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SubjectRe: [PATCH 17/31] workqueue: implement attribute-based unbound worker_pool management
On 02/03/13 11:24, Tejun Heo wrote:
> This patch makes unbound worker_pools reference counted and
> dynamically created and destroyed as workqueues needing them come and
> go. All unbound worker_pools are hashed on unbound_pool_hash which is
> keyed by the content of worker_pool->attrs.
>
> When an unbound workqueue is allocated, get_unbound_pool() is called
> with the attributes of the workqueue. If there already is a matching
> worker_pool, the reference count is bumped and the pool is returned.
> If not, a new worker_pool with matching attributes is created and
> returned.
>
> When an unbound workqueue is destroyed, put_unbound_pool() is called
> which decrements the reference count of the associated worker_pool.
> If the refcnt reaches zero, the worker_pool is destroyed in sched-RCU
> safe way.
>
> Note that the standard unbound worker_pools - normal and highpri ones
> with no specific cpumask affinity - are no longer created explicitly
> during init_workqueues(). init_workqueues() only initializes
> workqueue_attrs to be used for standard unbound pools -
> unbound_std_wq_attrs[]. The pools are spawned on demand as workqueues
> are created.
>
> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
> ---
> kernel/workqueue.c | 230 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
> 1 file changed, 218 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/kernel/workqueue.c b/kernel/workqueue.c
> index 7eba824..fb91b67 100644
> --- a/kernel/workqueue.c
> +++ b/kernel/workqueue.c
> @@ -41,6 +41,7 @@
> #include <linux/debug_locks.h>
> #include <linux/lockdep.h>
> #include <linux/idr.h>
> +#include <linux/jhash.h>
> #include <linux/hashtable.h>
> #include <linux/rculist.h>
>
> @@ -80,6 +81,7 @@ enum {
>
> NR_STD_WORKER_POOLS = 2, /* # standard pools per cpu */
>
> + UNBOUND_POOL_HASH_ORDER = 6, /* hashed by pool->attrs */
> BUSY_WORKER_HASH_ORDER = 6, /* 64 pointers */
>
> MAX_IDLE_WORKERS_RATIO = 4, /* 1/4 of busy can be idle */
> @@ -149,6 +151,8 @@ struct worker_pool {
> struct ida worker_ida; /* L: for worker IDs */
>
> struct workqueue_attrs *attrs; /* I: worker attributes */
> + struct hlist_node hash_node; /* R: unbound_pool_hash node */
> + atomic_t refcnt; /* refcnt for unbound pools */
>
> /*
> * The current concurrency level. As it's likely to be accessed
> @@ -156,6 +160,12 @@ struct worker_pool {
> * cacheline.
> */
> atomic_t nr_running ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
> +
> + /*
> + * Destruction of pool is sched-RCU protected to allow dereferences
> + * from get_work_pool().
> + */
> + struct rcu_head rcu;
> } ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
>
> /*
> @@ -218,6 +228,11 @@ struct workqueue_struct {
>
> static struct kmem_cache *pwq_cache;
>
> +/* hash of all unbound pools keyed by pool->attrs */
> +static DEFINE_HASHTABLE(unbound_pool_hash, UNBOUND_POOL_HASH_ORDER);
> +
> +static struct workqueue_attrs *unbound_std_wq_attrs[NR_STD_WORKER_POOLS];
> +
> struct workqueue_struct *system_wq __read_mostly;
> EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(system_wq);
> struct workqueue_struct *system_highpri_wq __read_mostly;
> @@ -1740,7 +1755,7 @@ static struct worker *create_worker(struct worker_pool *pool)
> worker->pool = pool;
> worker->id = id;
>
> - if (pool->cpu != WORK_CPU_UNBOUND)
> + if (pool->cpu >= 0)
> worker->task = kthread_create_on_node(worker_thread,
> worker, cpu_to_node(pool->cpu),
> "kworker/%d:%d%s", pool->cpu, id, pri);
> @@ -3159,6 +3174,54 @@ fail:
> return NULL;
> }
>
> +static void copy_workqueue_attrs(struct workqueue_attrs *to,
> + const struct workqueue_attrs *from)
> +{
> + to->nice = from->nice;
> + cpumask_copy(to->cpumask, from->cpumask);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Hacky implementation of jhash of bitmaps which only considers the
> + * specified number of bits. We probably want a proper implementation in
> + * include/linux/jhash.h.
> + */
> +static u32 jhash_bitmap(const unsigned long *bitmap, int bits, u32 hash)
> +{
> + int nr_longs = bits / BITS_PER_LONG;
> + int nr_leftover = bits % BITS_PER_LONG;
> + unsigned long leftover = 0;
> +
> + if (nr_longs)
> + hash = jhash(bitmap, nr_longs * sizeof(long), hash);
> + if (nr_leftover) {
> + bitmap_copy(&leftover, bitmap + nr_longs, nr_leftover);
> + hash = jhash(&leftover, sizeof(long), hash);
> + }
> + return hash;
> +}
> +
> +/* hash value of the content of @attr */
> +static u32 wqattrs_hash(const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs)
> +{
> + u32 hash = 0;
> +
> + hash = jhash_1word(attrs->nice, hash);
> + hash = jhash_bitmap(cpumask_bits(attrs->cpumask), nr_cpu_ids, hash);
> + return hash;
> +}
> +
> +/* content equality test */
> +static bool wqattrs_equal(const struct workqueue_attrs *a,
> + const struct workqueue_attrs *b)
> +{
> + if (a->nice != b->nice)
> + return false;
> + if (!cpumask_equal(a->cpumask, b->cpumask))
> + return false;
> + return true;
> +}
> +
> /**
> * init_worker_pool - initialize a newly zalloc'd worker_pool
> * @pool: worker_pool to initialize
> @@ -3169,6 +3232,8 @@ fail:
> static int init_worker_pool(struct worker_pool *pool)
> {
> spin_lock_init(&pool->lock);
> + pool->id = -1;
> + pool->cpu = -1;
> pool->flags |= POOL_DISASSOCIATED;
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pool->worklist);
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&pool->idle_list);
> @@ -3185,12 +3250,133 @@ static int init_worker_pool(struct worker_pool *pool)
> mutex_init(&pool->assoc_mutex);
> ida_init(&pool->worker_ida);
>
> + INIT_HLIST_NODE(&pool->hash_node);
> + atomic_set(&pool->refcnt, 1);

