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SubjectRe: [PATCH v7 0/5] vfs: Non-blockling buffered fs read (page cache only)
From
On Fri, Apr 3, 2015 at 11:42 PM, Andrew Morton
<akpm@linux-foundation.org> wrote:
> On Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:26:25 -0700 Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> wrote:
>
>> d) fincore() is more expensive
>
> Actually, I kinda take that back. fincore() will be faster than
> preadv2() in the case of a pagecache miss, and slower in the case of a
> pagecache hit.
>
> The breakpoint appears to be a hit rate of 30% - if fewer than 30% of
> queries find the page in pagecache, fincore() will be faster than
> preadv2().

In my application (motivation for this patch), web-serving
applications (familiar to me), and Samba I'm going to that the
majority of requests are going to be cached. Only some small
percentage will be uncached (say 20%). I'll add to that: a small
percentage but of a large number.

A lot of IO falls into zipfan / sequential pattern. And that makes
send to me a small number of frequently access files and large
streaming data (with read ahead).

>
> This is because for a pagecache miss, fincore() will be about twice as
> fast as preadv2(). For a pagecache hit, fincore()+pread() is 55%
> slower than preadv2(). If there are lots of misses, fincore() is
> faster overall.
>


>
>
>
> Minimal fincore() implementation is below. It doesn't implement the
> page_map!=NULL mode at all and will be slow for large areas - it needs
> to be taught about radix_tree_for_each_*(). But it's good enough for
> testing.

I'm glad you took the time to do this. It's simple, but your
implementation is much cleaner then the last round of fincore() from 3
years back.

>
> On a slow machine, in nanoseconds:
>
> null syscall: 528
> fincore (miss): 674
> fincore (hit): 729
> single byte pread: 1026
> single byte preadv: 1134

I'm not surprised, fincore() doesn't have to go through all the vfs /
fs machinery that pread or preadv do. By chance if you compare pread /
preadv with a larger read (say 4k) is the difference negligible.

>
> pread() is a bit faster than preadv() and samba uses pread(), so the
> implementations are:
>
> if (fincore(fd, NULL, offset, len) == len)
> pread();
> else
> punt();
>
> if (preadv2(fd, ..., offset, len) == len)
> ...
> else
> punt();
>
> fincore+pread, pagecache-hit: 1755ns
> fincore+pread, pagecache-miss: 674ns
> preadv(): 1134ns (preadv2() will be a little faster for misses)
>
>
>
> Now, a pagecache hit rate of 30% sounds high so one would think that
> fincore+pread is clearly ahead. But the pagecache hit rate in this
> code will actually be quite high, because of readahead.
>
> For a large linear read of a file which is perfectly laid out on disk
> and is fully *uncached*, the hit rates will be as good as 99.8%,
> because readahead is bringing in data in 2MB blobs.
>
> In practice I expect that fincore()+pread() will be slower for linear
> reads of medium to large files and faster for small files and seeky
> accesses.
>
> How much does all this matter? Not much. On a fast machine a
> single-byte pread() takes 240ns. So if your server thread is handling
> 25000 requests/sec, we're only talking 0.6% overhead.
>
> Note that we can trivially monitor the hit rate with either preadv2()
> or fincore()+pread(): just count how many times all the data is there
> versus how many times it isn't.
>
>
>
> Also, note that we can use *both* fincore() and preadv2() to detect the
> problematic page-just-disappeared race:
>
> if (fincore(fd, NULL, offset, len) == len) {
> if (preadv2(fd, offset, len) != len)
> printf("race just happened");
>
> It would be great if someone could apply the below, modify the
> preadv2() callsite as above and determine under what conditions (if
> any) the page-stealing race occurs.
>
>

Let me see what I can do.

