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SubjectRe: [PATCH v6 3/7] Documentation: KUnit: Added KUnit Architecture
On Fri, 17 Dec 2021 at 05:49, Harinder Singh <sharinder@google.com> wrote:
>
> Describe the components of KUnit and how the kernel mode parts
> interact with kunit_tool.
>
> Signed-off-by: Harinder Singh <sharinder@google.com>

Acked-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

For the .svg file, I think per
https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/process/submitting-patches.html#sign-your-work-the-developer-s-certificate-of-origin
at least my Signed-off-by is required, but probably also my
Co-developed-by? In any case my SOB for kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg
is hereby given:

Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>

Thanks,
-- Marco

> ---
> .../dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst | 204 ++++++++++++++++++
> Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst | 2 +
> .../kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg | 81 +++++++
> Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst | 1 +
> 4 files changed, 288 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> create mode 100644 Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..aa2cea821e25
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,204 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +==================
> +KUnit Architecture
> +==================
> +
> +The KUnit architecture can be divided into two parts:
> +
> +- Kernel testing library
> +- kunit_tool (Command line test harness)
> +
> +In-Kernel Testing Framework
> +===========================
> +
> +The kernel testing library supports KUnit tests written in C using
> +KUnit. KUnit tests are kernel code. KUnit does several things:
> +
> +- Organizes tests
> +- Reports test results
> +- Provides test utilities
> +
> +Test Cases
> +----------
> +
> +The fundamental unit in KUnit is the test case. The KUnit test cases are
> +grouped into KUnit suites. A KUnit test case is a function with type
> +signature ``void (*)(struct kunit *test)``.
> +These test case functions are wrapped in a struct called
> +``struct kunit_case``. For code, see:
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/kunit/test.h
> + :identifiers: kunit_case
> +
> +.. note:
> + ``generate_params`` is optional for non-parameterized tests.
> +
> +Each KUnit test case gets a ``struct kunit`` context
> +object passed to it that tracks a running test. The KUnit assertion
> +macros and other KUnit utilities use the ``struct kunit`` context
> +object. As an exception, there are two fields:
> +
> +- ``->priv``: The setup functions can use it to store arbitrary test
> + user data.
> +
> +- ``->param_value``: It contains the parameter value which can be
> + retrieved in the parameterized tests.
> +
> +Test Suites
> +-----------
> +
> +A KUnit suite includes a collection of test cases. The KUnit suites
> +are represented by the ``struct kunit_suite``. For example:
> +
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> + static struct kunit_case example_test_cases[] = {
> + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_foo),
> + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_bar),
> + KUNIT_CASE(example_test_baz),
> + {}
> + };
> +
> + static struct kunit_suite example_test_suite = {
> + .name = "example",
> + .init = example_test_init,
> + .exit = example_test_exit,
> + .test_cases = example_test_cases,
> + };
> + kunit_test_suite(example_test_suite);
> +
> +In the above example, the test suite ``example_test_suite``, runs the
> +test cases ``example_test_foo``, ``example_test_bar``, and
> +``example_test_baz``. Before running the test, the ``example_test_init``
> +is called and after running the test, ``example_test_exit`` is called.
> +The ``kunit_test_suite(example_test_suite)`` registers the test suite
> +with the KUnit test framework.
> +
> +Executor
> +--------
> +
> +The KUnit executor can list and run built-in KUnit tests on boot.
> +The Test suites are stored in a linker section
> +called ``.kunit_test_suites``. For code, see:
> +https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h?h=v5.15#n945.
> +The linker section consists of an array of pointers to
> +``struct kunit_suite``, and is populated by the ``kunit_test_suites()``
> +macro. To run all tests compiled into the kernel, the KUnit executor
> +iterates over the linker section array.
> +
> +.. kernel-figure:: kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg
> + :alt: KUnit Suite Memory
> +
> + KUnit Suite Memory Diagram
> +
> +On the kernel boot, the KUnit executor uses the start and end addresses
> +of this section to iterate over and run all tests. For code, see:
> +https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/lib/kunit/executor.c
> +
> +When built as a module, the ``kunit_test_suites()`` macro defines a
> +``module_init()`` function, which runs all the tests in the compilation
> +unit instead of utilizing the executor.
> +
> +In KUnit tests, some error classes do not affect other tests
> +or parts of the kernel, each KUnit case executes in a separate thread
> +context. For code, see:
> +https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/lib/kunit/try-catch.c?h=v5.15#n58
> +
> +Assertion Macros
> +----------------
> +
> +KUnit tests verify state using expectations/assertions.
> +All expectations/assertions are formatted as:
> +``KUNIT_{EXPECT|ASSERT}_<op>[_MSG](kunit, property[, message])``
> +
> +- ``{EXPECT|ASSERT}`` determines whether the check is an assertion or an
> + expectation.
> +
> + - For an expectation, if the check fails, marks the test as failed
> + and logs the failure.
> +
> + - An assertion, on failure, causes the test case to terminate
