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Subject[PATCH -tip 18/32] kernel/entry: Add support for core-wide protection of kernel-mode
Date
Core-scheduling prevents hyperthreads in usermode from attacking each
other, but it does not do anything about one of the hyperthreads
entering the kernel for any reason. This leaves the door open for MDS
and L1TF attacks with concurrent execution sequences between
hyperthreads.

This patch therefore adds support for protecting all syscall and IRQ
kernel mode entries. Care is taken to track the outermost usermode exit
and entry using per-cpu counters. In cases where one of the hyperthreads
enter the kernel, no additional IPIs are sent. Further, IPIs are avoided
when not needed - example: idle and non-cookie HTs do not need to be
forced into kernel mode.

More information about attacks:
For MDS, it is possible for syscalls, IRQ and softirq handlers to leak
data to either host or guest attackers. For L1TF, it is possible to leak
to guest attackers. There is no possible mitigation involving flushing
of buffers to avoid this since the execution of attacker and victims
happen concurrently on 2 or more HTs.

Reviewed-by: Alexandre Chartre <alexandre.chartre@oracle.com>
Tested-by: Julien Desfossez <jdesfossez@digitalocean.com>
Cc: Julien Desfossez <jdesfossez@digitalocean.com>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Aaron Lu <aaron.lwe@gmail.com>
Cc: Aubrey Li <aubrey.li@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@intel.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Co-developed-by: Vineeth Pillai <viremana@linux.microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Vineeth Pillai <viremana@linux.microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Joel Fernandes (Google) <joel@joelfernandes.org>
---
.../admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt | 11 +
include/linux/entry-common.h | 12 +-
include/linux/sched.h | 12 +
kernel/entry/common.c | 28 +-
kernel/sched/core.c | 241 ++++++++++++++++++
kernel/sched/sched.h | 3 +
6 files changed, 304 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
index bd1a5b87a5e2..b185c6ed4aba 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -4678,6 +4678,17 @@

sbni= [NET] Granch SBNI12 leased line adapter

+ sched_core_protect_kernel=
+ [SCHED_CORE] Pause SMT siblings of a core running in
+ user mode, if at least one of the siblings of the core
+ is running in kernel mode. This is to guarantee that
+ kernel data is not leaked to tasks which are not trusted
+ by the kernel. A value of 0 disables protection, 1
+ enables protection. The default is 1. Note that protection
+ depends on the arch defining the _TIF_UNSAFE_RET flag.
+ Further, for protecting VMEXIT, arch needs to call
+ KVM entry/exit hooks.
+
sched_debug [KNL] Enables verbose scheduler debug messages.

schedstats= [KNL,X86] Enable or disable scheduled statistics.
diff --git a/include/linux/entry-common.h b/include/linux/entry-common.h
index 1a128baf3628..022e1f114157 100644
--- a/include/linux/entry-common.h
+++ b/include/linux/entry-common.h
@@ -33,6 +33,10 @@
# define _TIF_PATCH_PENDING (0)
#endif

+#ifndef _TIF_UNSAFE_RET
+# define _TIF_UNSAFE_RET (0)
+#endif
+
#ifndef _TIF_UPROBE
# define _TIF_UPROBE (0)
#endif
@@ -74,7 +78,7 @@
#define EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK \
(_TIF_SIGPENDING | _TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME | _TIF_UPROBE | \
_TIF_NEED_RESCHED | _TIF_PATCH_PENDING | _TIF_NOTIFY_SIGNAL | \
- ARCH_EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK)
+ _TIF_UNSAFE_RET | ARCH_EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK)

/**
* arch_check_user_regs - Architecture specific sanity check for user mode regs
@@ -444,4 +448,10 @@ irqentry_state_t noinstr irqentry_nmi_enter(struct pt_regs *regs);
*/
void noinstr irqentry_nmi_exit(struct pt_regs *regs, irqentry_state_t irq_state);