>
> arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl | 1
> include/linux/syscalls.h | 2
> mm/Makefile | 2
> mm/fincore.c | 65 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 4 files changed, 69 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>
> diff -puN arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl~fincore arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl
> --- a/arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl~fincore
> +++ a/arch/x86/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl
> @@ -331,6 +331,7 @@
> 322 64 execveat stub_execveat
> 323 64 preadv2 sys_preadv2
> 324 64 pwritev2 sys_pwritev2
> +325 common fincore sys_fincore
>
> #
> # x32-specific system call numbers start at 512 to avoid cache impact
> diff -puN include/linux/syscalls.h~fincore include/linux/syscalls.h
> --- a/include/linux/syscalls.h~fincore
> +++ a/include/linux/syscalls.h
> @@ -880,6 +880,8 @@ asmlinkage long sys_process_vm_writev(pi
> asmlinkage long sys_kcmp(pid_t pid1, pid_t pid2, int type,
> unsigned long idx1, unsigned long idx2);
> asmlinkage long sys_finit_module(int fd, const char __user *uargs, int flags);
> +asmlinkage long sys_fincore(int fd, unsigned char __user *page_map,
> + loff_t offset, size_t len);
> asmlinkage long sys_seccomp(unsigned int op, unsigned int flags,
> const char __user *uargs);
> asmlinkage long sys_getrandom(char __user *buf, size_t count,
> diff -puN mm/Makefile~fincore mm/Makefile
> --- a/mm/Makefile~fincore
> +++ a/mm/Makefile
> @@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ obj-y := filemap.o mempool.o oom_kill.
> readahead.o swap.o truncate.o vmscan.o shmem.o \
> util.o mmzone.o vmstat.o backing-dev.o \
> mm_init.o mmu_context.o percpu.o slab_common.o \
> - compaction.o vmacache.o \
> + compaction.o vmacache.o fincore.o \
> interval_tree.o list_lru.o workingset.o \
> debug.o $(mmu-y)
>
> diff -puN /dev/null mm/fincore.c
> --- /dev/null
> +++ a/mm/fincore.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
> +#include <linux/syscalls.h>
> +#include <linux/pagemap.h>
> +#include <linux/file.h>
> +#include <linux/fs.h>
> +#include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/slab.h>
> +#include <linux/hugetlb.h>
> +
> +SYSCALL_DEFINE4(fincore, int, fd, unsigned char __user *, page_map,
> + loff_t, offset, size_t, len)
> +{
> + struct fd f;
> + struct address_space *mapping;
> + loff_t cur_off;
> + loff_t end;
> + pgoff_t pgoff;
> + long ret = 0;
> +
> + if (offset < 0 || (ssize_t)len <= 0)
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + f = fdget(fd);
> +
> + if (!f.file)
> + return -EBADF;
> +
> + if (is_file_hugepages(f.file)) {
> + ret = -EINVAL;
> + goto out;
> + }
> +
> + if (!S_ISREG(file_inode(f.file)->i_mode)) {
> + ret = -EBADF;
> + goto out;
> + }
> +
> + end = min_t(loff_t, offset + len, i_size_read(file_inode(f.file)));
> + pgoff = offset >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
> + mapping = f.file->f_mapping;
> +
> + /*
> + * We probably need to do somethnig here to reduce the chance of the
> + * pages being reclaimed between fincore() and read(). eg,
> + * SetPageReferenced(page) or mark_page_accessed(page) or
> + * activate_page(page).
> + */
> + for (cur_off = offset; cur_off < end ; ) {
> + struct page *page;
> + loff_t end_of_coverage;
> +
> + page = find_get_page(mapping, pgoff);
> + if (!page || !PageUptodate(page))
> + break;
> + page_cache_release(page);
> +
> + pgoff++;
> + end_of_coverage = min_t(loff_t, pgoff << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT, end);
> + ret += end_of_coverage - cur_off;
> + cur_off = (cur_off + PAGE_CACHE_SIZE) & PAGE_CACHE_MASK;
> + }
> +
> +out:
> + fdput(f);
> + return ret;
> +}
> _
>



--
Milosz Tanski
CTO
16 East 34th Street, 15th floor
New York, NY 10016

p: 646-253-9055
e: milosz@adfin.com


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