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Subject[PATCH v5 22/22] Documentation: amd-pstate: add amd-pstate driver introduction
Introduce the amd-pstate driver design and implementation.

Signed-off-by: Huang Rui <>
Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/cppc_sysfs.rst | 2 +
Documentation/admin-guide/pm/amd-pstate.rst | 383 ++++++++++++++++++
.../admin-guide/pm/working-state.rst | 1 +
3 files changed, 386 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/pm/amd-pstate.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/cppc_sysfs.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/cppc_sysfs.rst
index fccf22114e85..e53d76365aa7 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/cppc_sysfs.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/cppc_sysfs.rst
@@ -4,6 +4,8 @@
Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC)

+.. _cppc_sysfs:

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/amd-pstate.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/amd-pstate.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6bafb9354ba0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/amd-pstate.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,383 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+.. include:: <isonum.txt>
+``amd-pstate`` CPU Performance Scaling Driver
+:Copyright: |copy| 2021 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
+:Author: Huang Rui <>
+``amd-pstate`` is the AMD CPU performance scaling driver that introduces a
+new CPU frequency control mechanism on modern AMD APU and CPU series in
+Linux kernel. The new mechanism is based on Collaborative Processor
+Performance Control (CPPC) which provides finer grain frequency management
+than legacy ACPI hardware P-States. Current AMD CPU/APU platforms are using
+the ACPI P-states driver to manage CPU frequency and clocks with switching
+only in 3 P-states. CPPC replaces the ACPI P-states controls, allows a
+flexible, low-latency interface for the Linux kernel to directly
+communicate the performance hints to hardware.
+``amd-pstate`` leverages the Linux kernel governors such as ``schedutil``,
+``ondemand``, etc. to manage the performance hints which are provided by
+CPPC hardware functionality that internally follows the hardware
+specification (for details refer to AMD64 Architecture Programmer's Manual
+Volume 2: System Programming [1]_). Currently ``amd-pstate`` supports basic
+frequency control function according to kernel governors on some of the
+Zen2 and Zen3 processors, and we will implement more AMD specific functions
+in future after we verify them on the hardware and SBIOS.
+AMD CPPC Overview
+Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC) interface enumerates a
+continuous, abstract, and unit-less performance value in a scale that is
+not tied to a specific performance state / frequency. This is an ACPI
+standard [2]_ which software can specify application performance goals and
+hints as a relative target to the infrastructure limits. AMD processors
+provides the low latency register model (MSR) instead of AML code
+interpreter for performance adjustments. ``amd-pstate`` will initialize a
+``struct cpufreq_driver`` instance ``amd_pstate_driver`` with the callbacks
+to manage each performance update behavior. ::
+ Highest Perf ------>+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | Max Perf ---->| |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ Nominal Perf ------>+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | Desired Perf ---->| |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ Lowest non- | | | |
+ linear perf ------>+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
+ | | | |
+ | | Lowest perf ---->| |
+ | | | |
+ Lowest perf ------>+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ 0 ------>+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
+ AMD P-States Performance Scale
+.. _perf_cap:
+AMD CPPC Performance Capability
+Highest Performance (RO)
+It is the absolute maximum performance an individual processor may reach,
+assuming ideal conditions. This performance level may not be sustainable
+for long durations and may only be achievable if other platform components
+are in a specific state; for example, it may require other processors be in
+an idle state. This would be equivalent to the highest frequencies
+supported by the processor.
+Nominal (Guaranteed) Performance (RO)
+It is the maximum sustained performance level of the processor, assuming
+ideal operating conditions. In absence of an external constraint (power,
+thermal, etc.) this is the performance level the processor is expected to
+be able to maintain continuously. All cores/processors are expected to be
+able to sustain their nominal performance state simultaneously.
+Lowest non-linear Performance (RO)
+It is the lowest performance level at which nonlinear power savings are
+achieved, for example, due to the combined effects of voltage and frequency
+scaling. Above this threshold, lower performance levels should be generally
+more energy efficient than higher performance levels. This register
+effectively conveys the most efficient performance level to ``amd-pstate``.
