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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4 6/6] perf tools: determine if LR is the return address
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Hi Mark,

Thanks for your review comments

On 15/12/2021 16:33, Mark Rutland wrote:
> Hi,
>
> On Wed, Dec 15, 2021 at 03:11:38PM +0000, German Gomez wrote:
>> From: Alexandre Truong <alexandre.truong@arm.com>
>>
>> On arm64 and frame pointer mode (e.g: perf record --callgraph fp),
>> use dwarf unwind info to check if the link register is the return
>> address in order to inject it to the frame pointer stack.
> This series looks good overall, but as a general note the commit messages are a
> bit hard to read because they jump into implementation details of the patch
> (i.e. the change the patch makes) before explaining the problem (i.e. what the
> patch is trying to solve).
>
> It would be nice to have a short introduction, e.g.

Thanks for the suggestion! I'll run through the logs to see if I can
improve them.

>
> When unwinding using frame pointers on arm64, the return address of the
> current leaf function may be missed. The return address of a leaf function
> may live in the LR and/or a frame record (and the location can change within
> a function), so it is necessary to use DWARF to identify where to look for
> the return address at any given point during a function.
>
> For example:
>
> unsigned long foo(unsigned long i)
> {
> i += 2;
> i += 5;
> }
>
> ... could be compiled as:
>
> foo:
> // return addr in LR
> add x0, x0, #2
> // return addr in LR
> stp x29, x30, [SP, #-16]!
> // return addr in LR
> mov x29, sp
> // return addr in LR *and* frame record
> add x0, x0, #5
> // return addr in LR *and* frame record
> ldp x29, x30, [sp], #16
> // return addr in LR
> ret
>
>> Write the following application:
>>
>> int a = 10;
>>
>> void f2(void)
>> {
>> for (int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++)
>> a *= a;
>> }
>>
>> void f1()
>> {
>> for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
>> f2();
>> }
>>
>> int main(void)
>> {
>> f1();
>> return 0;
>> }
>>
>> with the following compilation flags:
>> gcc -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-inline -O2
>>
>> The compiler omits the frame pointer for f2 on arm. This is a problem
>> with any leaf call, for example an application with many different
>> calls to malloc() would always omit the calling frame, even if it
>> can be determined.
> I think the wording here is slightly misleading. For f2, the compiler *doesn't
> create a frame record*, but the frame pointer (to the caller's frame record)
> remains and is not omitted.
>
> Also, I think it's woth noting (as per the example I gave above) this applies
> to *any* function which is the current leaf function, regardless of whether
> that function creates a frame record at some point. For example, if `f1` is
> interrupted before it creates its own frame record (or after it destroys the
> frame record), the FP will point at the record created by `main` (containing
> the caller of main), and `main` itself will be missing from the unwind as it
> will only exist in the LR.

I see! I hadn't considered this. I guess it's not as likely to happen
but it's worth noting indeed.

>
>> ./perf record --call-graph fp ./a.out
>> ./perf report
>>
>> currently gives the following stack:
>>
>> 0xffffea52f361
>> _start
>> __libc_start_main
>> main
>> f2
>>
>> After this change, perf report correctly shows f1() calling f2(),
>> even though it was missing from the frame pointer unwind:
>>
>> ./perf report
>>
>> 0xffffea52f361
>> _start
>> __libc_start_main
>> main
>> f1
>> f2
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Alexandre Truong <alexandre.truong@arm.com>
>> Signed-off-by: German Gomez <german.gomez@arm.com>
>> ---
>> tools/perf/util/Build | 1 +
>> .../util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.c | 63 +++++++++++++++++++
>> .../util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.h | 10 +++
>> tools/perf/util/machine.c | 19 ++++--
>> tools/perf/util/machine.h | 1 +
>> 5 files changed, 89 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>> create mode 100644 tools/perf/util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.c
>> create mode 100644 tools/perf/util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.h
>>
>> diff --git a/tools/perf/util/Build b/tools/perf/util/Build
>> index 2e5bfbb69960..03d4c647bd86 100644
>> --- a/tools/perf/util/Build
>> +++ b/tools/perf/util/Build
>> @@ -1,3 +1,4 @@
>> +perf-y += arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.o
>> perf-y += annotate.o
>> perf-y += block-info.o
>> perf-y += block-range.o
>> diff --git a/tools/perf/util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.c b/tools/perf/util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.c
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..4f5ecf51ed38
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/tools/perf/util/arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.c
>> @@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
>> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
>> +#include "arm64-frame-pointer-unwind-support.h"
>> +#include "callchain.h"
>> +#include "event.h"
>> +#include "perf_regs.h" // SMPL_REG_MASK
>> +#include "unwind.h"
>> +
>> +#define perf_event_arm_regs perf_event_arm64_regs
>> +#include "../arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/perf_regs.h"
>> +#undef perf_event_arm_regs
>> +
>> +struct entries {
>> + u64 stack[2];
>> + size_t length;
>> +};
>> +
>> +static bool get_leaf_frame_caller_enabled(struct perf_sample *sample)
>> +{
>> + return callchain_param.record_mode == CALLCHAIN_FP && sample->user_regs.regs
>> + && sample->user_regs.mask & SMPL_REG_MASK(PERF_REG_ARM64_LR);
>> +}
>> +
>> +static int add_entry(struct unwind_entry *entry, void *arg)
>> +{
>> + struct entries *entries = arg;
>> +
>> + entries->stack[entries->length++] = entry->ip;
>> + return 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +u64 get_leaf_frame_caller_aarch64(struct perf_sample *sample, struct thread *thread, int usr_idx)
>> +{
>> + int ret;
>> + struct entries entries = {};
>> + struct regs_dump old_regs = sample->user_regs;
>> +
>> + if (!get_leaf_frame_caller_enabled(sample))
>> + return 0;
>> +
>> + /*
>> + * If PC and SP are not recorded, get the value of PC from the stack
>> + * and set its mask. SP is not used when doing the unwinding but it
>> + * still needs to be set to prevent failures.
>> + */
> To prevent failures where? Is this something libunwind requires?

Admittedly I haven't look very deep into libunwind, but SP seems to go
ignored when getting the last 2 entries only, so here we set it to any
value.

Thanks,
German

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