, "value");
+/// lock_example(&value);
+/// lock_irqdisable_example(&value);
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// [`spinlock_t`]: ../../../include/linux/spinlock.h
+pub struct SpinLock<T: ?Sized> {
+ spin_lock: Opaque<bindings::spinlock>,
+
+ /// Spinlocks are architecture-defined. So we conservatively require them to be pinned in case
+ /// some architecture uses self-references now or in the future.
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+
+ data: UnsafeCell<T>,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: `SpinLock` can be transferred across thread boundaries iff the data it protects can.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Send for SpinLock<T> {}
+
+// SAFETY: `SpinLock` serialises the interior mutability it provides, so it is `Sync` as long as the
+// data it protects is `Send`.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized + Send> Sync for SpinLock<T> {}
+
+impl<T> SpinLock<T> {
+ /// Constructs a new spinlock.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The caller must call [`SpinLock::init_lock`] before using the spinlock.
+ pub unsafe fn new(t: T) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ spin_lock: Opaque::uninit(),
+ data: UnsafeCell::new(t),
+ _pin: PhantomPinned,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: ?Sized> SpinLock<T> {
+ /// Locks the spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Only one thread
+ /// at a time is allowed to access the protected data.
+ pub fn lock(&self) -> GuardMut<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.lock_noguard();
+ // SAFETY: The spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { GuardMut::new(self, ctx) }
+ }
+
+ /// Locks the spinlock and gives the caller access to the data protected by it. Additionally it
+ /// disables interrupts (if they are enabled).
+ ///
+ /// When the lock in unlocked, the interrupt state (enabled/disabled) is restored.
+ pub fn lock_irqdisable(&self) -> GuardMut<'_, Self> {
+ let ctx = self.internal_lock_irqsave();
+ // SAFETY: The spinlock was just acquired.
+ unsafe { GuardMut::new(self, Some(ctx)) }
+ }
+
+ fn internal_lock_irqsave(&self) -> c_types::c_ulong {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_lock_irqsave(self.spin_lock.get()) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> CreatableLock for SpinLock<T> {
+ unsafe fn new_lock(data: Self::Inner) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of `new_lock` also require that `init_lock` be called.
+ unsafe { Self::new(data) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn init_lock(
+ self: Pin<&mut Self>,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ key: *mut bindings::lock_class_key,
+ ) {
+ unsafe { bindings::__spin_lock_init(self.spin_lock.get(), name.as_char_ptr(), key) };
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The underlying kernel `spinlock_t` object ensures mutual exclusion.
+unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Lock for SpinLock<T> {
+ type Inner = T;
+ type GuardContext = Option<c_types::c_ulong>;
+
+ fn lock_noguard(&self) -> Option<c_types::c_ulong> {
+ // SAFETY: `spin_lock` points to valid memory.
+ unsafe { bindings::spin_lock(self.spin_lock.get()) };
+ None
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn unlock(&self, ctx: &mut Option<c_types::c_ulong>) {
+ match ctx {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ Some(v) => unsafe { bindings::spin_unlock_irqrestore(self.spin_lock.get(), *v) },
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements of the function ensure that the spinlock is owned by
+ // the caller.
+ None => unsafe { bindings::spin_unlock(self.spin_lock.get()) },
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn relock(&self, ctx: &mut Self::GuardContext) {
+ match ctx {
+ Some(v) => *v = self.internal_lock_irqsave(),
+ None => *ctx = self.lock_noguard(),
+ }
+ }
+
+ fn locked_data(&self) -> &UnsafeCell<T> {
+ &self.data
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/sysctl.rs b/rust/kernel/sysctl.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..0c74245cb204
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/sysctl.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,197 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! System control.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/sysctl.h`](../../../../include/linux/sysctl.h)
+//!
+//! Reference: <https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sysctl/README>
+
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use alloc::vec::Vec;
+use core::mem;
+use core::ptr;
+use core::sync::atomic;
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types, error,
+ io_buffer::IoBufferWriter,
+ str::CStr,
+ types,
+ user_ptr::{UserSlicePtr, UserSlicePtrWriter},
+};
+
+/// Sysctl storage.
+pub trait SysctlStorage: Sync {
+ /// Writes a byte slice.
+ fn store_value(&self, data: &[u8]) -> (usize, error::Result);
+
+ /// Reads via a [`UserSlicePtrWriter`].