+Lowest Performance (RO)
+It is the absolute lowest performance level of the processor. Selecting a
+performance level lower than the lowest nonlinear performance level may
+cause an efficiency penalty but should reduce the instantaneous power
+consumption of the processor.
+AMD CPPC Performance Control
+``amd-pstate`` passes performance goals through these registers. The
+register drives the behavior of the desired performance target.
+Minimum requested performance (RW)
+``amd-pstate`` specifies the minimum allowed performance level.
+Maximum requested performance (RW)
+``amd-pstate`` specifies a limit the maximum performance that is expected
+to be supplied by the hardware.
+Desired performance target (RW)
+``amd-pstate`` specifies a desired target in the CPPC performance scale as
+a relative number. This can be expressed as percentage of nominal
+performance (infrastructure max). Below the nominal sustained performance
+level, desired performance expresses the average performance level of the
+processor subject to hardware. Above the nominal performance level,
+processor must provide at least nominal performance requested and go higher
+if current operating conditions allow.
+Energy Performance Preference (EPP) (RW)
+Provides a hint to the hardware if software wants to bias toward performance
+(0x0) or energy efficiency (0xff).
+Key Governors Support
+``amd-pstate`` can be used with all the (generic) scaling governors listed
+by the ``scaling_available_governors`` policy attribute in ``sysfs``. Then,
+it is responsible for the configuration of policy objects corresponding to
+CPUs and provides the ``CPUFreq`` core (and the scaling governors attached
+to the policy objects) with accurate information on the maximum and minimum
+operating frequencies supported by the hardware. Users can check the
+``scaling_cur_freq`` information comes from the ``CPUFreq`` core.
+``amd-pstate`` mainly supports ``schedutil`` and ``ondemand`` for dynamic
+frequency control. It is to fine tune the processor configuration on
+``amd-pstate`` to the ``schedutil`` with CPU CFS scheduler. ``amd-pstate``
+registers adjust_perf callback to implement the CPPC similar performance
+update behavior. It is initialized by ``sugov_start`` and then populate the
+CPU's update_util_data pointer to assign ``sugov_update_single_perf`` as
+the utilization update callback function in CPU scheduler. CPU scheduler
+will call ``cpufreq_update_util`` and assign the target performance
+according to the ``struct sugov_cpu`` that utilization update belongs to.
+Then ``amd-pstate`` updates the desired performance according to the CPU
+scheduler assigned.
+Processor Support
+The ``amd-pstate`` initialization will fail if the _CPC in ACPI SBIOS is
+not existed at the detected processor, and it uses ``acpi_cpc_valid`` to
+check the _CPC existence. All Zen based processors support legacy ACPI
+hardware P-States function, so while the ``amd-pstate`` fails to be
+initialized, the kernel will fall back to initialize ``acpi-cpufreq``
+There are two types of hardware implementations for ``amd-pstate``: one is
+`Full MSR Support <perf_cap_>`_ and another is `Shared Memory Support
+<perf_cap_>`_. It can use :c:macro:`X86_FEATURE_CPPC` feature flag (for
+details refer to Processor Programming Reference (PPR) for AMD Family
+19h Model 51h, Revision A1 Processors [3]_) to indicate the different
+types. ``amd-pstate`` is to register different ``static_call`` instances
+for different hardware implementations.
+Currently, some of Zen2 and Zen3 processors support ``amd-pstate``. In the
+future, it will be supported on more and more AMD processors.
+Full MSR Support
+Some new Zen3 processors such as Cezanne provide the MSR registers directly
+while the :c:macro:`X86_FEATURE_CPPC` CPU feature flag is set.
+``amd-pstate`` can handle the MSR register to implement the fast switch
+function in ``CPUFreq`` that can shrink latency of frequency control on the
+interrupt context. The functions with ``pstate_xxx`` prefix represent the
+operations of MSR registers.