+/* entry_kernel_protected - Is kernel protection on entry/exit into kernel supported? */
+static inline bool entry_kernel_protected(void)
+{
+ return IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SCHED_CORE) && sched_core_kernel_protected()
+ && _TIF_UNSAFE_RET != 0;
+}
#endif
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 7efce9c9d9cf..a60868165590 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -2076,4 +2076,16 @@ int sched_trace_rq_nr_running(struct rq *rq);

const struct cpumask *sched_trace_rd_span(struct root_domain *rd);

+#ifdef CONFIG_SCHED_CORE
+void sched_core_unsafe_enter(void);
+void sched_core_unsafe_exit(void);
+bool sched_core_wait_till_safe(unsigned long ti_check);
+bool sched_core_kernel_protected(void);
+#else
+#define sched_core_unsafe_enter(ignore) do { } while (0)
+#define sched_core_unsafe_exit(ignore) do { } while (0)
+#define sched_core_wait_till_safe(ignore) do { } while (0)
+#define sched_core_kernel_protected(ignore) do { } while (0)
+#endif
+
#endif
diff --git a/kernel/entry/common.c b/kernel/entry/common.c
index bc75c114c1b3..9d9d926f2a1c 100644
--- a/kernel/entry/common.c
+++ b/kernel/entry/common.c
@@ -28,6 +28,9 @@ static __always_inline void enter_from_user_mode(struct pt_regs *regs)

instrumentation_begin();
trace_hardirqs_off_finish();
+
+ if (entry_kernel_protected())
+ sched_core_unsafe_enter();
instrumentation_end();
}

@@ -145,6 +148,26 @@ static void handle_signal_work(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long ti_work)
arch_do_signal_or_restart(regs, ti_work & _TIF_SIGPENDING);
}

+static unsigned long exit_to_user_get_work(void)
+{
+ unsigned long ti_work = READ_ONCE(current_thread_info()->flags);
+
+ if (!entry_kernel_protected())
+ return ti_work;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_SCHED_CORE
+ ti_work &= EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK;
+ if ((ti_work & _TIF_UNSAFE_RET) == ti_work) {
+ sched_core_unsafe_exit();
+ if (sched_core_wait_till_safe(EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK)) {
+ sched_core_unsafe_enter(); /* not exiting to user yet. */
+ }
+ }
+
+ return READ_ONCE(current_thread_info()->flags);
+#endif
+}
+
static unsigned long exit_to_user_mode_loop(struct pt_regs *regs,
unsigned long ti_work)
{
@@ -182,7 +205,7 @@ static unsigned long exit_to_user_mode_loop(struct pt_regs *regs,
* enabled above.
*/
local_irq_disable_exit_to_user();
- ti_work = READ_ONCE(current_thread_info()->flags);
+ ti_work = exit_to_user_get_work();
}

/* Return the latest work state for arch_exit_to_user_mode() */
@@ -191,9 +214,10 @@ static unsigned long exit_to_user_mode_loop(struct pt_regs *regs,

static void exit_to_user_mode_prepare(struct pt_regs *regs)
{
- unsigned long ti_work = READ_ONCE(current_thread_info()->flags);
+ unsigned long ti_work;

lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
+ ti_work = exit_to_user_get_work();

if (unlikely(ti_work & EXIT_TO_USER_MODE_WORK))
ti_work = exit_to_user_mode_loop(regs, ti_work);
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 20125431af87..7f807a84cc30 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -76,6 +76,27 @@ __read_mostly int scheduler_running;

#ifdef CONFIG_SCHED_CORE

+DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_TRUE(sched_core_protect_kernel);
+static int __init set_sched_core_protect_kernel(char *str)
+{
+ unsigned long val = 0;
+
+ if (!str)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (!kstrtoul(str, 0, &val) && !val)
+ static_branch_disable(&sched_core_protect_kernel);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+__setup("sched_core_protect_kernel=", set_sched_core_protect_kernel);
+
+/* Is the kernel protected by core scheduling? */
+bool sched_core_kernel_protected(void)
+{
+ return static_branch_likely(&sched_core_protect_kernel);
+}
+
DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(__sched_core_enabled);