+ fn read_value(&self, data: &mut UserSlicePtrWriter) -> (usize, error::Result);
+}
+
+fn trim_whitespace(mut data: &[u8]) -> &[u8] {
+ while !data.is_empty() && (data[0] == b' ' || data[0] == b'\t' || data[0] == b'\n') {
+ data = &data[1..];
+ }
+ while !data.is_empty()
+ && (data[data.len() - 1] == b' '
+ || data[data.len() - 1] == b'\t'
+ || data[data.len() - 1] == b'\n')
+ {
+ data = &data[..data.len() - 1];
+ }
+ data
+}
+
+impl<T> SysctlStorage for &T
+where
+ T: SysctlStorage,
+{
+ fn store_value(&self, data: &[u8]) -> (usize, error::Result) {
+ (*self).store_value(data)
+ }
+
+ fn read_value(&self, data: &mut UserSlicePtrWriter) -> (usize, error::Result) {
+ (*self).read_value(data)
+ }
+}
+
+impl SysctlStorage for atomic::AtomicBool {
+ fn store_value(&self, data: &[u8]) -> (usize, error::Result) {
+ let result = match trim_whitespace(data) {
+ b"0" => {
+ self.store(false, atomic::Ordering::Relaxed);
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ b"1" => {
+ self.store(true, atomic::Ordering::Relaxed);
+ Ok(())
+ }
+ _ => Err(error::Error::EINVAL),
+ };
+ (data.len(), result)
+ }
+
+ fn read_value(&self, data: &mut UserSlicePtrWriter) -> (usize, error::Result) {
+ let value = if self.load(atomic::Ordering::Relaxed) {
+ b"1\n"
+ } else {
+ b"0\n"
+ };
+ (value.len(), data.write_slice(value))
+ }
+}
+
+/// Holds a single `sysctl` entry (and its table).
+pub struct Sysctl<T: SysctlStorage> {
+ inner: Box<T>,
+ // Responsible for keeping the `ctl_table` alive.
+ _table: Box<[bindings::ctl_table]>,
+ header: *mut bindings::ctl_table_header,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: The only public method we have is `get()`, which returns `&T`, and
+// `T: Sync`. Any new methods must adhere to this requirement.
+unsafe impl<T: SysctlStorage> Sync for Sysctl<T> {}
+
+unsafe extern "C" fn proc_handler<T: SysctlStorage>(
+ ctl: *mut bindings::ctl_table,
+ write: c_types::c_int,
+ buffer: *mut c_types::c_void,
+ len: *mut usize,
+ ppos: *mut bindings::loff_t,
+) -> c_types::c_int {
+ // If we are reading from some offset other than the beginning of the file,
+ // return an empty read to signal EOF.
+ if unsafe { *ppos } != 0 && write == 0 {
+ unsafe { *len = 0 };
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ let data = unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(buffer, *len) };
+ let storage = unsafe { &*((*ctl).data as *const T) };
+ let (bytes_processed, result) = if write != 0 {
+ let data = match data.read_all() {
+ Ok(r) => r,
+ Err(e) => return e.to_kernel_errno(),
+ };
+ storage.store_value(&data)
+ } else {
+ let mut writer = data.writer();
+ storage.read_value(&mut writer)
+ };
+ unsafe { *len = bytes_processed };
+ unsafe { *ppos += *len as bindings::loff_t };
+ match result {
+ Ok(()) => 0,
+ Err(e) => e.to_kernel_errno(),
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: SysctlStorage> Sysctl<T> {
+ /// Registers a single entry in `sysctl`.
+ pub fn register(
+ path: &'static CStr,
+ name: &'static CStr,
+ storage: T,
+ mode: types::Mode,
+ ) -> error::Result<Sysctl<T>> {
+ if name.contains(&b'/') {
+ return Err(error::Error::EINVAL);
+ }
+
+ let storage = Box::try_new(storage)?;
+ let mut table = Vec::try_with_capacity(2)?;
+ table.try_push(bindings::ctl_table {
+ procname: name.as_char_ptr(),
+ mode: mode.as_int(),
+ data: &*storage as *const T as *mut c_types::c_void,
+ proc_handler: Some(proc_handler::<T>),
+
+ maxlen: 0,
+ child: ptr::null_mut(),
+ poll: ptr::null_mut(),
+ extra1: ptr::null_mut(),
+ extra2: ptr::null_mut(),
+ })?;
+ table.try_push(unsafe { mem::zeroed() })?;
+ let mut table = table.try_into_boxed_slice()?;
+
+ let result = unsafe { bindings::register_sysctl(path.as_char_ptr(), table.as_mut_ptr()) };
+ if result.is_null() {
+ return Err(error::Error::ENOMEM);
+ }
+
+ Ok(Sysctl {
+ inner: storage,
+ _table: table,
+ header: result,
+ })
+ }
+
+ /// Gets the storage.