+Shared Memory Support
+If :c:macro:`X86_FEATURE_CPPC` CPU feature flag is not set, that means the
+processor supports shared memory solution. In this case, ``amd-pstate``
+uses the ``cppc_acpi`` helper methods to implement the callback functions
+that defined on ``static_call``. The functions with ``cppc_xxx`` prefix
+represent the operations of acpi cppc helpers for shared memory solution.
+AMD P-States and ACPI hardware P-States always can be supported in one
+processor. But AMD P-States has the higher priority and if it is enabled
+with :c:macro:`MSR_AMD_CPPC_ENABLE` or ``cppc_set_enable``, it will respond
+to the request from AMD P-States.
+User Space Interface in ``sysfs``
+``amd-pstate`` exposes several global attributes (files) in ``sysfs`` to
+control its functionality at the system level. They located in the
+``/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policyX/`` directory and affect all CPUs. ::
+ root@hr-test1:/home/ray# ls /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0/*amd*
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0/amd_pstate_highest_perf
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0/amd_pstate_lowest_nonlinear_freq
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpufreq/policy0/amd_pstate_max_freq
+``amd_pstate_highest_perf / amd_pstate_max_freq``
+Maximum CPPC performance and CPU frequency that the driver is allowed to
+set in percent of the maximum supported CPPC performance level (the highest
+performance supported in `AMD CPPC Performance Capability <perf_cap_>`_).
+In some of ASICs, the highest CPPC performance is not the one in the _CPC
+table, so we need to expose it to sysfs. If boost is not active but
+supported, this maximum frequency will be larger than the one in
+This attribute is read-only.
+The lowest non-linear CPPC CPU frequency that the driver is allowed to set
+in percent of the maximum supported CPPC performance level (Please see the
+lowest non-linear performance in `AMD CPPC Performance Capability
+This attribute is read-only.
+For other performance and frequency values, we can read them back from
+``/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpuX/acpi_cppc/``, see :ref:`cppc_sysfs`.
+``amd-pstate`` vs ``acpi-cpufreq``
+On majority of AMD platforms supported by ``acpi-cpufreq``, the ACPI tables
+provided by the platform firmware used for CPU performance scaling, but
+only provides 3 P-states on AMD processors.
+However, on modern AMD APU and CPU series, it provides the collaborative
+processor performance control according to ACPI protocol and customize this
+for AMD platforms. That is fine-grain and continuous frequency range
+instead of the legacy hardware P-states. ``amd-pstate`` is the kernel
+module which supports the new AMD P-States mechanism on most of future AMD
+platforms. The AMD P-States mechanism will be the more performance and energy
+efficiency frequency management method on AMD processors.
+Kernel Module Options for ``amd-pstate``
+Use a module param (shared_mem) to enable related processors manually with
+Due to the performance issue on the processors with `Shared Memory Support
+<perf_cap_>`_, so we disable it for the moment and will enable this by default
+once we address performance issue on this solution.
+The way to check whether current processor is `Full MSR Support <perf_cap_>`_
+or `Shared Memory Support <perf_cap_>`_ : ::
+ ray@hr-test1:~$ lscpu | grep cppc
+ Flags: fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx mmxext fxsr_opt pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl nonstop_tsc cpuid extd_apicid aperfmperf rapl pni pclmulqdq monitor ssse3 fma cx16 sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt aes xsave avx f16c rdrand lahf_lm cmp_legacy svm extapic cr8_legacy abm sse4a misalignsse 3dnowprefetch osvw ibs skinit wdt tce topoext perfctr_core perfctr_nb bpext perfctr_llc mwaitx cpb cat_l3 cdp_l3 hw_pstate ssbd mba ibrs ibpb stibp vmmcall fsgsbase bmi1 avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid cqm rdt_a rdseed adx smap clflushopt clwb sha_ni xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 xsaves cqm_llc cqm_occup_llc cqm_mbm_total cqm_mbm_local clzero irperf xsaveerptr rdpru wbnoinvd cppc arat npt lbrv svm_lock nrip_save tsc_scale vmcb_clean flushbyasid decodeassists pausefilter pfthreshold avic v_vmsave_vmload vgif v_spec_ctrl umip pku ospke vaes vpclmulqdq rdpid overflow_recov succor smca fsrm
+If CPU Flags have cppc, then this processor supports `Full MSR Support
+<perf_cap_>`_. Otherwise it supports `Shared Memory Support <perf_cap_>`_.