/* kernel prio, less is more */
@@ -5092,6 +5113,225 @@ static inline bool cookie_match(struct task_struct *a, struct task_struct *b)
return a->core_cookie == b->core_cookie;
}

+/*
+ * Handler to attempt to enter kernel. It does nothing because the exit to
+ * usermode or guest mode will do the actual work (of waiting if needed).
+ */
+static void sched_core_irq_work(struct irq_work *work)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void init_sched_core_irq_work(struct rq *rq)
+{
+ init_irq_work(&rq->core_irq_work, sched_core_irq_work);
+}
+
+/*
+ * sched_core_wait_till_safe - Pause the caller's hyperthread until the core
+ * exits the core-wide unsafe state. Obviously the CPU calling this function
+ * should not be responsible for the core being in the core-wide unsafe state
+ * otherwise it will deadlock.
+ *
+ * @ti_check: We spin here with IRQ enabled and preempt disabled. Break out of
+ * the loop if TIF flags are set and notify caller about it.
+ *
+ * IRQs should be disabled.
+ */
+bool sched_core_wait_till_safe(unsigned long ti_check)
+{
+ bool restart = false;
+ struct rq *rq;
+ int cpu;
+
+ /* We clear the thread flag only at the end, so no need to check for it. */
+ ti_check &= ~_TIF_UNSAFE_RET;
+
+ cpu = smp_processor_id();
+ rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
+
+ if (!sched_core_enabled(rq))
+ goto ret;
+
+ /* Down grade to allow interrupts to prevent stop_machine lockups.. */
+ preempt_disable();
+ local_irq_enable();
+
+ /*
+ * Wait till the core of this HT is not in an unsafe state.
+ *
+ * Pair with raw_spin_lock/unlock() in sched_core_unsafe_enter/exit().
+ */
+ while (smp_load_acquire(&rq->core->core_unsafe_nest) > 0) {
+ cpu_relax();
+ if (READ_ONCE(current_thread_info()->flags) & ti_check) {
+ restart = true;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Upgrade it back to the expectations of entry code. */
+ local_irq_disable();
+ preempt_enable();
+
+ret:
+ if (!restart)
+ clear_tsk_thread_flag(current, TIF_UNSAFE_RET);
+
+ return restart;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Enter the core-wide IRQ state. Sibling will be paused if it is running
+ * 'untrusted' code, until sched_core_unsafe_exit() is called. Every attempt to
+ * avoid sending useless IPIs is made. Must be called only from hard IRQ
+ * context.
+ */
+void sched_core_unsafe_enter(void)
+{
+ const struct cpumask *smt_mask;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct rq *rq;
+ int i, cpu;
+
+ if (!static_branch_likely(&sched_core_protect_kernel))
+ return;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ cpu = smp_processor_id();
+ rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
+ if (!sched_core_enabled(rq))
+ goto ret;
+
+ /* Ensure that on return to user/guest, we check whether to wait. */
+ if (current->core_cookie)
+ set_tsk_thread_flag(current, TIF_UNSAFE_RET);
+
+ /* Count unsafe_enter() calls received without unsafe_exit() on this CPU. */
+ rq->core_this_unsafe_nest++;
+
+ /*
+ * Should not nest: enter() should only pair with exit(). Both are done
+ * during the first entry into kernel and the last exit from kernel.
+ * Nested kernel entries (such as nested interrupts) will only trigger
+ * enter() and exit() on the outer most kernel entry and exit.
+ */
+ if (WARN_ON_ONCE(rq->core_this_unsafe_nest != 1))
+ goto ret;
+
+ raw_spin_lock(rq_lockp(rq));
+ smt_mask = cpu_smt_mask(cpu);
+
+ /*
+ * Contribute this CPU's unsafe_enter() to the core-wide unsafe_enter()
+ * count. The raw_spin_unlock() release semantics pairs with the nest
+ * counter's smp_load_acquire() in sched_core_wait_till_safe().
+ */
+ WRITE_ONCE(rq->core->core_unsafe_nest, rq->core->core_unsafe_nest + 1);