+ pub fn get(&self) -> &T {
+ &self.inner
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: SysctlStorage> Drop for Sysctl<T> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ unsafe {
+ bindings::unregister_sysctl_table(self.header);
+ }
+ self.header = ptr::null_mut();
+ }
+}
+
+#[cfg(test)]
+mod tests {
+ use super::*;
+
+ #[test]
+ fn test_trim_whitespace() {
+ assert_eq!(trim_whitespace(b"foo "), b"foo");
+ assert_eq!(trim_whitespace(b" foo"), b"foo");
+ assert_eq!(trim_whitespace(b" foo "), b"foo");
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/task.rs b/rust/kernel/task.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7a2aff0e9219
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/task.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,182 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Tasks (threads and processes).
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/sched.h`](../../../../include/linux/sched.h).
+
+use crate::bindings;
+use core::{marker::PhantomData, mem::ManuallyDrop, ops::Deref};
+
+/// Wraps the kernel's `struct task_struct`.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The pointer `Task::ptr` is non-null and valid. Its reference count is also non-zero.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// The following is an example of getting the PID of the current thread with zero additional cost
+/// when compared to the C version:
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::task::Task;
+///
+/// # fn test() {
+/// Task::current().pid();
+/// # }
+/// ```
+///
+/// Getting the PID of the current process, also zero additional cost:
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::task::Task;
+///
+/// # fn test() {
+/// Task::current().group_leader().pid();
+/// # }
+/// ```
+///
+/// Getting the current task and storing it in some struct. The reference count is automatically
+/// incremented when creating `State` and decremented when it is dropped:
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::task::Task;
+///
+/// struct State {
+/// creator: Task,
+/// index: u32,
+/// }
+///
+/// impl State {
+/// fn new() -> Self {
+/// Self {
+/// creator: Task::current().clone(),
+/// index: 0,
+/// }
+/// }
+/// }
+/// ```
+pub struct Task {
+ pub(crate) ptr: *mut bindings::task_struct,
+}
+
+// SAFETY: Given that the task is referenced, it is OK to send it to another thread.
+unsafe impl Send for Task {}
+
+// SAFETY: It's OK to access `Task` through references from other threads because we're either
+// accessing properties that don't change (e.g., `pid`, `group_leader`) or that are properly
+// synchronised by C code (e.g., `signal_pending`).
+unsafe impl Sync for Task {}
+
+/// The type of process identifiers (PIDs).
+type Pid = bindings::pid_t;
+
+impl Task {
+ /// Returns a task reference for the currently executing task/thread.
+ pub fn current<'a>() -> TaskRef<'a> {
+ // SAFETY: Just an FFI call.
+ let ptr = unsafe { bindings::get_current() };
+
+ // SAFETY: If the current thread is still running, the current task is valid. Given
+ // that `TaskRef` is not `Send`, we know it cannot be transferred to another thread (where
+ // it could potentially outlive the caller).
+ unsafe { TaskRef::from_ptr(ptr) }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the group leader of the given task.
+ pub fn group_leader(&self) -> TaskRef<'_> {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, we know that `self.ptr` is non-null and valid.
+ let ptr = unsafe { (*self.ptr).group_leader };
+
+ // SAFETY: The lifetime of the returned task reference is tied to the lifetime of `self`,
+ // and given that a task has a reference to its group leader, we know it must be valid for
+ // the lifetime of the returned task reference.
+ unsafe { TaskRef::from_ptr(ptr) }
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the PID of the given task.
+ pub fn pid(&self) -> Pid {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, we know that `self.ptr` is non-null and valid.
+ unsafe { (*self.ptr).pid }
+ }
+
+ /// Determines whether the given task has pending signals.
+ pub fn signal_pending(&self) -> bool {
+ // SAFETY: By the type invariant, we know that `self.ptr` is non-null and valid.
+ unsafe { bindings::signal_pending(self.ptr) != 0 }
+ }
+}
+
+impl PartialEq for Task {
+ fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool {
+ self.ptr == other.ptr
+ }
+}
+
+impl Eq for Task {}
+
+impl Clone for Task {
+ fn clone(&self) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `self.ptr` has a non-zero reference count.
+ unsafe { bindings::get_task_struct(self.ptr) };
+
+ // INVARIANT: We incremented the reference count to account for the new `Task` being
+ // created.
