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SubjectRe: [PATCH 00/31] numa/core patches
On Thu, Oct 25, 2012 at 02:16:17PM +0200, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> Hi all,
>
> Here's a re-post of the NUMA scheduling and migration improvement
> patches that we are working on. These include techniques from
> AutoNUMA and the sched/numa tree and form a unified basis - it
> has got all the bits that look good and mergeable.
>

Thanks for the repost. I have not even started a review yet as I was
travelling and just online today. It will be another day or two before I can
start but I was at least able to do a comparison test between autonuma and
schednuma today to see which actually performs the best. Even without the
review I was able to stick on similar vmstats as was applied to autonuma
to give a rough estimate of the relative overhead of both implementations.

Machine was a 4-node box running autonumabench and specjbb.

Three kernels are

3.7-rc2-stats-v2r1 vmstat patces on top
3.7-rc2-autonuma-v27 latest autonuma with stats on top
3.7-rc2-schednuma-v1r3 schednuma series minus the last path + stats

AUTONUMA BENCH
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1 rc2-autonuma-v27r8 rc2-schednuma-v1r3
User NUMA01 67145.71 ( 0.00%) 30110.13 ( 55.16%) 61666.46 ( 8.16%)
User NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 55104.60 ( 0.00%) 17285.49 ( 68.63%) 17135.48 ( 68.90%)
User NUMA02 7074.54 ( 0.00%) 2219.11 ( 68.63%) 2226.09 ( 68.53%)
User NUMA02_SMT 2916.86 ( 0.00%) 999.19 ( 65.74%) 1038.06 ( 64.41%)
System NUMA01 42.28 ( 0.00%) 469.07 (-1009.44%) 2808.08 (-6541.63%)
System NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 41.71 ( 0.00%) 183.24 (-339.32%) 174.92 (-319.37%)
System NUMA02 34.67 ( 0.00%) 27.85 ( 19.67%) 15.03 ( 56.65%)
System NUMA02_SMT 0.89 ( 0.00%) 18.36 (-1962.92%) 5.05 (-467.42%)
Elapsed NUMA01 1512.97 ( 0.00%) 698.18 ( 53.85%) 1422.71 ( 5.97%)
Elapsed NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 1264.23 ( 0.00%) 389.51 ( 69.19%) 377.51 ( 70.14%)
Elapsed NUMA02 181.52 ( 0.00%) 60.65 ( 66.59%) 52.86 ( 70.88%)
Elapsed NUMA02_SMT 163.59 ( 0.00%) 58.57 ( 64.20%) 48.82 ( 70.16%)
CPU NUMA01 4440.00 ( 0.00%) 4379.00 ( 1.37%) 4531.00 ( -2.05%)
CPU NUMA01_THEADLOCAL 4362.00 ( 0.00%) 4484.00 ( -2.80%) 4585.00 ( -5.11%)
CPU NUMA02 3916.00 ( 0.00%) 3704.00 ( 5.41%) 4239.00 ( -8.25%)
CPU NUMA02_SMT 1783.00 ( 0.00%) 1737.00 ( 2.58%) 2136.00 (-19.80%)

Two figures really matter here - System CPU usage and Elapsed time.

autonuma was known to hurt system CPU usage for the NUMA01 test case but
schednuma does *far* worse. I do not have a breakdown of where this time
is being spent but the raw figure is bad. autonuma is 10 times worse
than a vanilla kernel and schednuma is 5 times worse than autonuma.

For the overhead of the other test cases, schednuma is roughly
comparable with autonuma -- i.e. both pretty high overhead.

In terms of elapsed time, autonuma in the NUMA01 test case massively
improves elapsed time while schednuma barely makes a dent on it. Looking
at the memory usage per node (I generated a graph offline), it appears
that schednuma does not migrate pages to other nodes fast enough. The
convergence figures do not reflect this because the convergence seems
high (towards 1) but it may be because the approximation using faults is
insufficient.

In the other cases, schednuma does well and is comparable to autonuma.