We should document: the code before "atomic_set(&pool->refcnt, 1);" should not failed.
(In case we add failable code before it when we forget this requirement in future".
reason: when get_unbound_pool() fails, we expected ->refcnt = 1)

> pool->attrs = alloc_workqueue_attrs(GFP_KERNEL);
> if (!pool->attrs)
> return -ENOMEM;
> return 0;
> }
>
> +static void rcu_free_pool(struct rcu_head *rcu)
> +{
> + struct worker_pool *pool = container_of(rcu, struct worker_pool, rcu);
> +
> + ida_destroy(&pool->worker_ida);
> + free_workqueue_attrs(pool->attrs);
> + kfree(pool);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * put_unbound_pool - put a worker_pool
> + * @pool: worker_pool to put
> + *
> + * Put @pool. If its refcnt reaches zero, it gets destroyed in sched-RCU
> + * safe manner.
> + */
> +static void put_unbound_pool(struct worker_pool *pool)
> +{
> + struct worker *worker;
> +
> + if (!atomic_dec_and_test(&pool->refcnt))
> + return;

if get_unbound_pool() happens here, it will get a destroyed pool.
so we need to move "spin_lock_irq(&workqueue_lock);" before above statement.
(and ->refcnt don't need atomic after moved)


> +
> + /* sanity checks */
> + if (WARN_ON(!(pool->flags & POOL_DISASSOCIATED)))
> + return;


> + if (WARN_ON(pool->nr_workers != pool->nr_idle))
> + return;

This can be false-negative. we should remove this WARN_ON().