+ Self { ptr: self.ptr }
+ }
+}
+
+impl Drop for Task {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // INVARIANT: We may decrement the refcount to zero, but the `Task` is being dropped, so
+ // this is not observable.
+ // SAFETY: The type invariants guarantee that `Task::ptr` has a non-zero reference count.
+ unsafe { bindings::put_task_struct(self.ptr) };
+ }
+}
+
+/// A wrapper for [`Task`] that doesn't automatically decrement the refcount when dropped.
+///
+/// We need the wrapper because [`ManuallyDrop`] alone would allow callers to call
+/// [`ManuallyDrop::into_inner`]. This would allow an unsafe sequence to be triggered without
+/// `unsafe` blocks because it would trigger an unbalanced call to `put_task_struct`.
+///
+/// We make this explicitly not [`Send`] so that we can use it to represent the current thread
+/// without having to increment/decrement its reference count.
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The wrapped [`Task`] remains valid for the lifetime of the object.
+pub struct TaskRef<'a> {
+ task: ManuallyDrop<Task>,
+ _not_send: PhantomData<(&'a (), *mut ())>,
+}
+
+impl TaskRef<'_> {
+ /// Constructs a new `struct task_struct` wrapper that doesn't change its reference count.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The pointer `ptr` must be non-null and valid for the lifetime of the object.
+ pub(crate) unsafe fn from_ptr(ptr: *mut bindings::task_struct) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ task: ManuallyDrop::new(Task { ptr }),
+ _not_send: PhantomData,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+// SAFETY: It is OK to share a reference to the current thread with another thread because we know
+// the owner cannot go away while the shared reference exists (and `Task` itself is `Sync`).
+unsafe impl Sync for TaskRef<'_> {}
+
+impl Deref for TaskRef<'_> {
+ type Target = Task;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
+ self.task.deref()
+ }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/types.rs b/rust/kernel/types.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..64f11005b553
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/types.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,486 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! Kernel types.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/types.h`](../../../../include/linux/types.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types,
+ sync::{Ref, RefBorrow},
+};
+use alloc::boxed::Box;
+use core::{
+ cell::UnsafeCell,
+ mem::MaybeUninit,
+ ops::{self, Deref, DerefMut},
+ pin::Pin,
+};
+
+/// Permissions.
+///
+/// C header: [`include/uapi/linux/stat.h`](../../../../include/uapi/linux/stat.h)
+///
+/// C header: [`include/linux/stat.h`](../../../../include/linux/stat.h)
+pub struct Mode(bindings::umode_t);
+
+impl Mode {
+ /// Creates a [`Mode`] from an integer.
+ pub fn from_int(m: u16) -> Mode {
+ Mode(m)
+ }
+
+ /// Returns the mode as an integer.
+ pub fn as_int(&self) -> u16 {
+ self.0
+ }
+}
+
+/// Used to convert an object into a raw pointer that represents it.
+///
+/// It can eventually be converted back into the object. This is used to store objects as pointers
+/// in kernel data structures, for example, an implementation of [`FileOperations`] in `struct
+/// file::private_data`.
+pub trait PointerWrapper {
+ /// Type of values borrowed between calls to [`PointerWrapper::into_pointer`] and
+ /// [`PointerWrapper::from_pointer`].
+ type Borrowed<'a>;
+
+ /// Returns the raw pointer.
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void;
+
+ /// Returns a borrowed value.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// `ptr` must have been returned by a previous call to [`PointerWrapper::into_pointer`].
+ /// Additionally, [`PointerWrapper::from_pointer`] can only be called after *all* values
+ /// returned by [`PointerWrapper::borrow`] have been dropped.
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self::Borrowed<'a>;
+
+ /// Returns the instance back from the raw pointer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The passed pointer must come from a previous call to [`PointerWrapper::into_pointer()`].
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self;
+}
+
+impl<T: 'static> PointerWrapper for Box<T> {
+ type Borrowed<'a> = &'a T;
+
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void {
+ Box::into_raw(self) as _
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> &'a T {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements for this function ensure that the object is still alive,
+ // so it is safe to dereference the raw pointer.
+ // The safety requirements also ensure that the object remains alive for the lifetime of
+ // the returned value.
+ unsafe { &*ptr.cast() }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The passed pointer comes from a previous call to [`Self::into_pointer()`].
+ unsafe { Box::from_raw(ptr as _) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: 'static> PointerWrapper for Ref<T> {
+ type Borrowed<'a> = RefBorrow<'a, T>;
+
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void {
+ Ref::into_usize(self) as _
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> RefBorrow<'a, T> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements for this function ensure that the underlying object
+ // remains valid for the lifetime of the returned value.