MMTests Statistics: duration
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1rc2-autonuma-v27r8rc2-schednuma-v1r3
User 132248.88 50620.50 82073.11
System 120.19 699.12 3003.83
Elapsed 3131.10 1215.63 1911.55

This is the overall time to complete the test. autonuma is way better
than schednuma but this is all due to how it handles the NUMA01 test
case.

MMTests Statistics: vmstat
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1rc2-autonuma-v27r8rc2-schednuma-v1r3
Page Ins 37256 37508 37360
Page Outs 28888 13372 19488
Swap Ins 0 0 0
Swap Outs 0 0 0
Direct pages scanned 0 0 0
Kswapd pages scanned 0 0 0
Kswapd pages reclaimed 0 0 0
Direct pages reclaimed 0 0 0
Kswapd efficiency 100% 100% 100%
Kswapd velocity 0.000 0.000 0.000
Direct efficiency 100% 100% 100%
Direct velocity 0.000 0.000 0.000
Percentage direct scans 0% 0% 0%
Page writes by reclaim 0 0 0
Page writes file 0 0 0
Page writes anon 0 0 0
Page reclaim immediate 0 0 0
Page rescued immediate 0 0 0
Slabs scanned 0 0 0
Direct inode steals 0 0 0
Kswapd inode steals 0 0 0
Kswapd skipped wait 0 0 0
THP fault alloc 17370 17923 13399
THP collapse alloc 6 12385 3
THP splits 3 12577 0
THP fault fallback 0 0 0
THP collapse fail 0 0 0
Compaction stalls 0 0 0
Compaction success 0 0 0
Compaction failures 0 0 0
Page migrate success 0 7061327 57167
Page migrate failure 0 0 0
Compaction pages isolated 0 0 0
Compaction migrate scanned 0 0 0
Compaction free scanned 0 0 0
Compaction cost 0 7329 59
NUMA PTE updates 0 191503 123214
NUMA hint faults 0 13322261 818762
NUMA hint local faults 0 9813514 756797
NUMA pages migrated 0 7061327 57167
AutoNUMA cost 0 66746 4095

The "THP collapse alloc" figures are interesting but reflect the fact
that schednuma can migrate THP pages natively where as autonuma does
not.

The "Page migrate success" figure is more interesting. autonuma migrates
much more aggressively even though "NUMA PTE faults" are not that
different.

For reasons that are not immediately obvious, autonuma incurs far more
"NUMA hint faults" even though the PTE updates are not that different. I
expect when I actually review the code this will be due to differences
on how and when the two implentations decide to mark a PTE PROT_NONE.
A stonger possibility is because autonuma is not natively migrating THP
pages. I also expect autonuma is continually scanning where as schednuma is
reacting to some other external event or at least less frequently scanning.
Obviously, I cannot rule out the possibility that the stats patch was buggy.

Because of the fewer faults, the "cost model" for sched-numa is lower.
OBviously there is a disconnect here because System CPU usage is high
but the cost model only takes a few limited variables into account.

In terms of absolute performance (elapsed time), autonuma is currently
better than schednuma. schednuma has high System CPU overhead in one case
for some unknown reason and introduces a lot of overhead but in general
worked less than autonuma as it incurred fewer faults.

Finally, I recorded node-load-misses,node-store-misses events. These are
the total number of events recorded

stats-v2r1 94600194
autonuma 945370766
schednuma 2828322708

It was surprising to me that the number of events recorded was higher -
page table accesses maybe? Either way, schednuma missed a *LOT* more
than autonuma but maybe I'm misinterpreting the meaning of the
node-load-misses,node-store-misses events as I haven't had the change
yet to dig down and see what perf maps those events onto.