+``cpupower`` tool support for ``amd-pstate``
+``amd-pstate`` is supported on ``cpupower`` tool that can be used to dump the frequency
+information. And it is in progress to support more and more operations for new
+``amd-pstate`` module with this tool. ::
+ root@hr-test1:/home/ray# cpupower frequency-info
+ analyzing CPU 0:
+ driver: amd-pstate
+ CPUs which run at the same hardware frequency: 0
+ CPUs which need to have their frequency coordinated by software: 0
+ maximum transition latency: 131 us
+ hardware limits: 400 MHz - 4.68 GHz
+ available cpufreq governors: ondemand conservative powersave userspace performance schedutil
+ current policy: frequency should be within 400 MHz and 4.68 GHz.
+ The governor "schedutil" may decide which speed to use
+ within this range.
+ current CPU frequency: Unable to call hardware
+ current CPU frequency: 4.02 GHz (asserted by call to kernel)
+ boost state support:
+ Supported: yes
+ Active: yes
+ AMD PSTATE Highest Performance: 166. Maximum Frequency: 4.68 GHz.
+ AMD PSTATE Nominal Performance: 117. Nominal Frequency: 3.30 GHz.
+ AMD PSTATE Lowest Non-linear Performance: 39. Lowest Non-linear Frequency: 1.10 GHz.
+ AMD PSTATE Lowest Performance: 15. Lowest Frequency: 400 MHz.
+Diagnostics and Tuning
+Trace Events
+There are two static trace events that can be used for ``amd-pstate``
+diagnostics. One of them is the cpu_frequency trace event generally used
+by ``CPUFreq``, and the other one is the ``amd_pstate_perf`` trace event
+specific to ``amd-pstate``. The following sequence of shell commands can
+be used to enable them and see their output (if the kernel is generally
+configured to support event tracing). ::
+ root@hr-test1:/home/ray# cd /sys/kernel/tracing/
+ root@hr-test1:/sys/kernel/tracing# echo 1 > events/amd_cpu/enable
+ root@hr-test1:/sys/kernel/tracing# cat trace
+ # tracer: nop
+ #
+ # entries-in-buffer/entries-written: 47827/42233061 #P:2
+ #
+ # _-----=> irqs-off
+ # / _----=> need-resched
+ # | / _---=> hardirq/softirq
+ # || / _--=> preempt-depth
+ # ||| / delay
+ # | | | |||| | |
+ <idle>-0 [015] dN... 4995.979886: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=15 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ <idle>-0 [007] d.h.. 4995.979893: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=7 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ cat-2161 [000] d.... 4995.980841: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=0 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ sshd-2125 [004] d.s.. 4995.980968: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=4 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ <idle>-0 [007] d.s.. 4995.980968: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=7 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ <idle>-0 [003] d.s.. 4995.980971: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=3 changed=false fast_switch=true
+ <idle>-0 [011] d.s.. 4995.980996: amd_pstate_perf: amd_min_perf=85 amd_des_perf=85 amd_max_perf=166 cpu_id=11 changed=false fast_switch=true
+The cpu_frequency trace event will be triggered either by the ``schedutil`` scaling
+governor (for the policies it is attached to), or by the ``CPUFreq`` core (for the
+policies with other scaling governors).
+.. [1] AMD64 Architecture Programmer's Manual Volume 2: System Programming,
+.. [2] Advanced Configuration and Power Interface Specification,
+.. [3] Processor Programming Reference (PPR) for AMD Family 19h Model 51h, Revision A1 Processors
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/working-state.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/working-state.rst
index f40994c422dc..5d2757e2de65 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/working-state.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/pm/working-state.rst
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@ Working-State Power Management
+ amd-pstate
 \ /
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