+ unsafe { Ref::borrow_usize(ptr as _) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The passed pointer comes from a previous call to [`Self::into_pointer()`].
+ unsafe { Ref::from_usize(ptr as _) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: PointerWrapper + Deref> PointerWrapper for Pin<T> {
+ type Borrowed<'a> = T::Borrowed<'a>;
+
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void {
+ // SAFETY: We continue to treat the pointer as pinned by returning just a pointer to it to
+ // the caller.
+ let inner = unsafe { Pin::into_inner_unchecked(self) };
+ inner.into_pointer()
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self::Borrowed<'a> {
+ // SAFETY: The safety requirements for this function are the same as the ones for
+ // `T::borrow`.
+ unsafe { T::borrow(ptr) }
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(p: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self {
+ // SAFETY: The object was originally pinned.
+ // The passed pointer comes from a previous call to `inner::into_pointer()`.
+ unsafe { Pin::new_unchecked(T::from_pointer(p)) }
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T> PointerWrapper for *mut T {
+ type Borrowed<'a> = *mut T;
+
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void {
+ self as _
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self::Borrowed<'a> {
+ ptr as _
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(ptr: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self {
+ ptr as _
+ }
+}
+
+impl PointerWrapper for () {
+ type Borrowed<'a> = ();
+
+ fn into_pointer(self) -> *const c_types::c_void {
+ // We use 1 to be different from a null pointer.
+ 1usize as _
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn borrow<'a>(_: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self::Borrowed<'a> {}
+
+ unsafe fn from_pointer(_: *const c_types::c_void) -> Self {}
+}
+
+/// Runs a cleanup function/closure when dropped.
+///
+/// The [`ScopeGuard::dismiss`] function prevents the cleanup function from running.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// In the example below, we have multiple exit paths and we want to log regardless of which one is
+/// taken:
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::ScopeGuard;
+/// fn example1(arg: bool) {
+/// let _log = ScopeGuard::new(|| pr_info!("example1 completed\n"));
+///
+/// if arg {
+/// return;
+/// }
+///
+/// // Do something...
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the example below, we want to log the same message on all early exits but a different one on
+/// the main exit path:
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::ScopeGuard;
+/// fn example2(arg: bool) {
+/// let log = ScopeGuard::new(|| pr_info!("example2 returned early\n"));
+///
+/// if arg {
+/// return;
+/// }
+///
+/// // (Other early returns...)
+///
+/// log.dismiss();
+/// pr_info!("example2 no early return\n");
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// In the example below, we need a mutable object (the vector) to be accessible within the log
+/// function, so we wrap it in the [`ScopeGuard`]:
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::ScopeGuard;
+/// fn example3(arg: bool) -> Result {
+/// let mut vec =
+/// ScopeGuard::new_with_data(Vec::new(), |v| pr_info!("vec had {} elements\n", v.len()));
+///
+/// vec.try_push(10u8)?;
+/// if arg {
+/// return Ok(());
+/// }
+/// vec.try_push(20u8)?;
+/// Ok(())
+/// }
+/// ```
+///
+/// # Invariants
+///
+/// The value stored in the struct is nearly always `Some(_)`, except between
+/// [`ScopeGuard::dismiss`] and [`ScopeGuard::drop`]: in this case, it will be `None` as the value
+/// will have been returned to the caller. Since [`ScopeGuard::dismiss`] consumes the guard,
+/// callers won't be able to use it anymore.
+pub struct ScopeGuard<T, F: FnOnce(T)>(Option<(T, F)>);
+
+impl<T, F: FnOnce(T)> ScopeGuard<T, F> {
+ /// Creates a new guarded object wrapping the given data and with the given cleanup function.
+ pub fn new_with_data(data: T, cleanup_func: F) -> Self {
+ // INVARIANT: The struct is being initialised with `Some(_)`.
+ Self(Some((data, cleanup_func)))
+ }
+
+ /// Prevents the cleanup function from running and returns the guarded data.
+ pub fn dismiss(mut self) -> T {
+ // INVARIANT: This is the exception case in the invariant; it is not visible to callers
+ // because this function consumes `self`.
+ self.0.take().unwrap().0
+ }
+}
+
+impl ScopeGuard<(), Box<dyn FnOnce(())>> {
+ /// Creates a new guarded object with the given cleanup function.