SPECJBB BOPS
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1 rc2-autonuma-v27r8 rc2-schednuma-v1r3
Mean 1 25960.00 ( 0.00%) 24884.25 ( -4.14%) 25056.00 ( -3.48%)
Mean 2 53997.50 ( 0.00%) 55744.25 ( 3.23%) 52165.75 ( -3.39%)
Mean 3 78454.25 ( 0.00%) 82321.75 ( 4.93%) 76939.25 ( -1.93%)
Mean 4 101131.25 ( 0.00%) 106996.50 ( 5.80%) 99365.00 ( -1.75%)
Mean 5 120807.00 ( 0.00%) 129999.50 ( 7.61%) 118492.00 ( -1.92%)
Mean 6 135793.50 ( 0.00%) 152013.25 ( 11.94%) 133139.75 ( -1.95%)
Mean 7 137686.75 ( 0.00%) 158556.00 ( 15.16%) 136070.25 ( -1.17%)
Mean 8 135802.25 ( 0.00%) 160725.50 ( 18.35%) 140158.75 ( 3.21%)
Mean 9 129194.00 ( 0.00%) 161531.00 ( 25.03%) 137308.00 ( 6.28%)
Mean 10 125457.00 ( 0.00%) 156800.00 ( 24.98%) 136357.50 ( 8.69%)
Mean 11 121733.75 ( 0.00%) 154211.25 ( 26.68%) 138089.50 ( 13.44%)
Mean 12 110556.25 ( 0.00%) 149009.75 ( 34.78%) 138835.50 ( 25.58%)
Mean 13 107484.75 ( 0.00%) 144792.25 ( 34.71%) 128099.50 ( 19.18%)
Mean 14 105733.00 ( 0.00%) 141304.75 ( 33.64%) 118950.50 ( 12.50%)
Mean 15 104492.00 ( 0.00%) 138179.00 ( 32.24%) 119325.75 ( 14.20%)
Mean 16 103312.75 ( 0.00%) 136635.00 ( 32.25%) 116104.50 ( 12.38%)
Mean 17 101999.25 ( 0.00%) 134625.00 ( 31.99%) 114375.75 ( 12.13%)
Mean 18 100107.75 ( 0.00%) 132831.25 ( 32.69%) 114352.25 ( 14.23%)
TPut 1 103840.00 ( 0.00%) 99537.00 ( -4.14%) 100224.00 ( -3.48%)
TPut 2 215990.00 ( 0.00%) 222977.00 ( 3.23%) 208663.00 ( -3.39%)
TPut 3 313817.00 ( 0.00%) 329287.00 ( 4.93%) 307757.00 ( -1.93%)
TPut 4 404525.00 ( 0.00%) 427986.00 ( 5.80%) 397460.00 ( -1.75%)
TPut 5 483228.00 ( 0.00%) 519998.00 ( 7.61%) 473968.00 ( -1.92%)
TPut 6 543174.00 ( 0.00%) 608053.00 ( 11.94%) 532559.00 ( -1.95%)
TPut 7 550747.00 ( 0.00%) 634224.00 ( 15.16%) 544281.00 ( -1.17%)
TPut 8 543209.00 ( 0.00%) 642902.00 ( 18.35%) 560635.00 ( 3.21%)
TPut 9 516776.00 ( 0.00%) 646124.00 ( 25.03%) 549232.00 ( 6.28%)
TPut 10 501828.00 ( 0.00%) 627200.00 ( 24.98%) 545430.00 ( 8.69%)
TPut 11 486935.00 ( 0.00%) 616845.00 ( 26.68%) 552358.00 ( 13.44%)
TPut 12 442225.00 ( 0.00%) 596039.00 ( 34.78%) 555342.00 ( 25.58%)
TPut 13 429939.00 ( 0.00%) 579169.00 ( 34.71%) 512398.00 ( 19.18%)
TPut 14 422932.00 ( 0.00%) 565219.00 ( 33.64%) 475802.00 ( 12.50%)
TPut 15 417968.00 ( 0.00%) 552716.00 ( 32.24%) 477303.00 ( 14.20%)
TPut 16 413251.00 ( 0.00%) 546540.00 ( 32.25%) 464418.00 ( 12.38%)
TPut 17 407997.00 ( 0.00%) 538500.00 ( 31.99%) 457503.00 ( 12.13%)
TPut 18 400431.00 ( 0.00%) 531325.00 ( 32.69%) 457409.00 ( 14.23%)

In reality, this report is larger but I chopped it down a bit for
brevity. autonuma beats schednuma *heavily* on this benchmark both in
terms of average operations per numa node and overall throughput.