> + immediately.
> +
> + - Assertions call function:
> + ``void __noreturn kunit_abort(struct kunit *)``.
> +
> + - ``kunit_abort`` calls function:
> + ``void __noreturn kunit_try_catch_throw(struct kunit_try_catch *try_catch)``.
> +
> + - ``kunit_try_catch_throw`` calls function:
> + ``void complete_and_exit(struct completion *, long) __noreturn;``
> + and terminates the special thread context.
> +
> +- ``<op>`` denotes a check with options: ``TRUE`` (supplied property
> + has the boolean value “true”), ``EQ`` (two supplied properties are
> + equal), ``NOT_ERR_OR_NULL`` (supplied pointer is not null and does not
> + contain an “err” value).
> +
> +- ``[_MSG]`` prints a custom message on failure.
> +
> +Test Result Reporting
> +---------------------
> +KUnit prints test results in KTAP format. KTAP is based on TAP14, see:
> +https://github.com/isaacs/testanything.github.io/blob/tap14/tap-version-14-specification.md.
> +KTAP (yet to be standardized format) works with KUnit and Kselftest.
> +The KUnit executor prints KTAP results to dmesg, and debugfs
> +(if configured).
> +
> +Parameterized Tests
> +-------------------
> +
> +Each KUnit parameterized test is associated with a collection of
> +parameters. The test is invoked multiple times, once for each parameter
> +value and the parameter is stored in the ``param_value`` field.
> +The test case includes a ``KUNIT_CASE_PARAM()`` macro that accepts a
> +generator function.
> +The generator function is passed the previous parameter and returns the next
> +parameter. It also provides a macro to generate common-case generators based on
> +arrays.
> +
> +For code, see:
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/kunit/test.h
> + :identifiers: KUNIT_ARRAY_PARAM
> +
> +
> +kunit_tool (Command Line Test Harness)
> +======================================
> +
> +kunit_tool is a Python script ``(tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py)``
> +that can be used to configure, build, exec, parse and run (runs other
> +commands in order) test results. You can either run KUnit tests using
> +kunit_tool or can include KUnit in kernel and parse manually.
> +
> +- ``configure`` command generates the kernel ``.config`` from a
> + ``.kunitconfig`` file (and any architecture-specific options).
> + For some architectures, additional config options are specified in the
> + ``qemu_config`` Python script
> + (For example: ``tools/testing/kunit/qemu_configs/powerpc.py``).
> + It parses both the existing ``.config`` and the ``.kunitconfig`` files
> + and ensures that ``.config`` is a superset of ``.kunitconfig``.
> + If this is not the case, it will combine the two and run
> + ``make olddefconfig`` to regenerate the ``.config`` file. It then
> + verifies that ``.config`` is now a superset. This checks if all
> + Kconfig dependencies are correctly specified in ``.kunitconfig``.
> + ``kunit_config.py`` includes the parsing Kconfigs code. The code which
> + runs ``make olddefconfig`` is a part of ``kunit_kernel.py``. You can
> + invoke this command via: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py config`` and
> + generate a ``.config`` file.
> +- ``build`` runs ``make`` on the kernel tree with required options
> + (depends on the architecture and some options, for example: build_dir)
> + and reports any errors.
> + To build a KUnit kernel from the current ``.config``, you can use the
> + ``build`` argument: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py build``.
> +- ``exec`` command executes kernel results either directly (using
> + User-mode Linux configuration), or via an emulator such
> + as QEMU. It reads results from the log via standard
> + output (stdout), and passes them to ``parse`` to be parsed.
> + If you already have built a kernel with built-in KUnit tests,
> + you can run the kernel and display the test results with the ``exec``
> + argument: ``./tools/testing/kunit/kunit.py exec``.
> +- ``parse`` extracts the KTAP output from a kernel log, parses
> + the test results, and prints a summary. For failed tests, any
> + diagnostic output will be included.
> diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> index 55d2444b0745..50d3ef9359dd 100644
> --- a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/index.rst
> @@ -9,6 +9,7 @@ KUnit - Linux Kernel Unit Testing
> :caption: Contents:
>
> start
> + architecture
> usage
> kunit-tool
> api/index
> @@ -96,6 +97,7 @@ How do I use it?
> ================
>
> * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst - for KUnit new users.
> +* Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst - KUnit architecture.
> * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/usage.rst - KUnit features.
> * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/tips.rst - best practices with
> examples.
> diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..cf8fddc27500
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/kunit_suitememorydiagram.svg
> @@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
> +<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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> + </g>
> +</svg>
> diff --git a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> index 55f8df1abd40..5dd2c88fa2bd 100644
> --- a/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/start.rst
> @@ -240,6 +240,7 @@ Congrats! You just wrote your first KUnit test.
> Next Steps
> ==========
>
> +* Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/architecture.rst - KUnit architecture.
> * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/usage.rst - KUnit features.
> * Documentation/dev-tools/kunit/tips.rst - best practices with
> examples.
> --
> 2.34.1.173.g76aa8bc2d0-goog
>

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