+ pub fn new(cleanup: impl FnOnce()) -> ScopeGuard<(), impl FnOnce(())> {
+ ScopeGuard::new_with_data((), move |_| cleanup())
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, F: FnOnce(T)> Deref for ScopeGuard<T, F> {
+ type Target = T;
+
+ fn deref(&self) -> &T {
+ // The type invariants guarantee that `unwrap` will succeed.
+ &self.0.as_ref().unwrap().0
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, F: FnOnce(T)> DerefMut for ScopeGuard<T, F> {
+ fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T {
+ // The type invariants guarantee that `unwrap` will succeed.
+ &mut self.0.as_mut().unwrap().0
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T, F: FnOnce(T)> Drop for ScopeGuard<T, F> {
+ fn drop(&mut self) {
+ // Run the cleanup function if one is still present.
+ if let Some((data, cleanup)) = self.0.take() {
+ cleanup(data)
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Stores an opaque value.
+///
+/// This is meant to be used with FFI objects that are never interpreted by Rust code.
+pub struct Opaque<T>(MaybeUninit<UnsafeCell<T>>);
+
+impl<T> Opaque<T> {
+ /// Creates a new opaque value.
+ pub fn new(value: T) -> Self {
+ Self(MaybeUninit::new(UnsafeCell::new(value)))
+ }
+
+ /// Creates an uninitialised value.
+ pub fn uninit() -> Self {
+ Self(MaybeUninit::uninit())
+ }
+
+ /// Returns a raw pointer to the opaque data.
+ pub fn get(&self) -> *mut T {
+ UnsafeCell::raw_get(self.0.as_ptr())
+ }
+}
+
+/// A bitmask.
+///
+/// It has a restriction that all bits must be the same, except one. For example, `0b1110111` and
+/// `0b1000` are acceptable masks.
+#[derive(Clone, Copy)]
+pub struct Bit<T> {
+ index: T,
+ inverted: bool,
+}
+
+/// Creates a bit mask with a single bit set.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// # use kernel::bit;
+/// let mut x = 0xfeu32;
+///
+/// assert_eq!(x & bit(0), 0);
+/// assert_eq!(x & bit(1), 2);
+/// assert_eq!(x & bit(2), 4);
+/// assert_eq!(x & bit(3), 8);
+///
+/// x |= bit(0);
+/// assert_eq!(x, 0xff);
+///
+/// x &= !bit(1);
+/// assert_eq!(x, 0xfd);
+///
+/// x &= !bit(7);
+/// assert_eq!(x, 0x7d);
+///
+/// let y: u64 = bit(34).into();
+/// assert_eq!(y, 0x400000000);
+///
+/// assert_eq!(y | bit(35), 0xc00000000);
+/// ```
+pub fn bit<T: Copy>(index: T) -> Bit<T> {
+ Bit {
+ index,
+ inverted: false,
+ }
+}
+
+impl<T: Copy> ops::Not for Bit<T> {
+ type Output = Self;
+ fn not(self) -> Self {
+ Self {
+ index: self.index,
+ inverted: !self.inverted,
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/// Implemented by integer types that allow counting the number of trailing zeroes.
+pub trait TrailingZeros {
+ /// Returns the number of trailing zeroes in the binary representation of `self`.
+ fn trailing_zeros(&self) -> u32;
+}
+
+macro_rules! define_unsigned_number_traits {
+ ($type_name:ty) => {
+ impl TrailingZeros for $type_name {
+ fn trailing_zeros(&self) -> u32 {
+ <$type_name>::trailing_zeros(*self)
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: Copy> core::convert::From<Bit<T>> for $type_name
+ where
+ Self: ops::Shl<T, Output = Self> + core::convert::From<u8> + ops::Not<Output = Self>,
+ {
+ fn from(v: Bit<T>) -> Self {
+ let c = Self::from(1u8) << v.index;
+ if v.inverted {
+ !c
+ } else {
+ c
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: Copy> ops::BitAnd<Bit<T>> for $type_name
+ where
+ Self: ops::Shl<T, Output = Self> + core::convert::From<u8>,
+ {
+ type Output = Self;
+ fn bitand(self, rhs: Bit<T>) -> Self::Output {
+ self & Self::from(rhs)
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: Copy> ops::BitOr<Bit<T>> for $type_name
+ where
+ Self: ops::Shl<T, Output = Self> + core::convert::From<u8>,
+ {
+ type Output = Self;
+ fn bitor(self, rhs: Bit<T>) -> Self::Output {
+ self | Self::from(rhs)
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: Copy> ops::BitAndAssign<Bit<T>> for $type_name
+ where
+ Self: ops::Shl<T, Output = Self> + core::convert::From<u8>,
+ {
+ fn bitand_assign(&mut self, rhs: Bit<T>) {
+ *self &= Self::from(rhs)
+ }
+ }
+
+ impl<T: Copy> ops::BitOrAssign<Bit<T>> for $type_name
+ where
+ Self: ops::Shl<T, Output = Self> + core::convert::From<u8>,
+ {
+ fn bitor_assign(&mut self, rhs: Bit<T>) {
+ *self |= Self::from(rhs)
+ }
+ }
+ };
+}
+
+define_unsigned_number_traits!(u8);
+define_unsigned_number_traits!(u16);
+define_unsigned_number_traits!(u32);
+define_unsigned_number_traits!(u64);
+define_unsigned_number_traits!(usize);
+
+/// Returns an iterator over the set bits of `value`.