SPECJBB PEAKS
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1 rc2-autonuma-v27r8 rc2-schednuma-v1r3
Expctd Warehouse 12.00 ( 0.00%) 12.00 ( 0.00%) 12.00 ( 0.00%)
Expctd Peak Bops 442225.00 ( 0.00%) 596039.00 ( 34.78%) 555342.00 ( 25.58%)
Actual Warehouse 7.00 ( 0.00%) 9.00 ( 28.57%) 8.00 ( 14.29%)
Actual Peak Bops 550747.00 ( 0.00%) 646124.00 ( 17.32%) 560635.00 ( 1.80%)

autonuma was also able to handle more simultaneous warehouses peaking at
9 warehouses in comparison to schednumas 8 and the normal kernels 7. Of
course all fell short of the expected peak of 12 but that's neither here
nor there.

MMTests Statistics: duration
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1rc2-autonuma-v27r8rc2-schednuma-v1r3
User 481580.26 478759.35 464261.89
System 179.35 803.59 16577.76
Elapsed 10398.85 10354.08 10383.61

Duration is the same but the benchmark should run for roughly the same
length of time each time so that is not earth shattering.

However, look at the System CPU usage. autonuma was bad but schednuma is
*completely* out of control.

MMTests Statistics: vmstat
3.7.0 3.7.0 3.7.0
rc2-stats-v2r1rc2-autonuma-v27r8rc2-schednuma-v1r3
Page Ins 33220 33896 33664
Page Outs 111332 113116 115972
Swap Ins 0 0 0
Swap Outs 0 0 0
Direct pages scanned 0 0 0
Kswapd pages scanned 0 0 0
Kswapd pages reclaimed 0 0 0
Direct pages reclaimed 0 0 0
Kswapd efficiency 100% 100% 100%
Kswapd velocity 0.000 0.000 0.000
Direct efficiency 100% 100% 100%
Direct velocity 0.000 0.000 0.000
Percentage direct scans 0% 0% 0%
Page writes by reclaim 0 0 0
Page writes file 0 0 0
Page writes anon 0 0 0
Page reclaim immediate 0 0 0
Page rescued immediate 0 0 0
Slabs scanned 0 0 0
Direct inode steals 0 0 0
Kswapd inode steals 0 0 0
Kswapd skipped wait 0 0 0
THP fault alloc 1 2 1
THP collapse alloc 0 21 0
THP splits 0 1 0
THP fault fallback 0 0 0
THP collapse fail 0 0 0
Compaction stalls 0 0 0
Compaction success 0 0 0
Compaction failures 0 0 0
Page migrate success 0 8070314 399095844
Page migrate failure 0 0 0
Compaction pages isolated 0 0 0
Compaction migrate scanned 0 0 0
Compaction free scanned 0 0 0
Compaction cost 0 8376 414261
NUMA PTE updates 0 3841 1110729
NUMA hint faults 0 2033295070 2945111212
NUMA hint local faults 0 1895230022 2545845756
NUMA pages migrated 0 8070314 399095844
AutoNUMA cost 0 10166628 14733146

Interesting to note that native THP migration makes no difference here.

schednuma migrated a lot more aggressively in this test, and incurred
*way* more PTE updates. I have no explanation for this but overall
schednuma was far heavier than autonuma.

So, without reviewing the code at all, it seems to me that schednuma is
not the obvious choice for merging above autonuma as the merge to -tip
implied -- at least based on these figures. By and large, autonuma seems
to perform better and while I know that some of its paths are heavy, it
was also clear during review of the code that the overhead could have been
reduced incrementally. Maybe the same can be said for schednuma, we'll see
but I expect that the actual performance be taken into accounting during
merging as well as the relatively maintenance effort.


> Please review .. once again and holler if you see anything funny! :-)
>

Consider the figures above to be a hollering that I think something
might be screwy in schednuma :)

I'll do a release of mmtests if you want to use the same benchmarks or
see if I messed up how it was benchmarked which is quite possible as
this was a rush job while I was travelling.

--
Mel Gorman
SUSE Labs


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