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Subject[PATCH v3 44/68] cachefiles: Implement key to filename encoding
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Implement a function to encode a binary cookie key as something that can be
used as a filename. Four options are considered:

(1) All printable chars with no '/' characters. Prepend a 'D' to indicate
the encoding but otherwise use as-is.

(2) Appears to be an array of __be32. Encode as 'S' plus a list of
hex-encoded 32-bit ints separated by commas. If a number is 0, it is
rendered as "" instead of "0".

(3) Appears to be an array of __le32. Encoded as (2) but with a 'T'
encoding prefix.

(4) Encoded as base64 with an 'E' prefix plus a second char indicating how
much padding is involved. A non-standard base64 encoding is used
because '/' cannot be used in the encoded form.

If (1) is not possible, whichever of (2), (3) or (4) produces the shortest
string is selected (hex-encoding a number may be less dense than base64
encoding it).

Note that the prefix characters have to be selected from the set [DEIJST@]
lest cachefilesd remove the files because it recognise the name.

Changes
=======
ver #2:
- Fix a short allocation that didn't allow for a string terminator[1]

Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/bcefb8f2-576a-b3fc-cc29-89808ebfd7c1@linux.alibaba.com/ [1]
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163819640393.215744.15212364106412961104.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v1
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/163906940529.143852.17352132319136117053.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2
---

fs/cachefiles/Makefile | 1
fs/cachefiles/internal.h | 5 ++
fs/cachefiles/key.c | 138 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
3 files changed, 144 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 fs/cachefiles/key.c

diff --git a/fs/cachefiles/Makefile b/fs/cachefiles/Makefile
index d67210ece9cd..6f025940a65c 100644
--- a/fs/cachefiles/Makefile
+++ b/fs/cachefiles/Makefile
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ cachefiles-y := \
cache.o \
daemon.o \
interface.o \
+ key.o \
main.o \
namei.o \
security.o \
diff --git a/fs/cachefiles/internal.h b/fs/cachefiles/internal.h
index 8763ee4a0df2..dbc37f5d4714 100644
--- a/fs/cachefiles/internal.h
+++ b/fs/cachefiles/internal.h
@@ -173,6 +173,11 @@ extern struct cachefiles_object *cachefiles_grab_object(struct cachefiles_object
extern void cachefiles_put_object(struct cachefiles_object *object,
enum cachefiles_obj_ref_trace why);

+/*
+ * key.c
+ */
+extern bool cachefiles_cook_key(struct cachefiles_object *object);
+
/*
* main.c
*/
diff --git a/fs/cachefiles/key.c b/fs/cachefiles/key.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..bf935e25bdbe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/fs/cachefiles/key.c
@@ -0,0 +1,138 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-or-later
+/* Key to pathname encoder
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2021 Red Hat, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
+ * Written by David Howells (dhowells@redhat.com)
+ */
+
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include "internal.h"
+
+static const char cachefiles_charmap[64] =
+ "0123456789" /* 0 - 9 */
+ "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" /* 10 - 35 */
+ "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" /* 36 - 61 */
+ "_-" /* 62 - 63 */
+ ;
+
+static const char cachefiles_filecharmap[256] = {
+ /* we skip space and tab and control chars */
+ [33 ... 46] = 1, /* '!' -> '.' */
+ /* we skip '/' as it's significant to pathwalk */
+ [48 ... 127] = 1, /* '0' -> '~' */
+};
+
+static inline unsigned int how_many_hex_digits(unsigned int x)
+{
+ return x ? round_up(ilog2(x) + 1, 4) / 4 : 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * turn the raw key into something cooked
+ * - the key may be up to NAME_MAX in length (including the length word)
+ * - "base64" encode the strange keys, mapping 3 bytes of raw to four of
+ * cooked
+ * - need to cut the cooked key into 252 char lengths (189 raw bytes)
+ */
+bool cachefiles_cook_key(struct cachefiles_object *object)
+{
+ const u8 *key = fscache_get_key(object->cookie), *kend;
+ unsigned char ch;
+ unsigned int acc, i, n, nle, nbe, keylen = object->cookie->key_len;
+ unsigned int b64len, len, print, pad;
+ char *name, sep;
+
+ _enter(",%u,%*phN", keylen, keylen, key);
+
+ BUG_ON(keylen > NAME_MAX - 3);
+
+ print = 1;
+ for (i = 0; i < keylen; i++) {
+ ch = key[i];
+ print &= cachefiles_filecharmap[ch];
+ }
+
+ /* If the path is usable ASCII, then we render it directly */
+ if (print) {
+ len = 1 + keylen;
+ name = kmalloc(len + 1, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!name)
+ return false;
+
+ name[0] = 'D'; /* Data object type, string encoding */
+ memcpy(name + 1, key, keylen);
+ goto success;
+ }
+
+ /* See if it makes sense to encode it as "hex,hex,hex" for each 32-bit
+ * chunk. We rely on the key having been padded out to a whole number
+ * of 32-bit words.
+ */
+ n = round_up(keylen, 4);
+ nbe = nle = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i += 4) {
+ u32 be = be32_to_cpu(*(__be32 *)(key + i));
+ u32 le = le32_to_cpu(*(__le32 *)(key + i));
+
+ nbe += 1 + how_many_hex_digits(be);
+ nle += 1 + how_many_hex_digits(le);
+ }
+
+ b64len = DIV_ROUND_UP(keylen, 3);
+ pad = b64len * 3 - keylen;
+ b64len = 2 + b64len * 4; /* Length if we base64-encode it */
+ _debug("len=%u nbe=%u nle=%u b64=%u", keylen, nbe, nle, b64len);
+ if (nbe < b64len || nle < b64len) {
+ unsigned int nlen = min(nbe, nle) + 1;
+ name = kmalloc(nlen, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!name)
+ return false;
+ sep = (nbe <= nle) ? 'S' : 'T'; /* Encoding indicator */
+ len = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i += 4) {
+ u32 x;
+ if (nbe <= nle)
+ x = be32_to_cpu(*(__be32 *)(key + i));
+ else
+ x = le32_to_cpu(*(__le32 *)(key + i));
+ name[len++] = sep;
+ if (x != 0)
+ len += snprintf(name + len, nlen - len, "%x", x);
+ sep = ',';
+ }
+ goto success;
+ }
+
+ /* We need to base64-encode it */
+ name = kmalloc(b64len + 1, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!name)
+ return false;
+
+ name[0] = 'E';
+ name[1] = '0' + pad;
+ len = 2;
+ kend = key + keylen;
+ do {
+ acc = *key++;
+ if (key < kend) {
+ acc |= *key++ << 8;
+ if (key < kend)
+ acc |= *key++ << 16;
+ }
+
+ name[len++] = cachefiles_charmap[acc & 63];
+ acc >>= 6;
+ name[len++] = cachefiles_charmap[acc & 63];
+ acc >>= 6;
+ name[len++] = cachefiles_charmap[acc & 63];
+ acc >>= 6;
+ name[len++] = cachefiles_charmap[acc & 63];
+ } while (key < kend);
+
+success:
+ name[len] = 0;
+ object->d_name = name;
+ object->d_name_len = len;
+ _leave(" = %s", object->d_name);
+ return true;
+}

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