+
+ if (WARN_ON_ONCE(rq->core->core_unsafe_nest == UINT_MAX))
+ goto unlock;
+
+ if (irq_work_is_busy(&rq->core_irq_work)) {
+ /*
+ * Do nothing more since we are in an IPI sent from another
+ * sibling to enforce safety. That sibling would have sent IPIs
+ * to all of the HTs.
+ */
+ goto unlock;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If we are not the first ones on the core to enter core-wide unsafe
+ * state, do nothing.
+ */
+ if (rq->core->core_unsafe_nest > 1)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ /* Do nothing more if the core is not tagged. */
+ if (!rq->core->core_cookie)
+ goto unlock;
+
+ for_each_cpu(i, smt_mask) {
+ struct rq *srq = cpu_rq(i);
+
+ if (i == cpu || cpu_is_offline(i))
+ continue;
+
+ if (!srq->curr->mm || is_task_rq_idle(srq->curr))
+ continue;
+
+ /* Skip if HT is not running a tagged task. */
+ if (!srq->curr->core_cookie && !srq->core_pick)
+ continue;
+
+ /*
+ * Force sibling into the kernel by IPI. If work was already
+ * pending, no new IPIs are sent. This is Ok since the receiver
+ * would already be in the kernel, or on its way to it.
+ */
+ irq_work_queue_on(&srq->core_irq_work, i);
+ }
+unlock:
+ raw_spin_unlock(rq_lockp(rq));
+ret:
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Process any work need for either exiting the core-wide unsafe state, or for
+ * waiting on this hyperthread if the core is still in this state.
+ *
+ * @idle: Are we called from the idle loop?
+ */
+void sched_core_unsafe_exit(void)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ unsigned int nest;
+ struct rq *rq;
+ int cpu;
+
+ if (!static_branch_likely(&sched_core_protect_kernel))
+ return;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ cpu = smp_processor_id();
+ rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
+
+ /* Do nothing if core-sched disabled. */
+ if (!sched_core_enabled(rq))
+ goto ret;
+
+ /*
+ * Can happen when a process is forked and the first return to user
+ * mode is a syscall exit. Either way, there's nothing to do.
+ */
+ if (rq->core_this_unsafe_nest == 0)
+ goto ret;
+
+ rq->core_this_unsafe_nest--;
+
+ /* enter() should be paired with exit() only. */
+ if (WARN_ON_ONCE(rq->core_this_unsafe_nest != 0))
+ goto ret;
+
+ raw_spin_lock(rq_lockp(rq));
+ /*
+ * Core-wide nesting counter can never be 0 because we are
+ * still in it on this CPU.
+ */
+ nest = rq->core->core_unsafe_nest;
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(!nest);
+
+ WRITE_ONCE(rq->core->core_unsafe_nest, nest - 1);
+ /*
+ * The raw_spin_unlock release semantics pairs with the nest counter's
+ * smp_load_acquire() in sched_core_wait_till_safe().
+ */
+ raw_spin_unlock(rq_lockp(rq));
+ret:
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
// XXX fairness/fwd progress conditions
/*
* Returns
@@ -5497,6 +5737,7 @@ static inline void sched_core_cpu_starting(unsigned int cpu)
rq = cpu_rq(i);
if (rq->core && rq->core == rq)
core_rq = rq;
+ init_sched_core_irq_work(rq);
}

if (!core_rq)
diff --git a/kernel/sched/sched.h b/kernel/sched/sched.h
index 615092cb693c..be6691337bbb 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/sched.h
+++ b/kernel/sched/sched.h
@@ -1074,6 +1074,8 @@ struct rq {
unsigned int core_enabled;
unsigned int core_sched_seq;
struct rb_root core_tree;
+ struct irq_work core_irq_work; /* To force HT into kernel */
+ unsigned int core_this_unsafe_nest;

/* shared state */
unsigned int core_task_seq;
@@ -1081,6 +1083,7 @@ struct rq {
unsigned long core_cookie;
unsigned char core_forceidle;
unsigned int core_forceidle_seq;
+ unsigned int core_unsafe_nest;
#endif
};

--
2.29.2.299.gdc1121823c-goog
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