+///
+/// # Examples
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::bits_iter;
+///
+/// let mut iter = bits_iter(5usize);
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), 0);
+/// assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), 2);
+/// assert!(iter.next().is_none());
+/// ```
+///
+/// ```
+/// # use kernel::prelude::*;
+/// use kernel::bits_iter;
+///
+/// fn print_bits(x: usize) {
+/// for bit in bits_iter(x) {
+/// println!("{}", bit);
+/// }
+/// }
+/// ```
+#[inline]
+pub fn bits_iter<T>(value: T) -> impl Iterator<Item = u32>
+where
+ T: core::cmp::PartialEq
+ + From<u8>
+ + ops::Shl<u32, Output = T>
+ + ops::Not<Output = T>
+ + ops::BitAndAssign
+ + TrailingZeros,
+{
+ struct BitIterator<U> {
+ value: U,
+ }
+
+ impl<U> Iterator for BitIterator<U>
+ where
+ U: core::cmp::PartialEq
+ + From<u8>
+ + ops::Shl<u32, Output = U>
+ + ops::Not<Output = U>
+ + ops::BitAndAssign
+ + TrailingZeros,
+ {
+ type Item = u32;
+
+ #[inline]
+ fn next(&mut self) -> Option<u32> {
+ if self.value == U::from(0u8) {
+ return None;
+ }
+ let ret = self.value.trailing_zeros();
+ self.value &= !(U::from(1u8) << ret);
+ Some(ret)
+ }
+ }
+
+ BitIterator { value }
+}
diff --git a/rust/kernel/user_ptr.rs b/rust/kernel/user_ptr.rs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..467ead639071
--- /dev/null
+++ b/rust/kernel/user_ptr.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+//! User pointers.
+//!
+//! C header: [`include/linux/uaccess.h`](../../../../include/linux/uaccess.h)
+
+use crate::{
+ bindings, c_types,
+ error::Error,
+ io_buffer::{IoBufferReader, IoBufferWriter},
+ Result,
+};
+use alloc::vec::Vec;
+
+/// A reference to an area in userspace memory, which can be either
+/// read-only or read-write.
+///
+/// All methods on this struct are safe: invalid pointers return
+/// `EFAULT`. Concurrent access, *including data races to/from userspace
+/// memory*, is permitted, because fundamentally another userspace
+/// thread/process could always be modifying memory at the same time
+/// (in the same way that userspace Rust's [`std::io`] permits data races
+/// with the contents of files on disk). In the presence of a race, the
+/// exact byte values read/written are unspecified but the operation is
+/// well-defined. Kernelspace code should validate its copy of data
+/// after completing a read, and not expect that multiple reads of the
+/// same address will return the same value.
+///
+/// All APIs enforce the invariant that a given byte of memory from userspace
+/// may only be read once. By preventing double-fetches we avoid TOCTOU
+/// vulnerabilities. This is accomplished by taking `self` by value to prevent
+/// obtaining multiple readers on a given [`UserSlicePtr`], and the readers
+/// only permitting forward reads.
+///
+/// Constructing a [`UserSlicePtr`] performs no checks on the provided
+/// address and length, it can safely be constructed inside a kernel thread
+/// with no current userspace process. Reads and writes wrap the kernel APIs
+/// `copy_from_user` and `copy_to_user`, which check the memory map of the
+/// current process and enforce that the address range is within the user
+/// range (no additional calls to `access_ok` are needed).
+///
+/// [`std::io`]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/std/io/index.html
+pub struct UserSlicePtr(*mut c_types::c_void, usize);
+
+impl UserSlicePtr {
+ /// Constructs a user slice from a raw pointer and a length in bytes.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// Callers must be careful to avoid time-of-check-time-of-use
+ /// (TOCTOU) issues. The simplest way is to create a single instance of
+ /// [`UserSlicePtr`] per user memory block as it reads each byte at
+ /// most once.