> + if (WARN_ON(!list_empty(&pool->worklist)))
> + return;
> +
> + /* release id and unhash */
> + spin_lock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> + if (pool->id >= 0)
> + idr_remove(&worker_pool_idr, pool->id);
> + hash_del(&pool->hash_node);
> + spin_unlock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> +
> + /* lock out manager and destroy all workers */
> + mutex_lock(&pool->manager_mutex);
> + spin_lock_irq(&pool->lock);
> +
> + while ((worker = first_worker(pool)))
> + destroy_worker(worker);
> + WARN_ON(pool->nr_workers || pool->nr_idle);
> +
> + spin_unlock_irq(&pool->lock);
> + mutex_unlock(&pool->manager_mutex);
> +
> + /* shut down the timers */
> + del_timer_sync(&pool->idle_timer);
> + del_timer_sync(&pool->mayday_timer);
> +
> + /* sched-RCU protected to allow dereferences from get_work_pool() */
> + call_rcu_sched(&pool->rcu, rcu_free_pool);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * get_unbound_pool - get a worker_pool with the specified attributes
> + * @attrs: the attributes of the worker_pool to get
> + *
> + * Obtain a worker_pool which has the same attributes as @attrs, bump the
> + * reference count and return it. If there already is a matching
> + * worker_pool, it will be used; otherwise, this function attempts to
> + * create a new one. On failure, returns NULL.
> + */
> +static struct worker_pool *get_unbound_pool(const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs)
> +{
> + static DEFINE_MUTEX(create_mutex);
> + u32 hash = wqattrs_hash(attrs);
> + struct worker_pool *pool;
> + struct hlist_node *tmp;
> + struct worker *worker;
> +
> + mutex_lock(&create_mutex);
> +
> + /* do we already have a matching pool? */
> + spin_lock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> + hash_for_each_possible(unbound_pool_hash, pool, tmp, hash_node, hash) {
> + if (wqattrs_equal(pool->attrs, attrs)) {
> + atomic_inc(&pool->refcnt);
> + goto out_unlock;
> + }
> + }
> + spin_unlock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> +
> + /* nope, create a new one */
> + pool = kzalloc(sizeof(*pool), GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!pool || init_worker_pool(pool) < 0)
> + goto fail;
> +
> + copy_workqueue_attrs(pool->attrs, attrs);
> +
> + if (worker_pool_assign_id(pool) < 0)
> + goto fail;
> +
> + /* create and start the initial worker */
> + worker = create_worker(pool);
> + if (!worker)
> + goto fail;
> +
> + spin_lock_irq(&pool->lock);
> + start_worker(worker);
> + spin_unlock_irq(&pool->lock);
> +
> + /* install */
> + spin_lock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> + hash_add(unbound_pool_hash, &pool->hash_node, hash);
> +out_unlock:
> + spin_unlock_irq(&workqueue_lock);
> + mutex_unlock(&create_mutex);
> + return pool;
> +fail:
> + mutex_unlock(&create_mutex);
> + if (pool)
> + put_unbound_pool(pool);
> + return NULL;
> +}
> +
> static int alloc_and_link_pwqs(struct workqueue_struct *wq)
> {
> bool highpri = wq->flags & WQ_HIGHPRI;
> @@ -3215,7 +3401,12 @@ static int alloc_and_link_pwqs(struct workqueue_struct *wq)
> if (!pwq)
> return -ENOMEM;
>
> - pwq->pool = get_std_worker_pool(WORK_CPU_UNBOUND, highpri);
> + pwq->pool = get_unbound_pool(unbound_std_wq_attrs[highpri]);
> + if (!pwq->pool) {
> + kmem_cache_free(pwq_cache, pwq);
> + return -ENOMEM;
> + }
> +
> list_add_tail_rcu(&pwq->pwqs_node, &wq->pwqs);
> }
>
> @@ -3393,6 +3584,15 @@ void destroy_workqueue(struct workqueue_struct *wq)
> kfree(wq->rescuer);
> }
>
> + /*
> + * We're the sole accessor of @wq at this point. Directly access
> + * the first pwq and put its pool.
> + */
> + if (wq->flags & WQ_UNBOUND) {
> + pwq = list_first_entry(&wq->pwqs, struct pool_workqueue,
> + pwqs_node);
> + put_unbound_pool(pwq->pool);
> + }
> free_pwqs(wq);
> kfree(wq);
> }
> @@ -3856,19 +4056,14 @@ static int __init init_workqueues(void)
> hotcpu_notifier(workqueue_cpu_down_callback, CPU_PRI_WORKQUEUE_DOWN);
>
> /* initialize CPU pools */
> - for_each_wq_cpu(cpu) {
> + for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> struct worker_pool *pool;
>
> i = 0;
> for_each_std_worker_pool(pool, cpu) {
> BUG_ON(init_worker_pool(pool));
> pool->cpu = cpu;
> -
> - if (cpu != WORK_CPU_UNBOUND)
> - cpumask_copy(pool->attrs->cpumask, cpumask_of(cpu));
> - else
> - cpumask_setall(pool->attrs->cpumask);
> -
> + cpumask_copy(pool->attrs->cpumask, cpumask_of(cpu));
> pool->attrs->nice = std_nice[i++];
>
> /* alloc pool ID */
> @@ -3877,14 +4072,13 @@ static int __init init_workqueues(void)
> }
>
> /* create the initial worker */
> - for_each_online_wq_cpu(cpu) {
> + for_each_online_cpu(cpu) {
> struct worker_pool *pool;
>
> for_each_std_worker_pool(pool, cpu) {
> struct worker *worker;
>
> - if (cpu != WORK_CPU_UNBOUND)
> - pool->flags &= ~POOL_DISASSOCIATED;
> + pool->flags &= ~POOL_DISASSOCIATED;
>
> worker = create_worker(pool);
> BUG_ON(!worker);
> @@ -3894,6 +4088,18 @@ static int __init init_workqueues(void)
> }
> }
>
> + /* create default unbound wq attrs */
> + for (i = 0; i < NR_STD_WORKER_POOLS; i++) {
> + struct workqueue_attrs *attrs;
> +
> + BUG_ON(!(attrs = alloc_workqueue_attrs(GFP_KERNEL)));
> +
> + attrs->nice = std_nice[i];
> + cpumask_setall(attrs->cpumask);
> +
> + unbound_std_wq_attrs[i] = attrs;
> + }
> +
> system_wq = alloc_workqueue("events", 0, 0);
> system_highpri_wq = alloc_workqueue("events_highpri", WQ_HIGHPRI, 0);
> system_long_wq = alloc_workqueue("events_long", 0, 0);



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