+ pub unsafe fn new(ptr: *mut c_types::c_void, length: usize) -> Self {
+ UserSlicePtr(ptr, length)
+ }
+
+ /// Reads the entirety of the user slice.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `EFAULT` if the address does not currently point to
+ /// mapped, readable memory.
+ pub fn read_all(self) -> Result<Vec<u8>> {
+ self.reader().read_all()
+ }
+
+ /// Constructs a [`UserSlicePtrReader`].
+ pub fn reader(self) -> UserSlicePtrReader {
+ UserSlicePtrReader(self.0, self.1)
+ }
+
+ /// Writes the provided slice into the user slice.
+ ///
+ /// Returns `EFAULT` if the address does not currently point to
+ /// mapped, writable memory (in which case some data from before the
+ /// fault may be written), or `data` is larger than the user slice
+ /// (in which case no data is written).
+ pub fn write_all(self, data: &[u8]) -> Result {
+ self.writer().write_slice(data)
+ }
+
+ /// Constructs a [`UserSlicePtrWriter`].
+ pub fn writer(self) -> UserSlicePtrWriter {
+ UserSlicePtrWriter(self.0, self.1)
+ }
+
+ /// Constructs both a [`UserSlicePtrReader`] and a [`UserSlicePtrWriter`].
+ pub fn reader_writer(self) -> (UserSlicePtrReader, UserSlicePtrWriter) {
+ (
+ UserSlicePtrReader(self.0, self.1),
+ UserSlicePtrWriter(self.0, self.1),
+ )
+ }
+}
+
+/// A reader for [`UserSlicePtr`].
+///
+/// Used to incrementally read from the user slice.
+pub struct UserSlicePtrReader(*mut c_types::c_void, usize);
+
+impl IoBufferReader for UserSlicePtrReader {
+ /// Returns the number of bytes left to be read from this.
+ ///
+ /// Note that even reading less than this number of bytes may fail.
+ fn len(&self) -> usize {
+ self.1
+ }
+
+ /// Reads raw data from the user slice into a raw kernel buffer.
+ ///
+ /// # Safety
+ ///
+ /// The output buffer must be valid.
+ unsafe fn read_raw(&mut self, out: *mut u8, len: usize) -> Result {
+ if len > self.1 || len > u32::MAX as usize {
+ return Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ }
+ let res = unsafe { bindings::copy_from_user(out as _, self.0, len as _) };
+ if res != 0 {
+ return Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ }
+ // Since this is not a pointer to a valid object in our program,
+ // we cannot use `add`, which has C-style rules for defined
+ // behavior.
+ self.0 = self.0.wrapping_add(len);
+ self.1 -= len;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
+
+/// A writer for [`UserSlicePtr`].
+///
+/// Used to incrementally write into the user slice.
+pub struct UserSlicePtrWriter(*mut c_types::c_void, usize);
+
+impl IoBufferWriter for UserSlicePtrWriter {
+ fn len(&self) -> usize {
+ self.1
+ }
+
+ fn clear(&mut self, mut len: usize) -> Result {
+ let mut ret = Ok(());
+ if len > self.1 {
+ ret = Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ len = self.1;
+ }
+
+ // SAFETY: The buffer will be validated by `clear_user`. We ensure that `len` is within
+ // bounds in the check above.
+ let left = unsafe { bindings::clear_user(self.0, len as _) } as usize;
+ if left != 0 {
+ ret = Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ len -= left;
+ }
+
+ self.0 = self.0.wrapping_add(len);
+ self.1 -= len;
+ ret
+ }
+
+ unsafe fn write_raw(&mut self, data: *const u8, len: usize) -> Result {
+ if len > self.1 || len > u32::MAX as usize {
+ return Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ }
+ let res = unsafe { bindings::copy_to_user(self.0, data as _, len as _) };
+ if res != 0 {
+ return Err(Error::EFAULT);
+ }
+ // Since this is not a pointer to a valid object in our program,
+ // we cannot use `add`, which has C-style rules for defined
+ // behavior.
+ self.0 = self.0.wrapping_add(len);
+ self.1 -= len;
+ Ok(())
+ }
+}
--
2.34.0
\
 
 \ /
  Last update: 2021-12-06 15:06    [W:0.405 / U:6.552 seconds]
©2003-2020 Jasper Spaans|hosted at Digital Ocean and TransIP|Read the blog|Advertise on this site